OFFRANCIS Ld. VERULAM
MY VERYGOOD LORD
THE DUKEOF BUCKINGHAM
HIGHADMIRAL OF ENGLAND
SALOMONsaies; A good Name is as a preciousoyntment;And I assure my selfesuch wilyourGraces Name beewith Posteritie. For yourFortuneand Merit bothhave been Eminent. Andyou haveplanted Thingsthat are like to last. I doenowpublish my Essayes; whichof all my otherworkeshave beene most Currant: For thatas itseemesthey come hometo Mens BusinesseandBosomes. I have enlarged themboth in NumberandWeight; So that they are indeed a New Worke.I thoughtit therefore agreeableto my AffectionandObligation to your Graceto prefix your Namebeforethemboth in Englishand in Latine. For Idoeconceivethat the Latine Volume of them(being inthe Universall Language) may lastaslong asBookes last. My InstaurationI dedicated tothe King:My Historie of Henry the Seventh(which Ihave now also translated into Latine) andmyPortions of Naturall Historyto the Prince:And theseI dedicate to your Grace; Being of thebestFruitsthat by the good Encreasewhich Godgives tomy Pen and LaboursI could yeeld.God leadeyour Grace by the Hand. Your GracesmostObliged and faithfull Servant
OfUnity in Religion
OfSimulation and Dissimulation
OfParents and Children
OfMarriage and Single Life
OfGoodness and Goodness of Nature
OfSeditions and Troubles
OfWisdom for a Man's Self
Ofthe True Greatness of Kingdoms and Estates
OfRegiment of Health
OfMasques and Triumphs
OfNature in Men
OfCustom and Education
OfYouth and Age
OfFollowers and Friends
OfCeremonies and Respects
OfHonor and Reputation
OfVicissitude of Things
WHAT istruth? said jesting Pilateand wouldnot stayfor an answer. Certainly there bethatdelight in giddinessand count it a bondage tofix abelief; affecting free-will in thinkingas wellas inacting. And though the sects of philosophersof thatkind be goneyet there remain certain dis-coursingwitswhich are of the same veinsthoughthere benot so much blood in themas was in thoseof theancients. But it is not only the difficulty andlaborwhich men take in finding out of truthnoragainthat when it is foundit imposeth uponmen'sthoughtsthat doth bring lies in favor; buta naturalthough corrupt loveof the lie itself. Oneof thelater school of the Greciansexamineth thematterand is at a standto think what should bein itthat men should love lies; where neither theymake forpleasureas with poetsnor for advan-tageaswith the merchant; but for the lie's sake.But Icannot tell; this same truthis a nakedandopenday-lightthat doth not show the masksandmummeriesand triumphsof the worldhalf sostatelyand daintily as candle-lights. Truth mayperhapscome to the price of a pearlthat showethbest byday; but it will not rise to the price of adiamondor carbunclethat showeth best in variedlights. A mixture of a lie doth ever add pleasure.Doth anyman doubtthat if there were taken outof men'smindsvain opinionsflattering hopesfalsevaluationsimaginations as one wouldandthe likebut it would leave the mindsof a numberof menpoor shrunken thingsfull of melancholyandindispositionand unpleasing to themselves?
One of thefathersin great severitycalled poesyvinumdaemonumbecause it fireth the imagina-tion; andyetit is but with the shadow of a lie.But it isnot the lie that passeth through the mindbut thelie that sinketh inand settleth in itthatdoth thehurt; such as we spake of before. But how-soeverthese things are thus in men's depravedjudgmentsand affectionsyet truthwhich onlydoth judgeitselfteacheth that the inquiry of truthwhich isthe love-makingor wooing of ittheknowledgeof truthwhich is the presence of itandthe beliefof truthwhich is the enjoying of itisthesovereign good of human nature. The firstcreatureof Godin the works of the dayswas thelight ofthe sense; the lastwas the light of reason;and hissabbath work ever sinceis the illumina-tion ofhis Spirit. First he breathed lightupon theface ofthe matter or chaos; then he breathed lightinto theface of man; and still he breatheth and in-spirethlightinto the face of his chosen. The poetthatbeautified the sectthat was otherwise in-ferior tothe restsaith yet excellently well: It is apleasureto stand upon the shoreand to see shipstossedupon the sea; a pleasureto stand in the win-dow of acastleand to see a battleand the adven-turesthereof below: but no pleasure is comparableto thestanding upon the vantage ground of truth(a hillnot to be commandedand where the air isalwaysclear and serene)and to see the errorsandwanderingsand mistsand tempestsin the valebelow; soalways that this prospect be with pityand notwith swellingor pride. Certainlyit isheavenupon earthto have a man's mind move incharityrest in providenceand turn upon thepoles oftruth.
To passfrom theologicaland philosophicaltruthtothe truth of civil business; it will be ac-knowledgedeven by those that practise it notthatclearandround dealingis the honor of man'snature;and that mixture of falsehoodsis like alloyin coin ofgold and silverwhich may make themetal workthe betterbut it embaseth it. For thesewindingand crooked coursesare the goings of theserpent;which goeth basely upon the bellyandnot uponthe feet. There is no vicethat doth socover aman with shameas to be found false andperfidious. And therefore Montaigne saith pret-tilywhenhe inquired the reasonwhy the wordof the lieshould be such a disgraceand such anodiouscharge? Saith heIf it be well weighedtosay that aman liethis as much to sayas that he isbravetowards Godand a coward towards men.For a liefaces Godand shrinks from man. Surelythewickedness of falsehoodand breach of faithcannotpossibly be so highly expressedas in thatit shallbe the last pealto call the judgments of Godupon thegenerations of men; it being foretoldthat whenChrist comethhe shall not find faithupon theearth.
MEN feardeathas children fear to go in thedark; andas that natural fear in childrenisincreased with talesso is the other. Certainlythecontemplation of deathas the wages of sinandpassage to another worldis holy and relig-ious; butthe fear of itas a tribute due unto natureis weak. Yet in religious meditationsthere is some-timesmixture of vanityand of superstition. Youshallreadin some of the friars' books of mortifica-tionthata man should think with himselfwhatthe painisif he have but his finger's end pressedortorturedand thereby imaginewhat the painsof deatharewhen the whole body is corruptedanddissolved; when many times death passethwith lesspain than the torture of a limb; for themost vitalpartsare not the quickest of sense. Andby himthat spake only as a philosopherand nat-ural manit was well saidPompa mortis magisterretquam mors ipsa. Groansand convulsionsand adiscolored faceand friends weepingandblacksand obsequiesand the likeshow deathterrible. It is worthy the observingthat there is nopassion inthe mind of manso weakbut it matesandmastersthe fear of death; and thereforedeath isno such terrible enemywhen a man hathso manyattendants about himthat can win thecombat ofhim. Revenge triumphs over death; loveslightsit; honor aspireth to it; grief flieth to it; fearpreoccupatethit; naywe readafter Otho the em-peror hadslain himselfpity (which is the tender-est ofaffections) provoked many to dieout of merecompassionto their sovereignand as the truestsort offollowers. NaySeneca adds niceness andsatiety:Cogita quamdiu eadem feceris; mori vellenon tantumfortis aut misersed etiam fastidiosuspotest. A man would diethough he were neithervaliantnor miserableonly upon a weariness todo thesame thing so oftover and over. It is no lessworthytoobservehow little alteration in goodspiritsthe approaches of death make; for theyappear tobe the same mentill the last instant.AugustusCaesar died in a compliment; Liviacon-jugiinostri memorvive et vale. Tiberius in dissi-mulation;as Tacitus saith of himJam Tiberiumvires etcorpusnon dissimulatiodeserebant. Ves-pasian ina jestsitting upon the stool; Ut puto deusfio. Galba with a sentence; Ferisi ex re sit populiRomani;holding forth his neck. Septimius Severusindespatch; Adeste si quid mihi restat agendum.And thelike. Certainly the Stoics bestowed toomuch costupon deathand by their great prepara-tionsmade it appear more fearful. Better saith hequi finemvitae extremum inter munera ponatnaturae. It is as natural to dieas to be born; and toa littleinfantperhapsthe one is as painfulas theother. He that dies in an earnest pursuitis like onethat iswounded in hot blood; whofor the timescarcefeels the hurt; and therefore a mind fixedand bentupon somewhat that is gooddoth avertthe dolorsof death. Butabove allbelieve itthesweetestcanticle is'Nunc dimittis; when a manhathobtained worthy endsand expectations.Death haththis also; that it openeth the gate togood fameand extinguisheth envy. - Extinctusamabituridem.
RELIGIONbeing the chief band of human so-cietyitis a happy thingwhen itself is wellcontainedwithin the true band of unity. Thequarrelsand divisions about religionwere evilsunknown tothe heathen. The reason wasbecausethereligion of the heathenconsisted rather inrites andceremoniesthan in any constant belief.For youmay imaginewhat kind of faith theirswaswhenthe chief doctorsand fathers of theirchurchwere the poets. But the true God hath thisattributethat he is a jealous God; and thereforehisworship and religionwill endure no mixturenorpartner.We shall therefore speak a few wordsconcerningthe unity of the church; what are thefruitsthereof ; what the bounds; and what themeans.
The fruitsof unity (next unto the well pleasingof Godwhich is all in all) are two: the onetowardsthose thatare without the churchthe othertowardsthose that are within. For the former; it iscertainthat heresiesand schismsare of all othersthegreatest scandals; yeamore than corruptionofmanners. For as in the natural bodya woundorsolution of continuityis worse than a corrupthumor; soin the spiritual. So that nothingdoth somuch keepmen out of the churchand drive menout of thechurchas breach of unity. And there-forewhensoever it cometh to that passthat onesaithEcce in desertoanother saithEcce in pene-tralibus;that iswhen some men seek Christin theconventiclesof hereticsand othersin an outwardface of achurchthat voice had need continuallyto soundin men's earsNolite exire- Go not out.The doctorof the Gentiles (the propriety of whosevocationdrew him to have a special care of thosewithout)saithif an heathen come inand hearyou speakwith several tongueswill he not saythat youare mad? And certainly it is little betterwhenatheistsand profane personsdo hear ofso manydiscordantand contrary opinions in re-ligion; itdoth avert them from the churchandmakeththemto sit down in the chair of thescorners.It is but a light thingto be vouched in soserious amatterbut yet it expresseth well thedeformity. There is a master of scoffingthat in hiscatalogueof books of a feigned librarysets downthis titleof a bookThe Morris-Dance of Heretics.Forindeedevery sect of themhath a diverse pos-tureorcringe by themselveswhich cannot butmovederision in worldlingsand depraved politicswho areapt to contemn holy things.
As for thefruit towards those that are within; itis peace;which containeth infinite blessings. Itestablishethfaith; it kindleth charity; the outwardpeace ofthe churchdistilleth into peace of con-science;and it turneth the labors of writingandreading ofcontroversiesinto treaties of mortifica-tion anddevotion.
Concerningthe bounds of unity; the true plac-ing ofthemimporteth exceedingly. There appearto be twoextremes. For to certain zealantsallspeech ofpacification is odious. Is it peaceJehu?What hastthou to do with peace? turn thee be-hind me. Peace is not the matterbut followingandparty. Contrariwisecertain Laodiceansandlukewarmpersonsthink they may accommodatepoints ofreligionby middle wayand taking partof bothand witty reconcilements; as if they wouldmake anarbitrament between God and man. Boththeseextremes are to be avoided; which will bedoneifthe league of Christianspenned by ourSaviorhimselfwere in two cross clauses thereofsoundlyand plainly expounded: He that is notwith usis against us; and againHe that is notagainstusis with us; that isif the points funda-mental andof substance in religionwere trulydiscernedand distinguishedfrom points notmerely offaithbut of opinionorderor good in-tention. This is a thing may seem to many a mattertrivialand done already. But if it were done lesspartiallyit would be embraced more generally.
Of this Imay give only this adviceaccording tomy smallmodel. Men ought to take heedof rend-ing God'schurchby two kinds of controversies.The oneiswhen the matter of the point contro-vertedistoo small and lightnot worth the heatand strifeabout itkindled only by contradiction.Foras itis notedby one of the fathersChrist'scoatindeed had no seambut the church's vesturewas ofdivers colors; whereupon he saithIn vestevarietassitscissura non sit; they be two thingsunity anduniformity. The other iswhen thematter ofthe point controvertedis greatbut it isdriven toan over-great subtiltyand obscurity; sothat itbecometh a thing rather ingeniousthansubstantial. A man that is of judgment and under-standingshall sometimes hear ignorant men dif-ferandknow well within himselfthat thosewhich sodiffermean one thingand yet theythemselveswould never agree. And if it come soto passin that distance of judgmentwhich is be-tween manand manshall we not think that Godabovethat knows the heartdoth not discern thatfrail menin some of their contradictionsintendthe samething; and accepteth of both? The natureof suchcontroversies is excellently expressedbySt. Paulin the warning and preceptthat he givethconcerningthe sameDevita profanas vocum novi-tatesetoppositiones falsi nominis scientiae. Mencreateoppositionswhich are not; and put theminto newtermsso fixedas whereas the meaningought togovern the termthe term in effect gov-erneth themeaning.There be also two false peacesorunities: the onewhen the peace is groundedbut uponan implicit ignorance; for all colors willagree inthe dark: the otherwhen it is pieced upupon adirect admission of contrariesin funda-mentalpoints. For truth and falsehoodin suchthingsare like the iron and clayin the toes ofNebuchadnezzar'simage; they may cleavebutthey willnot incorporate.
Concerningthe means of procuring unity; menmustbewarethat in the procuringor reunitingofreligious unitythey do not dissolve and defacethe lawsof charityand of human society. Therebe twoswords amongst Christiansthe spiritualandtemporal; and both have their due office andplaceinthe maintenance of religion. But we maynot takeup the third swordwhich is Mahomet'sswordorlike unto it; that isto propagate religionby warsor by sanguinary persecutions to forceconsciences;except it be in cases of overt scandalblasphemyor intermixture of practice againstthe state;much less to nourish seditions; to author-izeconspiracies and rebellions; to put the swordinto thepeople's hands; and the like; tending tothesubversion of all governmentwhich is theordinanceof God. For this is but to dash the firsttableagainst the second; and so to consider menasChristiansas we forget that they are men.Lucretiusthe poetwhen he beheld the act of Aga-memnonthat could endure the sacrificing of hisowndaughterexclaimed: Tantum Religio potuitsuaderemalorum.
What wouldhe have saidif he had known ofthemassacre in Franceor the powder treason ofEngland?He would have been seven times moreEpicureand atheistthan he was. For as the tem-poralsword is to be drawn with great circumspec-tion incases of religion; so it is a thing monstrousto put itinto the hands of the common people. Letthat beleft unto the Anabaptistsand other furies.It wasgreat blasphemywhen the devil saidI willascendand be like the highest; but it is greaterblasphemyto personate Godand bring him insayingIwill descendand be like the prince ofdarkness;and what is it betterto make the causeofreligion to descendto the cruel and execrableactions ofmurthering princesbutchery of peopleandsubversion of states and governments? Surelythis is tobring down the Holy Ghostinstead of thelikenessof a dovein the shape of a vulture orraven; andsetout of the bark of a Christianchurchaflag of a bark of piratesand assassins.Thereforeit is most necessarythat the churchbydoctrineand decreeprinces by their swordandalllearningsboth Christian and moralas by theirMercuryroddo damn and send to hell for everthosefacts and opinions tending to the support ofthe same;as hath been already in good part done.Surely incounsels concerning religionthat coun-sel of theapostle would be prefixedIra hominisnon impletjustitiam Dei. And it was a notableobservationof a wise fatherand no less ingenu-ouslyconfessed; that those which held and per-suadedpressure of conscienceswere commonlyinterestedtherein.themselvesfor their own ends.
REVENGE isa kind of wild justice; which themore man's nature runs tothe more oughtlaw toweed it out. For as for the first wrongitdoth butoffend the law; but the revenge of thatwrongputteth the law out of office. Certainlyintakingrevengea man is but even with his enemy;but inpassing it overhe is superior; for it is aprince'spart to pardon. And SolomonI am suresaithItis the glory of a manto pass by an offence.That whichis past is goneand irrevocable; andwise menhave enough to dowith things presentand tocome; therefore they do but trifle withthemselvesthat labor in past matters. There is noman doth awrongfor the wrong's sake; butthereby topurchase himself profitor pleasureorhonororthe like. Therefore why should I beangry witha manfor loving himself better thanme? And ifany man should do wrongmerely outofill-naturewhyyet it is but like the thorn orbriarwhich prick and scratchbecause they cando noother. The most tolerable sort of revengeisfor thosewrongs which there is no law to remedy;but thenlet a man take heedthe revenge be suchas thereis no law to punish; else a man's enemy isstillbefore handand it is two for one. Somewhenthey takerevengeare desirousthe party shouldknowwhence it cometh. This is the more gener-ous. For the delight seemeth to benot so much indoing thehurtas in making the party repent. Butbase andcrafty cowardsare like the arrow thatflieth inthe dark. Cosmusduke of Florencehad adesperatesaying against perfidious or neglectingfriendsas if those wrongs were unpardonable;You shallread (saith he) that we are commandedto forgiveour enemies; but you never readthat wearecommanded to forgive our friends. But yet thespirit ofJob was in a better tune: Shall we (saithhe) takegood at God's handsand not be content totake evilalso? And so of friends in a proportion.This iscertainthat a man that studieth revengekeeps hisown wounds greenwhich otherwisewouldhealand do well. Public revenges are forthe mostpart fortunate; as that for the death ofCaesar;for the death of Pertinax; for the death ofHenry theThird of France; and many more. Butin privaterevengesit is not so. Nay rathervindic-tivepersons live the life of witches; whoas theyaremischievousso end they infortunate.
IT WAS anhigh speech of Seneca (after themanner ofthe Stoics)that the good thingswhichbelong to prosperityare to be wished; butthe goodthingsthat belong to adversityare to beadmired. Bona rerum secundarum optabilia; ad-versarummirabilia. Certainly if miracles be thecommandover naturethey appear most in adver-sity. It is yet a higher speech of histhan the other(much toohigh for a heathen)It is true greatnessto have inone the frailty of a manand the securityof a God. Vere magnum habere fragilitatem homi-nissecuritatem Dei. This would have done betterin poesywhere transcendences are more allowed.And thepoets indeed have been busy with it; forit is ineffect the thingwhich figured in thatstrangefiction of the ancient poetswhich seemethnot to bewithout mystery; nayand to have someapproachto the state of a Christian; that Herculeswhen hewent to unbind Prometheus (by whomhumannature is represented)sailed the length ofthe greatoceanin an earthen pot or pitcher; livelydescribingChristian resolutionthat saileth in thefrail barkof the fleshthrough the waves of theworld. But to speak in a mean. The virtue of pros-perityistemperance; the virtue of adversityisfortitude;which in morals is the more heroicalvirtue. Prosperity is the blessing of the Old Testa-ment;adversity is the blessing of the New; whichcarrieththe greater benedictionand the clearerrevelationof God's favor. Yet even in the OldTestamentif you listen to David's harpyou shallhear asmany hearse-like airs as carols; and thepencil ofthe Holy Ghost hath labored more in de-scribingthe afflictions of Jobthan the felicities ofSolomon. Prosperity is not without many fearsanddistastes; and adversity is not without com-forts andhopes. We see in needle-works and em-broideriesit is more pleasing to have a lively workupon a sadand solemn groundthan to have a darkandmelancholy workupon a lightsome ground:judgetherefore of the pleasure of the heartby thepleasureof the eye. Certainly virtue is like preciousodorsmost fragrant when they are incensedorcrushed:for prosperity doth best discover vicebutadversitydoth best discover virtue.
DISSIMULATIONis but a faint kind of pol-icyorwisdom; for it asketh a strong witand astrong heartto know when to tell truthandto do it. Therefore it is the weaker sort of politicsthat arethe great dissemblers.
TacitussaithLivia sorted well with the arts ofherhusbandand dissimulation of her son; attri-butingarts or policy to Augustusand dissimula-tion toTiberius. And againwhen MucianusencouragethVespasianto take arms against Vitel-liushesaithWe rise not against the piercingjudgmentof Augustusnor the extreme caution orclosenessof Tiberius. These propertiesof arts orpolicyand dissimulation or closenessare indeedhabits andfaculties severaland to be distin-guished. For if a man have that penetration ofjudgmentas he can discern what things are tobe laidopenand what to be secretedand what tobe showedat half lightsand to whom and when(whichindeed are arts of stateand arts of lifeasTacituswell calleth them)to hima habit of dis-simulationis a hinderance and a poorness. But ifa mancannot obtain to that judgmentthen it isleft tobim generallyto be closeand a dissembler.For wherea man cannot chooseor vary in parti-cularsthere it is good to take the safestand wari-est wayin general; like the going softlyby onethatcannot well see. Certainly the ablest menthat everwerehave had all an opennessandfranknessof dealing; and a name of certainty andveracity;but then they were like horses wellmanaged;for they could tell passing wellwhen tostop orturn; and at such timeswhen they thoughtthe caseindeed required dissimulationif thenthey useditit came to pass that the former opin-ionspread abroadof their good faith and clear-ness ofdealingmade them almost invisible.
There bethree degrees of this hiding and veil-ing of aman's self. The firstclosenessreservationandsecrecy; when a man leaveth himself withoutobservationor without hold to be takenwhat heis. Theseconddissimulationin the negative;when a manlets fall signs and argumentsthat heis notthat he is. And the thirdsimulationin theaffirmative;when a man industriously and ex-presslyfeigns and pretends to bethat he is not.
For thefirst of thesesecrecy; it is indeed thevirtue ofa confessor. And assuredlythe secretmanheareth many confessions. For who will openhimselfto a blab or a babbler? But if a man bethoughtsecretit inviteth discovery; as the moreclose airsucketh in the more open; and as in con-fessionthe revealing is not for worldly usebut forthe easeof a man's heartso secret men come totheknowledge of many things in that kind; whilemen ratherdischarge their mindsthan imparttheirminds. In few wordsmysteries are due tosecrecy. Besides (to say truth) nakedness is un-comelyaswell in mind as body; and it addeth nosmallreverenceto men's manners and actionsifthey benot altogether open. As for talkers andfutilepersonsthey are commonly vain and credu-louswithal. For he that talketh what he knowethwill alsotalk what he knoweth not. Therefore set itdownthatan habit of secrecyis both politic andmoral. And in this partit is good that a man's facegive histongue leave to speak. For the discovery ofa man' sselfby the tracts of his countenanceis agreatweakness and betraying; by how much it ismany timesmore markedand believedthan aman'swords.
For thesecondwhich is dissimulation; it fol-lowethmany times upon secrecyby a necessity;so that hethat will be secretmust be a dissemblerin somedegree. For men are too cunningto suffera man tokeep an indifferent carriage betweenbothandto be secretwithout swaying the bal-ance oneither side. They will so beset a man withquestionsand draw him onand pick it out of himthatwithout an absurd silencehe must show aninclinationone way; or if he do notthey willgather asmuch by his silenceas by his speech. Asforequivocationsor oraculous speechesthey can-not holdout long. So that no man can be secretexcept hegive himself a little scope of dissimula-tion;which isas it werebut the skirts or train ofsecrecy.
But forthe third degreewhich is simulationand falseprofession; that I hold more culpableand lesspolitic; except it be in great and rare mat-ters. And therefore a general custom of simulation(which isthis last degree) is a viceusing either ofa naturalfalseness or fearfulnessor of a mind thathath somemain faultswhich because a man mustneedsdisguiseit maketh him practise simulationin otherthingslest his hand should be out of use.
The greatadvantages of simulation and dissi-mulationare three. Firstto lay asleep oppositionand tosurprise. For where a man's intentions arepublishedit is an alarumto call up all that areagainstthem. The second isto reserve to a man'sself afair retreat. For if a man engage himself bya manifestdeclarationhe must go through or takea fall. The third isthe better to discover the mindofanother. For to him that opens himselfmenwillhardly show themselves adverse; but will fairlet him goonand turn their freedom of speechtofreedom ofthought. And therefore it is a goodshrewdproverb of the SpaniardTell a lie and finda troth. As if there were no way of discoverybutbysimulation. There be also three disadvantagesto set iteven. The firstthat simulation and dissi-mulationcommonly carry with them a show offearfulnesswhich in any businessdoth spoil thefeathersof round flying up to the mark. The sec-ondthatit puzzleth and perplexeth the conceitsof manythat perhaps would otherwise co-operatewith him;and makes a man walk almost alonetohis ownends. The third and greatest isthat itdeprivetha man of one of the most principal in-strumentsfor action; which is trust and belief.The bestcomposition and temperatureis to haveopennessin fame and opinion; secrecy in habit;dissimulationin seasonable use; and a power tofeignifthere be no remedy.
THE joysof parents are secret; and so are theirgriefs andfears. They cannot utter the one;nor theywill not utter the other. Children sweetenlabors;but they make misfortunes more bitter.Theyincrease the cares of life; but they mitigatetheremembrance of death. The perpetuity bygenerationis common to beasts; but memorymeritandnoble worksare proper to men. Andsurely aman shall see the noblest works and foun-dationshave proceeded from childless men; whichhavesought to express the images of their mindswherethose of their bodies have failed. So the careofposterity is most in themthat have no posterity.They thatare the first raisers of their housesaremostindulgent towards their children; beholdingthem asthe continuancenot only of their kindbutof theirwork; and so both children and creatures.
Thedifference in affectionof parents towardstheirseveral childrenis many times unequal; andsometimesunworthy; especially in the mothers;as SolomonsaithA wise son rejoiceth the fatherbut anungracious son shames the mother. A manshall seewhere there is a house full of childrenone or twoof the eldest respectedand the young-est madewantons; but in the midstsome thatare as itwere forgottenwho many timesnever-thelessprove the best. The illiberality of parentsinallowance towards their childrenis an harmfulerror;makes them base; acquaints them withshifts;makes them sort with mean company; andmakes themsurfeit more when they come toplenty. And therefore the proof is bestwhen menkeep theirauthority towards the childrenbut nottheirpurse. Men have a foolish manner (both par-ents andschoolmasters and servants) in creatingandbreeding an emulation between brothersdur-ingchildhoodwhich many times sorteth to dis-cord whenthey are menand disturbeth families.TheItalians make little difference between chil-drenandnephews or near kinsfolks; but so theybe of thelumpthey care not though they pass notthroughtheir own body. Andto say truthinnature itis much a like matter; insomuch that wesee anephew sometimes resembleth an uncleora kinsmanmore than his own parent; as the bloodhappens. Let parents choose betimesthe vocationsandcourses they mean their children should take;for thenthey are most flexible; and let them nottoo muchapply themselves to the disposition oftheirchildrenas thinking they will take best tothatwhich they have most mind to. It is truethatif theaffection or aptness of the children be extra-ordinarythen it is good not to cross it; but gener-ally theprecept is goodoptimum eligesuave etfacileillud faciet consuetudo. Younger brothersarecommonly fortunatebut seldom or neverwhere theelder are disinherited.
HE THAThath wife and children hath givenhostagesto fortune; for they are impedi-ments togreat enterpriseseither of virtue or mis-chief. Certainly the best works and of greatestmerit forthe public have proceeded from the un-married orchildless men; which both in affectionand meanshave married and endowed the public.Yet itwere great reason that those that have chil-drenshould have greatest care of future times;unto whichthey know they must transmit theirdearestpledges. Some there arewho though theylead asingle lifeyet their thoughts do end withthemselvesand account future times imperti-nences. Naythere are some otherthat accountwife andchildrenbut as bills of charges. Naymorethere are some foolish rich covetous menthat takea pridein having no childrenbecausethey maybe thought so much the richer. For per-haps theyhave heard some talkSuch an one is agreat richmanand another except to itYeabuthe hath agreat charge of children; as if it were anabatementto his riches. But the most ordinarycause of asingle lifeis libertyespecially in certainself-pleasingand humorous mindswhich are sosensibleof every restraintas they will go near tothinktheir girdles and gartersto be bonds andshackles. Unmarried men are best friendsbestmastersbest servants; but not always best sub-jects; forthey are light to run away; and almostallfugitivesare of that condition. A single lifedoth wellwith churchmen; for charity will hardlywater thegroundwhere it must first fill a pool. Itisindifferent for judges and magistrates; for ifthey befacile and corruptyou shall have a ser-vantfivetimes worse than a wife. For soldiersIfind thegenerals commonly in their hortativesput men inmind of their wives and children; andI thinkthe despising of marriage amongst theTurksmaketh the vulgar soldier more base. Cer-tainlywife and children are a kind of disciplineofhumanity; and single menthough they maybe manytimes more charitablebecause theirmeans areless exhaustyeton the other sidetheyare morecruel and hardhearted (good to makesevereinquisitors)because their tenderness is notso oftcalled upon. Grave naturesled by customandtherefore constantare commonly loving hus-bandsaswas said of Ulyssesvetulam suam praetu-litimmortalitati. Chaste women are often proudandfrowardas presuming upon the merit of theirchastity. It is one of the best bondsboth of chastityandobediencein the wifeif she think her hus-band wise;which she will never doif she find himjealous. Wives are young men's mistresses; com-panionsfor middle age; and old men's nurses. Soas a manmay have a quarrel to marrywhen hewill. But yet he was reputed one of the wise menthat madeanswer to the questionwhen a manshouldmarry- A young man not yetan elderman not atall. It is often seen that bad husbandshave verygood wives; whether it bethat it raiseththe priceof their husband's kindnesswhen itcomes; orthat the wives take a pride in theirpatience. But this never failsif the bad husbandswere oftheir own choosingagainst their friends'consent;for then they will be sure to make goodtheir ownfolly.
THERE benone of the affectionswhich havebeen notedto fascinate or bewitchbut loveand envy. They both have vehement wishes; theyframethemselves readily into imaginations andsuggestions;and they come easily into the eyeespeciallyupon the present of the objects; whichare thepoints that conduce to fascinationif anysuch thingthere be. We see likewisethe Scripturecallethenvy an evil eye; and the astrologerscallthe evilinfluences of the starsevil aspects; so thatstillthere seemeth to be acknowledgedin the actof envyan ejaculation or irradiation of the eye.Naysomehave been so curiousas to notethatthe timeswhen the stroke or percussion of an envi-ous eyedoth most hurtare when the party enviedis beheldin glory or triumph; for that sets an edgeupon envy:and besidesat such times the spiritsof theperson envieddo come forth most into theoutwardpartsand so meet the blow.
Butleaving these curiosities (though not un-worthy tobe thought onin fit place)we willhandlewhat persons are apt to envy others; whatpersonsare most subject to be envied themselves;and whatis the difference between public andprivateenvy.
A man thathath no virtue in himselfever en-viethvirtue in others. For men's mindswill eitherfeed upontheir own goodor upon others' evil; andwhowanteth the onewill prey upon the other;and whosois out of hopeto attain to another'svirtuewill seek to come at even handby depress-inganother's fortune.
A man thatis busyand inquisitiveis com-monlyenvious. For to know much of other men'smatterscannot be because all that ado may con-cern hisown estate; therefore it must needs bethat hetaketh a kind of play-pleasurein lookingupon thefortunes of others. Neither can hethatmindethbut his own businessfind much matterfor envy. For envy is a gadding passionand walk-eth thestreetsand doth not keep home: Non estcuriosusquin idem sit malevolus.
Men ofnoble birthare noted to be envioustowardsnew menwhen they rise. For the distanceisalteredand it is like a deceit of the eyethatwhenothers come onthey think themselvesgoback.
Deformedpersonsand eunuchsand old menandbastardsare envious. For he that cannot pos-sibly mendhis own casewill do what he cantoimpairanother's; except these defects light upona verybraveand heroical naturewhich thinkethto makehis natural wants part of his honor; in thatit shouldbe saidthat an eunuchor a lame mandid suchgreat matters; affecting the honor of amiracle;as it was in Narses the eunuchand Agesi-laus andTamberlanesthat were lame men.
The sameis the case of menthat rise after ca-lamitiesand misfortunes. For they are as menfallen outwith the times; and think other men'sharmsaredemption of their own sufferings.
They thatdesire to excel in too many mattersout oflevity and vain gloryare ever envious. Fortheycannot want work; it being impossiblebutmanyinsome one of those thingsshould surpassthem. Which was the character of Adrian the Em-peror;that mortally envied poetsand paintersandartificersin works wherein he had a vein toexcel.
Lastlynear kinsfolksand fellows in officeandthose thathave been bred togetherare more aptto envytheir equalswhen they are raised. For itdothupbraid unto them their own fortunesandpointethat themand cometh oftener into theirremembranceand incurreth likewise more intothe noteof others; and envy ever redoubleth fromspeech andfame. Cain's envy was the more vileandmalignanttowards his brother Abelbecausewhen hissacrifice was better acceptedthere wasno body tolook on. Thus much for thosethat areapt toenvy.
Concerningthose that are more or less subjectto envy:Firstpersons of eminent virtuewhenthey areadvancedare less envied. For their for-tuneseemethbut due unto them; and no manenvieththe payment of a debtbut rewards andliberalityrather. Againenvy is ever joined withthecomparing of a man's self; and where there isnocomparisonno envy; and therefore kings arenotenviedbut by kings. Nevertheless it is to benotedthat unworthy persons are most enviedattheirfirst coming inand afterwards overcome itbetter;whereas contrariwisepersons of worthand meritare most enviedwhen their fortunecontinuethlong. For by that timethough theirvirtue bethe sameyet it hath not the same lustre;for freshmen grow up that darken it.
Persons ofnoble bloodare less envied in theirrising. For it seemeth but right done to their birth.Besidesthere seemeth not much added to theirfortune;and envy is as the sunbeamsthat beathotterupon a bankor steep rising groundthanupon aflat. And for the same reasonthose that areadvancedby degreesare less envied than thosethat areadvanced suddenly and per saltum.
Those thathave joined with their honor greattravelscaresor perilsare less subject to envy.For menthink that they earn their honors hardlyand pitythem sometimes; and pity ever healethenvy. Wherefore you shall observethat the moredeep andsober sort of politic personsin theirgreataessare ever bemoaning themselveswhata lifethey lead; chanting a quanta patimur! Notthat theyfeel it sobut only to abate the edge ofenvy. But this is to be understoodof business thatis laidupon menand not suchas they call untothemselves. For nothing increaseth envy morethan anunnecessary and ambitious engrossing ofbusiness. And nothing doth extinguish envy morethan for agreat person to preserve all other infe-riorofficersin their full lights and pre-eminencesof theirplaces. For by that meansthere be somanyscreens between him and envy.
Above allthose are most subject to envywhichcarry thegreatness of their fortunesin an insolentand proudmanner; being never wellbut whilethey areshowing how great they areeither byoutwardpompor by triumphing over all opposi-tion orcompetition; whereas wise men will ratherdosacrifice to envyin suffering themselves some-times ofpurpose to be crossedand overborne inthingsthat do not much concern them. Notwith-standingso much is truethat the carriage ofgreatnessin a plain and open manner (so it bewithoutarrogancy and vain glory) doth draw lessenvythanif it be in a more crafty and cunningfashion. For in that coursea man doth but dis-avowfortune; and seemeth to be conscious of hisown wantin worth; and doth but teach otherstoenvy him.
Lastlytoconclude this part; as we said in thebeginningthat the act of envy had somewhat init ofwitchcraftso there is no other cure of envybut thecure of witchcraft; and that isto removethe lot(as they call it) and to lay it upon another.For whichpurposethe wiser sort of great personsbring inever upon the stage somebody upon whomto derivethe envythat would come upon them-selves;sometimes upon ministers and servants;sometimesupon colleagues and associates; and thelike; andfor that turn there are never wantingsomepersons of violent and undertaking natureswhosothey may have power and businesswilltake it atany cost.
Nowtospeak of public envy. There is yet somegood inpublic envywhereas in privatethere isnone. For public envyis as an ostracismthateclipsethmenwhen they grow too great. Andthereforeit is a bridle also to great onesto keepthemwithin bounds.
This envybeing in the Latin word invidiagoeth inthe modern languageby the name ofdiscontentment;of which we shall speakin hand-lingsedition. It is a diseasein a statelike to infec-tion. For as infection spreadeth upon that which issoundandtainteth it; so when envy is gotten onceinto astateit traduceth even the best actionsthereofand turneth them into an ill odor. Andthereforethere is little wonby intermingling ofplausibleactions. For that doth argue but a weak-nessandfear of envywhich hurteth so much themoreasit is likewise usual in infections; whichif youfear themyou call them upon you.
Thispublic envyseemeth to beat chiefly uponprincipalofficers or ministersrather than uponkingsandestates themselves. But this is a surerulethatif the envy upon the minister be greatwhen thecause of it in him is small; or if the envybegeneralin a manner upon all the ministers ofan estate;then the envy (though hidden) is trulyupon thestate itself. And so much of public envyordiscontentmentand the difference thereof fromprivateenvywhich was handled in the first place.
We willadd this in generaltouching the affec-tion ofenvy; that of all other affectionsit is themostimportune and continual. For of other affec-tionsthere is occasion givenbut now and then;andtherefore it was well saidInvidia festos diesnon agit:for it is ever working upon some or other.And it isalso notedthat love and envy do make aman pinewhich other affections do notbecausethey arenot so continual. It is also the vilest affec-tionandthe most depraved; for which cause itis theproper attribute of the devilwho is calledtheenvious manthat soweth tares amongst thewheat bynight; as it always cometh to passthatenvyworketh subtillyand in the darkand to theprejudiceof good thingssuch as is the wheat.
THE stageis more beholding to lovethan thelife ofman. For as to the stagelove is evermatter ofcomediesand now and then of tragedies;but inlife it doth much mischief; sometimes like asirensometimes like a fury. You may observethatamongstall the great and worthy persons (whereofthe memoryremainetheither ancient or recent)there isnot onethat hath been transported tothe maddegree of love: which shows that greatspiritsand great businessdo keep out this weakpassion. You must exceptneverthelessMarcusAntoniusthe half partner of the empire of Romeand AppiusClaudiusthe decemvir and lawgiver;whereofthe former was indeed a voluptuous manandinordinate; but the latter was an austere andwise man:and therefore it seems (though rarely)that lovecan find entrancenot only into an openheartbutalso into a heart well fortifiedif watchbe notwell kept. It is a poor saying of EpicurusSatis magnum alter alteri theatrum sumus; as ifman made for the contemplation of heaven andall nobleobjectsshould do nothing but kneel be-fore alittle idoland make himself a subjectthough notof the mouth (as beasts are)yet of theeye; whichwas given him for higher purposes. Itis astrange thingto note the excess of this passionand how itbraves the natureand value of thingsby this;that the speaking in a perpetual hyper-boleiscomely in nothing but in love. Neither is itmerely inthe phrase; for whereas it hath beenwell saidthat the arch-flattererwith whom allthe pettyflatterers have intelligenceis a man'sself;certainly the lover is more. For there wasneverproud man thought so absurdly well of him-selfasthe lover doth of the person loved; andthereforeit was well saidThat it is impossible toloveandto be wise. Neither doth this weaknessappear toothers onlyand not to the party loved;but to theloved most of allexcept the love be reci-proque. For it is a true rulethat love is ever re-wardedeither with the reciproqueor with aninward andsecret contempt. By how much themoremenought to beware of this passionwhichloseth notonly other thingsbut itself! As for theotherlossesthe poet's relation doth well figurethem: thathe that preferred Helenaquitted thegifts ofJuno and Pallas. For whosoever esteemethtoo muchof amorous affectionquitteth both richesandwisdom. This passion hath his floodsin verytimes ofweakness; which are great prosperityandgreatadversity; though this latter hath been lessobserved:both which times kindle loveand makeit moreferventand therefore show it to be thechild offolly. They do bestwho if they cannot butadmitloveyet make it keep quarters; and sever itwhollyfrom their serious affairsand actionsoflife; forif it check once with businessit troublethmen'sfortunesand maketh menthat they can noways betrue to their own ends. I know not howbutmartial men are given to love: I thinkit is butas theyare given to wine; for perils commonly askto be paidin pleasures. There is in man's natureasecretinclination and motiontowards love ofotherswhich if it be not spent upon some one or afewdothnaturally spread itself towards manyand makethmen become humane and charitable;as it isseen sometime in friars. Nuptial love makethmankind;friendly love perfecteth it; but wantonlovecorruptethand embaseth it.
MEN ingreat place are thrice servants: ser-vants ofthe sovereign or state; servants offame; andservants of business. So as they have nofreedom;neither in their personsnor in their ac-tionsnorin their times. It is a strange desiretoseek powerand to lose liberty: or to seek poweroverothersand to lose power over a man's self.The risingunto place is laborious; and by painsmen cometo greater pains; and it is sometimesbase; andby indignitiesmen come to dignities.Thestanding is slipperyand the regress is eitheradownfallor at least an eclipsewhich is a melan-cholything. Cum non sis qui fuerisnon esse curvelisvivere. Nayretire men cannot when theywouldneither will theywhen it were reason; butareimpatient of privatenesseven in age and sick-nesswhich require the shadow; like old towns-menthatwill be still sitting at their street doorthoughthereby they offer age to scom. Certainlygreatpersons had need to borrow other men'sopinionsto think themselves happy; for if theyjudge bytheir own feelingthey cannot find it; butif theythink with themselveswhat other menthink ofthemand that other men would fain beas theyarethen they are happyas it werebyreport;when perhaps they find the contrarywithin. For they are the firstthat find their owngriefsthough they be the lastthat find theirownfaults. Certainly men in great fortunes arestrangersto themselvesand while they are in thepuzzle ofbusinessthey have no time to tend theirhealtheither of body or mind. Illi mors gravisincubatqui notus nimis omnibusignotus moritursibi. In placethere is license to do goodand evil;whereofthe latter is a curse: for in evilthe bestconditionis not to win; the secondnot to can. Butpower todo goodis the true and lawful end ofaspiring. For good thoughts (though God acceptthem) yettowards menare little better than gooddreamsexcept they be put in act; and that cannotbewithout power and placeas the vantageandcommandingground. Merit and good worksisthe end ofman's motion; and conscience of thesame isthe accomplishment of man's rest. For if aman can bepartaker of God's theatrehe shall like-wise bepartaker of God's rest. Et conversus Deusutaspiceret opera quae fecerunt manus suaeviditquod omniaessent bona nimis; and then the sab-bath. In the discharge of thy placeset before theethe bestexamples; for imitation is a globe of pre-cepts. And after a timeset before thee thine ownexample;and examine thyself strictlywhetherthou didstnot best at first. Neglect not also theexamplesof those that have carried themselvesillinthe same place; not to set off thyselfby tax-ing theirmemorybut to direct thyselfwhat toavoid. Reform thereforewithout braveryor scan-dal offormer times and persons; but yet set it downtothyselfas well to create good precedentsas tofollowthem. Reduce things to the first institutionandobserve whereinand howthey have degen-erate; butyet ask counsel of both times; of theancienttimewhat is best; and of the latter timewhat isfittest. Seek to make thy course regularthat menmay know beforehandwhat they mayexpect;but be not too positive and peremptory;andexpress thyself wellwhen thou digressestfrom thyrule. Preserve the right of thy place; butstir notquestions of jurisdiction; and rather as-sume thyrightin silence and de factothan voiceit withclaimsand challenges. Preserve likewisethe rightsof inferior places; and think it morehonortodirect in chiefthan to be busy in all.Embraceand invite helpsand advicestouchingtheexecution of thy place; and do not drive awaysuchasbring thee informationas meddlers; butaccept ofthem in good part. The vices of authorityarechiefly four: delayscorruptionroughnessandfacility. For delays: give easy access; keeptimesappointed; go through with that which is inhandandinterlace not businessbut of necessity.Forcorruption: do not only bind thine own handsor thyservants' handsfrom takingbut bind thehands ofsuitors alsofrom offering. For integrityused doththe one; but integrity professedandwith amanifest detestation of briberydoth theother. And avoid not only the faultbut the sus-picion. Whosoever is found variableand changethmanifestlywithout manifest causegiveth sus-picion ofcorruption. Therefore alwayswhen thouchangestthine opinion or courseprofess it plainlyanddeclare ittogether with the reasons that movethee tochange; and do not think to steal it. Aservant ora favoriteif he be inwardand nootherapparent cause of esteemis commonlythoughtbut a by-way to close corruption. Forroughness:it is a needless cause of discontent:severitybreedeth fearbut roughness breedethhate. Even reproofs from authorityought to begraveandnot taunting. As for facility: it is worsethanbribery. For bribes come but now and then;but ifimportunityor idle respectslead a manheshallnever be without. As Solomon saithTo re-spectpersons is not good; for such a man willtransgressfor a piece of bread. It is most truethatwasanciently spokenA place showeth the man.And itshoweth some to the betterand some to theworse. Omnium consensu capax imperiinisi im-perassetsaith Tacitus of Galba; but of Vespasianhe saithSolus imperantiumVespasianus mutatusin melius;though the one was meant of sufficiencythe otherof mannersand affection. It is an assuredsign of aworthy and generous spiritwhom honoramends. For honor isor should bethe place ofvirtue;and as in naturethings move violently totheirplaceand calmly in their placeso virtue inambitionis violentin authority settled and calm.All risingto great place is by a winding star; andif therebe factionsit is good to side a man's selfwhilst heis in the risingand to balance himselfwhen he isplaced. Use the memory of thy prede-cessorfairly and tenderly; for if thou dost notit isa debtwill sure be paid when thou art gone. Ifthou havecolleaguesrespect themand rather callthemwhenthey look not for itthan excludethemwhen they have reason to look to be called.Be not toosensibleor too rememberingof thyplace inconversationand private answers tosuitors;but let it rather be saidWhen he sits inplaceheis another man.
IT IS atrivial grammar-school textbut yetworthy awise man's consideration. Questionwas askedof Demostheneswhat was the chiefpart of anorator? he answeredaction; what next?action;what next again? action. He said itthatknew itbestand hadby naturehimself no ad-vantage inthat he commended. A strange thingthat thatpart of an oratorwhich is but superficialand ratherthe virtue of a playershould be placedso highabove those other noble partsof inventionelocutionand the rest; nayalmost aloneas if itwere allin all. But the reason is plain. There is inhumannature generallymore of the fool than ofthe wise;and therefore those facultiesby whichthefoolish part of men's minds is takenare mostpotent. Wonderful like is the case of boldness incivilbusiness: what first? boldness; what secondand third?boldness. And yet boldness is a child ofignoranceand basenessfar inferior to other parts.Butnevertheless it doth fascinateand bind handand footthose that are either shallow in judg-mentorweak in couragewhich are the greatestpart; yeaand prevaileth with wise men at weaktimes. Therefore we see it hath done wondersinpopularstates; but with senatesand princes less;and moreever upon the first entrance of bold per-sons intoactionthan soon after; for boldness is anill keeperof promise. Surelyas there are mounte-banks forthe natural bodyso are there mounte-banks forthe politic body; men that undertakegreatcuresand perhaps have been luckyin twoor threeexperimentsbut want the grounds ofscienceand therefore cannot hold out. Nayyoushall seea bold fellow many times do Mahomet'smiracle. Mahomet made the people believe thathe wouldcall an hill to himand from the top of itoffer uphis prayersfor the observers of his law.The peopleassembled; Mahomet called the hill tocome tohimagain and again; and when the hillstoodstillhe was never a whit abashedbut saidIf thehill will not come to MahometMahometwill go tothe hill. So these menwhen they havepromisedgreat mattersand failed most shame-fullyyet(if they have the perfection of boldness)they willbut slight it overand make a turnandno moreado. Certainly to men of great judgmentboldpersons are a sport to behold; nayand to thevulgaralsoboldness has somewhat of the ridicu-lous. For if absurdity be the subject of laughterdoubt younot but great boldness is seldom withoutsomeabsurdity. Especially it is a sport to seewhena boldfellow is out of countenance; for that putshis faceinto a most shrunkenand wooden pos-ture; asneeds it must; for in bashfulnessthe spiritsdo alittle go and come; but with bold menuponlikeoccasionthey stand at a stay; like a stale atchesswhere it is no matebut yet the game cannotstir. But this last were fitter for a satire than for aseriousobservation. This is well to be weighed;thatboldness is ever blind; for it seeth not dangerandinconveniences. Therefore it is ill in counselgood inexecution; so that the right use of bold per-sons isthat they never command in chiefbut besecondsand under the direction of others. For incounselit is good to see dangers; and in executionnot to seethemexcept they be very great.
I TAKEgoodness in this sensethe affecting ofthe wealof menwhich is that the Grecianscallphilanthropia; and the word humanity (asit isused) is a little too light to express it. Good-ness Icall the habitand goodness of naturetheinclination. This of all virtuesand dignities of themindisthe greatest; being the character of theDeity: andwithout itman is a busymischievouswretchedthing; no better than a kind of vermin.Goodnessanswers to the theological virtuechar-ityandadmits no excessbut error. The desire ofpower inexcesscaused the angels to fall; the desireofknowledge in excesscaused man to fall: but incharitythere is no excess; neither can angelnormancomein dan ger by it. The inclination to good-nessisimprinted deeply in the nature of man; in-somuchthat if it issue not towards menit willtake untoother living creatures; as it is seen in theTurksacruel peoplewho nevertheless are kindto beastsand give almsto dogs and birds; inso-muchasBusbechius reportetha Christian boyinConstantinoplehad like to have been stonedforgagging ina waggishness a long-billed fowl.Errorsindeed in this virtue of goodnessor charitymay becommitted. The Italians have an ungra-ciousproverbTanto buon che val niente: sogoodthathe is good for nothing. And one ofthedoctors of ItalyNicholas Machiavelhadtheconfidence to put in writingalmost in plaintermsThat the Christian faithhad given up goodmeninprey to those that are tyrannical and un-just. Which he spakebecause indeed there wasnever lawor sector opiniondid so much mag-nifygoodnessas the Christian religion doth.Thereforeto avoid the scandal and the dangerbothitis goodto take knowledge of the errors ofan habitso excellent. Seek the good of other menbut be notin bondage to their faces or fancies; forthat isbut facilityor softness; which taketh anhonestmind prisoner. Neither give thou AEsop'scock agemwho would be better pleasedand hap-pierifhe had had a barley-corn. The example ofGodteacheth the lesson truly: He sendeth his rainand makethhis sun to shineupon the just andunjust;but he doth not rain wealthnor shinehonor andvirtuesupon men equally. Commonbenefitsare to be communicate with all; but pe-culiarbenefitswith choice. And beware how inmaking theportraiturethou breakest the pattern.Fordivinitymaketh the love of ourselves the pat-tern; thelove of our neighborsbut the portraiture.Sell allthou hastand give it to the poorand fol-low me:butsell not all thou hastexcept thoucome andfollow me; that isexcept thou have avocationwherein thou mayest do as much goodwithlittle means as with great; for otherwiseinfeedingthe streamsthou driest the fountain.Neither isthere only a habit of goodnessdirectedby rightreason; but there is in some meneven innatureadisposition towards it; as on the othersidethere is a natural malignity. For there bethat intheir nature do not affect the good of others.Thelighter sort of malignityturneth but to acrassnessor frowardnessor aptness to opposeordifficultiesor the like; but the deeper sortto envyand meremischief. Such menin other men's ca-lamitiesareas it werein seasonand are ever ontheloading part: not so good as the dogsthat lickedLazarus'sores; but like fliesthat are still buzzingupon anything that is raw; misanthropithatmake ittheir practiceto bring men to the boughand yetnever a tree for the purpose in their gar-densasTimon had. Such dispositionsare the veryerrors ofhuman nature; and yet they are the fittesttimbertomake great politics of; like to knee tim-berthatis good for shipsthat are ordained to betossed;but not for building housesthat shall standfirm. The parts and signs of goodnessare many. Ifa man begracious and courteous to strangersitshows heis a citizen of the worldand that his heartis noislandcut off from other landsbut a conti-nentthatjoins to them. If he be compassionatetowardsthe afflictions of othersit shows that hisheart islike the noble treethat is wounded itselfwhen itgives the balm. If he easily pardonsandremitsoffencesit shows that his mind is plantedaboveinjuries; so that he cannot be shot. If he bethankfulfor small benefitsit shows that he weighsmen'smindsand not their trash. But above allifhe haveSt. Paul's perfectionthat he would wishto beanathema from Christfor the salvation ofhisbrethrenit shows much of a divine natureanda kind ofconformity with Christ himself
WE WILLspeak of nobilityfirst as a portionof anestatethen as a condition of particu-larpersons. A monarchywhere there is no nobil-ity atallis ever a pure and absolute tyranny; asthat ofthe Turks. For nobility attempers sover-eigntyand draws the eyes of the peoplesomewhataside fromthe line royal. But for democraciesthey needit not; and they are commonly morequietandless subject to seditionthan where thereare stirpsof nobles. For men's eyes are upon thebusinessand not upon the persons; or if upon thepersonsit is for the business' sakeas fittestandnot forflags and pedigree. We see the Switzers lastwellnotwithstanding their diversity of religionand ofcantons. For utility is their bondand notrespects. The united provinces of the Low Coun-triesintheir governmentexcel; for where thereis anequalitythe consultations are more indif-ferentand the payments and tributesmorecheerful. A great and potent nobilityaddethmajesty toa monarchbut diminisheth power;andputteth life and spirit into the peoplebutpresseththeir fortune. It is wellwhen nobles arenot toogreat for sovereignty nor for justice; andyetmaintained in that heightas the insolency ofinferiorsmay be broken upon thembefore it comeon toofast upon the majesty of kings. A numerousnobilitycauseth povertyand inconvenience in astate; forit is a surcharge of expense; and besidesit beingof necessitythat many of the nobility fallin timeto be weak in fortuneit maketh a kind ofdisproportionbetween honor and means.
As fornobility in particular persons; it is a rev-erendthingto see an ancient castle or buildingnot indecay; or to see a fair timber treesound andperfect. How much moreto behold an ancientnoblefamilywhich has stood against the wavesandweathers of time! For new nobility is but theact ofpowerbut ancient nobility is the act of time.Those thatare first raised to nobilityare com-monly morevirtuousbut less innocentthan theirdescendants;for there is rarely any risingbut byacommixture of good and evil arts. But it is reasonthe memoryof their virtues remain to their pos-terityand their faults die with themselves. Nobil-ity ofbirth commonly abateth industry; and hethat isnot industriousenvieth him that is. Besidesnoblepersons cannot go much higher; and he thatstandethat a staywhen others risecan hardlyavoidmotions of envy. On the other sidenobil-ityextinguisheth the passive envy from otherstowardsthem; because they are in possession ofhonor. Certainlykings that have able men oftheirnobilityshall find ease in employing themand abetter slide into their business; for peoplenaturallybend to themas born in some sort tocommand.
SHEPHERDSof peoplehad need know thecalendarsof tempests in state; which are com-monlygreatestwhen things grow to equality; asnaturaltempests are greatest about the Equinoc-tia. And as there are certain hollow blasts of windand secretswellings of seas before a tempestsoare therein states:
--Illeetiam caecos instare tumultusSaepemonetfraudesque et operta tunescere bella.
Libels andlicentious discourses against the statewhen theyare frequent and open; and in like sortfalse newsoften running up and downto the dis-advantageof the stateand hastily embraced; areamongstthe signs of troubles. Virgilgiving thepedigreeof Famesaithshe was sister to the Giants:
IllamTerra parensirra irritata deorumExtremam(ut perhibent) Coeo Enceladoque sororemProgenuit.-
As iffames were the relics of seditions past; butthey areno lessindeedthe preludes of seditions tocome. Howsoever he noteth it rightthat seditioustumultsand seditious famesdiffer no more butas brotherand sistermasculine and feminine; es-peciallyif it come to thatthat the best actions ofa stateand the most plausibleand which oughtto givegreatest contentmentare taken in ill senseandtraduced: for that shows the envy greatasTacitussaith; conflata magna invidiaseu beneseu malegesta premunt. Neither doth it followthatbecause these fames are a sign of troublesthatthesuppressing of them with too much severityshould bea remedy of troubles. For the despisingof themmany times checks them best; and thegoingabout to stop themdoth but make a wonderlong-lived. Also that kind of obediencewhichTacitusspeaketh ofis to be held suspected: Erantinofficiosed tamen qui mallent mandata impe-rantiuminterpretari quam exequi; disputingex-cusingcavilling upon mandates and directionsisa kind ofshaking off the yokeand assay of dis-obedience;especially if in those disputingstheywhich arefor the directionspeak fearfully andtenderlyand those that are against itaudaciously.
AlsoasMachiavel noteth wellwhen princesthat oughtto be common parentsmake them-selves asa partyand lean to a sideit is as a boatthat isoverthrown by uneven weight on the oneside; aswas well seenin the time of Henry theThird ofFrance; for firsthimself entered leaguefor theextirpation of the Protestants; and pres-entlyafterthe same league was turned upon him-self. For when the authority of princesis madebut anaccessory to a causeand that there be otherbandsthat tie faster than the band of sovereigntykingsbegin to be put almost out of possession.
Alsowhendiscordsand quarrelsand factionsarecarried openly and audaciouslyit is a sign thereverenceof government is lost. For the motionsof thegreatest persons in a governmentought tobe as themotions of the planets under primummobile;according to the old opinion: which isthat everyof themis carried swiftly by thehighestmotionand softly in their own motion.Andthereforewhen great ones in their ownparticularmotionmove violentlyandas Tacitusexpressethit wellliberius quam ut imperan-tiummeminissent; it is a sign the orbs are outof frame. For reverence is thatwherewith princesare girtfrom God; who threateneth the dissolvingthereof;Solvam cingula regum.
So whenany of the four pillars of governmentare mainlyshakenor weakened (which are relig-ionjusticecounseland treasure)men had needto prayfor fair weather. But let us pass from thispart ofpredictions (concerning whichneverthe-lessmorelight may be taken from that whichfolloweth);and let us speak firstof the materialsofseditions; then of the motives of them; andthirdly ofthe remedies.
Concerningthe materials of seditions. It is athing wellto be considered; for the surest way topreventseditions (if the times do bear it) is to takeaway thematter of them. For if there be fuel pre-pareditis hard to tellwhence the spark shallcomethatshall set it on fire. The matter of sedi-tions isof two kinds: much povertyand much dis-contentment. It is certainso many overthrownestatesso many votes for troubles. Lucan notethwell thestate of Rome before the Civil War
Hinc usuravoraxrapidumque in tempore foenusHincconcussa fideset multis utile bellum.
This samemultis utile bellumis an assured andinfalliblesignof a state disposed to seditions andtroubles. And if this poverty and broken estate inthe bettersortbe joined with a want and necessityin themean peoplethe danger is imminent andgreat. For the rebellions of the belly are the worst.As fordiscontentmentsthey arein the politicbodyliketo humors in the naturalwhich are aptto gathera preternatural heatand to inflame.And let noprince measure the danger of them bythiswhether they be just or unjust: for that wereto imaginepeopleto be too reasonable; who dooftenspurn at their own good: nor yet by thiswhetherthe griefs whereupon they risebe in factgreat orsmall: for they are the most dangerousdiscontentmentswhere the fear is greater thanthefeeling. Dolendi modustimendi non item.Besidesin great oppressionsthe same things thatprovokethe patiencedo withal mate the courage;but infears it is not so. Neither let any princeorstatebesecure concerning discontentmentsbe-cause theyhave been oftenor have been longandyet noperil hath ensued: for as it is truethat everyvapor orfume doth not turn into a storm; so it isneverthelesstruethat stormsthough they blowoverdivers timesyet may fall at last; andas theSpanishproverb noteth wellThe cord breaketh atthe lastby the weakest pull.
The causesand motives of seditions areinnova-tion inreligion; taxes; alteration of laws and cus-toms;breaking of privileges; general oppression;advancementof unworthy persons; strangers;dearths;disbanded soldiers; factions grown des-perate;and what soeverin offending peoplejoinethand knitteth them in a common cause.
For theremedies; there may be some generalpreservativeswhereof we will speak: as for thejust cureit must answer to the particular disease;and so beleft to counselrather than rule.
The firstremedy or prevention is to removebyall meanspossiblethat material cause of seditionwhereof wespake; which iswant and poverty intheestate. To which purpose serveth the openingandwell-balancing of trade; the cherishing ofmanufactures;the banishing of idleness; the re-pressingof wasteand excessby sumptuary laws;theimprovement and husbanding of the soil; theregulatingof prices of things vendible; the moder-ating oftaxes and tributes; and the like. Generallyit is tobe foreseen that the population of a king-dom(especially if it be not mown down by wars)do notexceed the stock of the kingdomwhichshouldmaintain them. Neither is the populationto bereckoned only by number; for a smaller num-berthatspend more and earn lessdo wear out anestatesoonerthan a greater number that livelowerandgather more. Therefore the multiply-ing ofnobilityand other degrees of qualityin anoverproportion to the common peopledoth speed-ily bringa state to necessity; and so doth likewiseanovergrown clergy; for they bring nothing tothe stock;and in like mannerwhen more are bredscholarsthan preferments can take off .
It islikewise to be rememberedthat forasmuchas theincrease of any estate must be upon theforeigner(for whatsoever is somewhere gottenissomewherelost)there be but three thingswhichone nationselleth unto another; the commodity asnatureyieldeth it; the manufacture; and the vec-tureorcarriage. So that if these three wheels gowealthwill flow as in a spring tide. And it comethmany timesto passthat materiam superabit opus;that thework and carriage is more worth than thematerialand enricheth a state more; as is notablyseen inthe Low-Countrymenwho have the bestminesabove groundin the world.
Above allthingsgood policy is to be usedthatthetreasure and moneysin a statebe not gath-ered intofew hands. For otherwise a state mayhave agreat stockand yet starve. And money islike mucknot good except it be spread. This isdonechiefly by suppressingor at least keepinga straithandupon the devouring trades of usuryingrossinggreat pasturagesand the like.
Forremoving discontentmentsor at least thedanger ofthem; there is in every state (as weknow) twoportions of subjects; the noblesse andthecommonalty. When one of these is discontentthe dangeris not great; for common people are ofslowmotionif they be not excited by the greatersort; andthe greater sort are of small strengthexcept themultitude be aptand ready to move ofthemselves. Then is the dangerwhen the greatersortdobut wait for the troubling of the watersamongstthe meanerthat then they may declarethemselves. The poets feignthat the rest of thegods wouldhave bound Jupiter; which he hearingofby thecounsel of Pallassent for Briareuswithhishundred handsto come in to his aid. An em-blemnodoubtto show how safe it is for mon-archstomake sure of the good will of commonpeople. To give moderate liberty for griefs and dis-contentmentsto evaporate (so it be without toogreatinsolency or bravery)is a safe way. For hethatturneth the humors backand maketh thewoundbleed inwardsendangereth malign ulcersandpernicious imposthumations.
The partof Epimetheus mought well becomePrometheusin the case of discontentments: forthere isnot a better provision against them. Epime-theuswhen griefs and evils flew abroadat lastshut thelidand kept hope in the bottom of thevessel. Certainlythe politic and artificial nourish-ingandentertaining of hopesand carrying menfrom hopesto hopesis one of the best antidotesagainstthe poison of discontentments. And it is acertainsign of a wise government and proceedingwhen itcan hold men's hearts by hopeswhen itcannot bysatisfaction; and when it can handlethingsinsuch manneras no evil shall appear soperemptorybut that it hath some outlet of hope;which isthe less hard to dobecause both particu-larpersons and factionsare apt enough to flatterthemselvesor at least to brave thatwhich theybelievenot.
Also theforesight and preventionthat there beno likelyor fit headwhereunto discontented per-sons mayresortand under whom they may joinis aknownbut an excellent point of caution. Iunderstanda fit headto be one that hath great-ness andreputation; that hath confidence withthediscontented partyand upon whom they turntheireyes; and that is thought discontentedin hisownparticular: which kind of personsare eitherto be wonand reconciled to the stateand that ina fast andtrue manner; or to be fronted with someotherofthe same partythat may oppose themand sodivide the reputation. Generallythe divid-ing andbreakingof all factions and combinationsthat areadverse to the stateand setting them atdistanceor at least distrustamongst themselvesis not oneof the worst remedies. For it is a desper-ate caseif those that hold with the proceeding ofthe statebe full of discord and factionand thosethat areagainst itbe entire and united.
I havenotedthat some witty and sharpspeecheswhich have fallen from princeshavegiven fireto seditions. Caesar did himself infinitehurt inthat speechSylla nescivit literasnon po-tuitdictare; for it did utterly cut off that hopewhich menhad entertainedthat he would at onetime orother give over his dictatorship. Galba un-didhimself by that speechlegi a se militemnonemi; forit put the soldiers out of hope of the dona-tive. Probus likewiseby that speechSi vixeronon opuserit amplius Romano imperio militibus;a speechof great despair for the soldiers. Andmany thelike. Surely princes had needin tendermattersand ticklish timesto beware what theysay;especially in these short speecheswhich flyabroadlike dartsand are thought to be shot out oftheirsecret intentions. For as for large discoursesthey areflat thingsand not so much noted.
Lastlylet princesagainst all eventsnot bewithoutsome great personone or rather moreofmilitaryvalornear unto themfor the repressingofseditions in their beginnings. For without thatthereuseth to be more trepidation in court uponthe firstbreaking out of troublesthan were fit.And thestate runneth the danger of that whichTacitussaith; Atque is habitus animorum fuitutpessimumfacinus auderent pauciplures vellentomnespaterentur. But let such military persons beassuredand well reputed ofrather than factiousandpopular; holding also good correspondencewith theother great men in the state; or else theremedyisworse than the disease.
I HADrather believe all the fables in the Leg-endandthe Talmudand the Alcoranthanthat thisuniversal frame is without a mind.AndthereforeGod never wrought miracletoconvinceatheismbecause his ordinary works con-vince it. It is truethat a little philosophy inclinethman's mindto atheism; but depth in philosophybringethmen's minds about to religion. For whilethe mindof man looketh upon second causes scat-tereditmay sometimes rest in themand go nofurther;but when it beholdeth the chain of themconfederateand linked togetherit must needs flytoProvidence and Deity. Nayeven that schoolwhich ismost accused of atheism doth most dem-onstratereligion; that isthe school of LeucippusandDemocritus and Epicurus. For it is a thousandtimes morecrediblethat four mutable elementsand oneimmutable fifth essenceduly and eter-nallyplacedneed no Godthan that an army ofinfinitesmall portionsor seeds unplacedshouldhaveproduced this order and beautywithout adivinemarshal. The Scripture saithThe fool hathsaid inhis heartthere is no God; it is not saidThefool haththought in his heart; so as he rather saithitbyrote to himselfas that he would havethanthat hecan thoroughly believe itor be persuadedof it. For none denythere is a Godbut thoseforwhom itmaketh that there were no God. It ap-peareth innothing morethat atheism is rather inthe lipthan in the heart of manthan by this; thatatheistswill ever be talking of that their opinionas if theyfainted in itwithin themselvesandwould beglad to be strengthenedby the consentofothers. Nay moreyou shall have atheists striveto getdisciplesas it fareth with other sects. Andwhich ismost of allyou shall have of themthatwillsuffer for atheismand not recant; whereas ifthey didtruly thinkthat there were no such thingas Godwhy should they trouble themselves? Epi-curus ischargedthat he did but dissemble for hiscredit'ssakewhen he affirmed there were blessednaturesbut such as enjoyed themselveswithouthavingrespect to the government of the world.Whereinthey say he did temporize; though insecrethethought there was no God. But certainlyhe istraduced; for his words are noble and divine:Non deosvulgi negare profanum; sed vulgi opini-ones diisapplicare profanum. Plato could havesaid nomore. And although he had the confidenceto denythe administrationhe had not the powerto denythe nature. The Indians of the Westhavenames fortheir particular godsthough they haveno namefor God: as if the heathens should havehad thenames JupiterApolloMarsetc.but notthe wordDeus; which shows that even those bar-barouspeople have the notionthough they havenot thelatitude and extent of it. So that againstatheiststhe very savages take partwith the verysubtlestphilosophers. The contemplative atheist israre: aDiagorasa Biona Lucian perhapsandsomeothers; and yet they seem to be more thanthey are;for that all that impugn a received re-ligionorsuperstitionare by the adverse partbrandedwith the name of atheists. But the greatatheistsindeed are hypocrites; which are everhandlingholy thingsbut without feeling; so asthey mustneeds be cauterized in the end. Thecauses ofatheism are: divisions in religionif theybe many;for any one main divisionaddeth zeal tobothsides; but many divisions introduce atheism.Anotherisscandal of priests; when it is come tothat whichSt. Bernard saithnon est jam dicereut populussic sacerdos; quia nec sic populus utsacerdos. A third iscustom of profane scoffing inholymatters; which dothby little and littlede-face thereverence of religion. And lastlylearnedtimesspecially with peace and prosperity; fortroublesand adversities do more bow men's mindstoreligion. They that deny a Goddestroy man'snobility;for certainly man is of kin to the beastsby hisbody; andif he be not of kin to Godby hisspiritheis a base and ignoble creature. It destroyslikewisemagnanimityand the raising of humannature;for take an example of a dogand markwhat agenerosity and courage he will put onwhen hefinds himself maintained by a man; whoto him isinstead of a Godor melior natura; whichcourage ismanifestly suchas that creaturewith-out thatconfidence of a better nature than his owncouldnever attain. So manwhen he resteth andassurethhimselfupon divine protection andfavorgathered a force and faithwhich humannature initself could not obtain. Thereforeasatheism isin all respects hatefulso in thisthat itdeprivethhuman nature of the means to exalt it-selfabove human frailty. As it is in particularpersonsso it is in nations. Never was there such astate formagnanimity as Rome. Of this state hearwhatCicero saith: Quam volumus licetpatres con-scriptinos amemustamen nec numero Hispanosnec roboreGallosnec calliditate Poenosnec arti-busGraecosnec denique hoc ipso hujus gentis etterraedomestico nativoque sensu Italos ipsos etLatinos;sed pietateac religioneatque hac unasapientiaquod deorum immortalium numineomnia regigubernarique perspeximusomnesgentesnationesque superavimus.
IT WEREbetter to have no opinion of God at allthan suchan opinionas is unworthy of him.For theone is unbeliefthe other is contumely;andcertainly superstition is the reproach of theDeity. Plutarch saith well to that purpose: Surely(saith he)I had rather a great dealmen shouldsaytherewas no such man at allas Plutarchthan thatthey should saythat there was one Plu-tarchthat would eat his children as soon as theywere born;as the poets speak of Saturn. And as thecontumelyis greater towards Godso the danger isgreatertowards men. Atheism leaves a man tosensetophilosophyto natural pietyto lawstoreputation;all which may be guides to an outwardmoralvirtuethough religion were not; but super-stitiondismounts all theseand erecteth an abso-lutemonarchyin the minds of men. Thereforetheism didnever perturb states; for it makes menwary ofthemselvesas looking no further: and wesee thetimes inclined to atheism (as the time ofAugustusCaesar) were civil times. But supersti-tion hathbeen the confusion of many statesandbringethin a new primum mobilethat ravishethall thespheres of government.The master of super-stitionis the people; and in all superstitionwisemen followfools; and arguments are fitted to prac-ticein areversed order. It was gravely said bysome ofthe prelates in the Council of Trentwherethedoctrine of the Schoolmen bare great swaythat theSchoolmen were like astronomerswhichdid feigneccentrics and epicyclesand such en-gines oforbsto save the phenomena; though theyknew therewere no such things; and in like man-nerthatthe Schoolmen had framed a number ofsubtle andintricate axiomsand theoremsto savethepractice of the church. The causes of supersti-tion are:pleasing and sensual rites and ceremonies;excess ofoutward and pharisaical holiness; over-greatreverence of traditionswhich cannot butload thechurch; the stratagems of prelatesfortheir ownambition and lucre; the favoring toomuch ofgood intentionswhich openeth the gatetoconceits and novelties; the taking an aim atdivinemattersby humanwhich cannot butbreedmixture of imaginations: andlastlybar-baroustimesespecially joined with calamitiesanddisasters. Superstitionwithout a veilis a de-formedthing; foras it addeth deformity to anapeto beso like a manso the similitude of super-stition toreligionmakes it the more deformed.And aswholesome meat corrupteth to little wormsso goodforms and orders corruptinto a number ofpettyobservances. There is a superstition in avoid-ingsuperstitionwhen men think to do bestif theygofurthest from the superstitionformerly re-ceived;therefore care would be had that (as itfareth inill purgings) the good be not taken awaywith thebad; which commonly is donewhen thepeople isthe reformer.
TRAVELinthe younger sortis a part of edu-cationinthe eldera part of experience. Hethattravelleth into a countrybefore he hath someentranceinto the languagegoeth to schoolandnot totravel. That young men travel under sometutororgrave servantI allow well; so that he besuch a onethat hath the languageand hath beenin thecountry before; whereby he may be ableto tellthem what things are worthy to be seeninthecountry where they go; what acquaintancesthey areto seek; what exercisesor disciplinetheplaceyieldeth. For elseyoung men shall gohoodedand look abroad little. It is a strange thingthat insea voyageswhere there is nothing to beseenbutsky and seamen should make diaries;but inland-travelwherein so much is to be ob-servedfor the most part they omit it; as if chancewerefitter to be registeredthan observation. Letdiariesthereforebe brought in use. The things tobe seenand observed are: the courts of princesespeciallywhen they give audience to ambassa-dors; thecourts of justicewhile they sit and hearcauses;and so of consistories ecclesiastic; thechurchesand monasterieswith the monumentswhich aretherein extant; the walls and fortifica-tions ofcitiesand townsand so the heavens andharbors;antiquities and ruins; libraries; collegesdisputationsand lectureswhere any are; ship-ping andnavies; houses and gardens of state andpleasurenear great cities; armories; arsenals;magazines;exchanges; burses; warehouses; exer-cises ofhorsemanshipfencingtraining of sol-diersandthe like; comediessuch whereunto thebettersort of persons do resort; treasuries of jewelsand robes;cabinets and rarities; andto concludewhatsoeveris memorablein the places wherethey go. After all whichthe tutorsor servantsought tomake diligent inquiry. As for triumphsmasksfeastsweddingsfuneralscapital execu-tionsandsuch showsmen need not to be put inmind ofthem; yet are they not to be neglected. Ifyou willhave a young man to put his travel into alittleroomand in short time to gather muchthisyou mustdo. Firstas was saidhe must have someentranceinto the language before he goeth. Thenhe musthave such a servantor tutoras knoweththecountryas was likewise said. Let him carrywith himalsosome card or bookdescribing thecountrywhere he travelleth; which will be a goodkey to hisinquiry. Let him keep also a diary. Lethim notstay longin one city or town; more or lessas theplace deservethbut not long; naywhen hestayeth inone city or townlet him change hislodgingfrom one end and part of the townto an-other;which is a great adamant of acquaintance.Let himsequester himselffrom the company ofhiscountrymenand diet in such placeswherethere isgood company of the nation where hetravelleth. Let himupon his removes from oneplace toanotherprocure recommendation to someperson ofqualityresiding in the place whither heremoveth;that he may use his favorin thosethings hedesireth to see or know. Thus he mayabridgehis travelwith much profit. As for theacquaintancewhich is to be sought in travel; thatwhich ismost of all profitableis acquaintancewith thesecretaries and employed men of ambas-sadors:for so in travelling in one countryhe shallsuck theexperience of many. Let him also seeandvisiteminent persons in all kindswhich are ofgreat nameabroad; that he may be able to tellhow thelife agreeth with the fame. For quarrelsthey arewith care and discretion to be avoided.They arecommonly for mistresseshealthsplaceandwords. And let a man beware how he keepethcompanywith choleric and quarrelsome persons;for theywill engage him into their own quarrels.When atraveller returneth homelet him notleave thecountrieswhere he hath travelledalto-getherbehind him; but maintain a correspond-ence byletterswith those of his acquaintancewhich areof most worth. And let his travel appearrather inhis discoursethan his apparel or gesture;and in hisdiscourselet him be rather advised inhisanswersthan forward to tell stories; and let itappearthat he doth not change his country man-nersforthose of foreign parts; but only prick insomeflowersof that he hath learned abroadintothecustoms of his own country.
IT IS amiserable state of mindto have fewthings todesireand many things to fear; andyet thatcommonly is the case of kings; whobeingat thehighestwant matter of desirewhich makestheirminds more languishing; and have many rep-resentationsof perils and shadowswhich makestheirminds the less clear. And this is one reasonalsoofthat effect which the Scripture speaketh ofThat theking's heart is inscrutable. For multitudeofjealousiesand lack of some predominant de-sirethatshould marshal and put in order all therestmaketh any man's hearthard to find orsound. Hence it comes likewisethat princes manytimes makethemselves desiresand set their heartsupon toys;sometimes upon a building; sometimesuponerecting of an order; sometimes upon the ad-vancing ofa person; sometimes upon obtainingexcellencyin some artor feat of the hand; as Neroforplaying on the harpDomitian for certaintyof thehand with the arrowCommodus for play-ing atfenceCaracalla for driving chariotsandthe like. This seemeth incredibleunto those thatknow notthe principlethat the mind of manismorecheered and refreshed by profiting in smallthingsthan by standing at a stayin great. We seealso thatkings that have been fortunate conquer-orsintheir first yearsit being not possible forthem to goforward infinitelybut that they musthave somecheckor arrest in their fortunesturnin theirlatter years to be superstitiousand melan-choly; asdid Alexander the Great; Diocletian; andin ourmemoryCharles the Fifth; and others: forhe that isused to go forwardand findeth a stopfallethout of his own favorand is not the thinghe was.
To speaknow of the true temper of empireit isa thingrare and hard to keep; for both temperanddistemperconsist of contraries. But it is one thingto minglecontrariesanother to interchange them.The answerof Apollonius to Vespasianis full ofexcellentinstruction. Vespasian asked himWhatwas Nero'soverthrow? He answeredNero couldtouch andtune the harp well; but in governmentsometimeshe used to wind the pins too highsome-times tolet them down too low. And certain it isthatnothing destroyeth authority so muchas theunequaland untimely interchange of powerpressedtoo farand relaxed too much.
This istruethat the wisdom of all these lattertimesinprinces' affairsis rather fine deliveriesandshiftings of dangers and mischiefswhen theyare nearthan solid and grounded courses to keepthemaloof. But this is but to try masteries withfortune. And let men bewarehow they neglectand suffermatter of trouble to be prepared; for noman canforbid the sparknor tell whence it maycome. The difficulties in princes' business are manyand great;but the greatest difficultyis often intheir ownmind. For it is common with princes(saithTacitus) to will contradictoriesSunt pler-umqueregum voluntates vehementeset inter secontrariae. For it is the solecism of powerto thinkto commandthe endand yet not to endure themean.
Kings haveto deal with their neighborstheirwivestheir childrentheir prelates or clergytheirnoblestheir second-nobles or gentlementheirmerchantstheir commonsand their men of war;and fromall these arise dangersif care and cir-cumspectionbe not used.
First fortheir neighbors; there can no generalrule begiven (for occasions are so variable)saveonewhichever holdethwhich isthat princes dokeep duesentinelthat none of their neighbors doever growso (by increase of territoryby embrac-ing oftradeby approachesor the like)as theybecomemore able to annoy themthan they were.And thisis generally the work of standing coun-selstoforesee and to hinder it. During that trium-virate ofkingsKing Henry the Eighth of EnglandFrancisthe First King of Franceand Charles theFifthEmperorthere was such a watch keptthatnone ofthe three could win a palm of groundbutthe othertwo would straightways balance iteither byconfederationorif need wereby a war;and wouldnot in any wise take up peace at inter-est. And the like was done by that league (whichGuicciardinisaith was the security of Italy) madebetweenFerdinando King of NaplesLorenziusMediciand Ludovicus Sforzapotentatesthe oneofFlorencethe other of Milan. Neither is the opin-ion ofsome of the Schoolmento be receivedthat awar cannotjustly be madebut upon a precedentinjury orprovocation. For there is no questionbuta justfear of an imminent dangerthough there beno blowgivenis a lawful cause of a war.
For theirwives; there are cruel examples ofthem. Livia is infamedfor the poisoning of herhusband;RoxalanaSolyman's wifewas thedestructionof that renowned princeSultan Mus-taphaandotherwise troubled his house and suc-cession;Edward the Second of Englandhis queenhad theprincipal hand in the deposing and mur-der of herhusband. This kind of dangeris then tobe fearedchieflywhen the wives have plotsfortheraising of their own children; or else that theybeadvoutresses.
For theirchildren; the tragedies likewise ofdangersfrom themhave been many. And gen-erallythe entering of fathers into suspicion oftheirchildrenhath been ever unfortunate. Thedestructionof Mustapha (that we named before)was sofatal to Solyman's lineas the succession ofthe Turksfrom Solyman until this dayis sus-pected tobe untrueand of strange blood; for thatSelymusthe Secondwas thought to be supposi-tious. The destruction of Crispusa young prince ofraretowardnessby Constantinus the Greathisfatherwas in like manner fatal to his house; forbothConstantinus and Constancehis sonsdiedviolentdeaths; and Constantiushis other sondidlittlebetter; who died indeed of sicknessbut afterthatJulianus had taken arms against him. The de-structionof Demetriusson to Philip the Second ofMacedonturned upon the fatherwho died ofrepentance. And many like examples there are;but few ornonewhere the fathers had good bysuchdistrust; except it werewhere the sons wereup in openarms against them; as was Selymus theFirstagainst Bajazet; and the three sons of HenrytheSecondKing of England.
For theirprelates; when they are proud andgreatthere is also danger from them; as it was inthe timesof Anselmusand Thomas BecketArch-bishops ofCanterbury; whowith their croziersdid almosttry it with the king's sword; and yetthey hadto deal with stout and haughty kingsWilliamRufusHenry the Firstand Henry theSecond. The danger is not from that statebutwhere ithath a dependence of foreign authority;or wherethe churchmen come in and are electednot by thecollation of the kingor particularpatronsbut by the people.
For theirnobles; to keep them at a distanceit isnot amiss;but to depress themmay make a kingmoreabsolutebut less safe; and less able to per-formanything that he desires. I have noted itinmy Historyof King Henry the Seventh of Eng-landwhodepressed bis nobility; whereupon itcame topassthat his times were full of difficultiesandtroubles; for the nobilitythough they con-tinuedloyal unto himyet did they not co-operatewith himin his business. So that in effecthe wasfain to doall things himself.
For theirsecond-nobles; there is not much dan-ger fromthembeing a body dispersed. They maysometimesdiscourse highbut that doth little hurt;besidesthey are a counterpoise to the higher no-bilitythat they grow not too potent; andlastlybeing themost immediate in authoritywith thecommonpeoplethey do best temper popular com-motions.
For theirmerchants; they are vena porta; andif theyflourish nota kingdom may have goodlimbsbutwill have empty veinsand nourishlittle. Taxes and imposts upon themdo seldomgood tothe king's revenue; for that that he wins inthehundredhe leeseth in the shire; the particularratesbeing increasedbut the total bulk of tradingratherdecreased.
For theircommons; there is little danger fromthemexcept it bewhere they have great and po-tentheads; or where you meddle with the point ofreligionor their customsor means of life.
For theirmen of war; it is a dangerous statewhere theylive and remain in a bodyand areused todonatives; whereof we see examples in thejanizariesand pretorian bands of Rome; but train-ings ofmenand arming them in several placesand underseveral commandersand withoutdonativesare things of defenceand no danger.
Princesare like to heavenly bodieswhich causegood orevil times; and which have much venera-tionbutno rest. All precepts concerning kingsare ineffect comprehended in those two remem-brances:memento quod es homo; and mementoquod esDeusor vice Dei; the one bridleth theirpowerandthe other their will.
THEgreatest trustbetween man and manisthe trustof giving counsel. For in other con-fidencesmen commit the parts of life; their landstheirgoodstheir childrentheir creditsome par-ticularaffair; but to such as they make their coun-sellorsthey commit the whole: by how much themoretheyare obliged to all faith and integrity.The wisestprinces need not think it any diminu-tion totheir greatnessor derogation to their suf-ficiencyto rely upon counsel. God himself is notwithoutbut hath made it one of the great namesof hisblessed Son: The Counsellor. Solomon hathpronouncedthat in counsel is stability. Thingswill havetheir firstor second agitation: if they benot tossedupon the arguments of counseltheywill betossed upon the waves of fortune; and befull ofinconstancydoing and undoinglike thereeling ofa drunken man. Solomon's son foundthe forceof counselas his father saw the necessityof it. For the beloved kingdom of Godwas firstrentandbrokenby ill counsel; upon which coun-selthereare set for our instructionthe two markswherebybad counsel is for ever best discerned;that itwas young counselfor the person; andviolentcounselfor the matter.
Theancient timesdo set forth in figureboththeincorporationand inseparable conjunctionofcounselwith kingsand the wise and politic use ofcounsel bykings: the onein that they say Jupi-ter didmarry Metiswhich signifieth counsel;wherebythey intend that Sovereigntyis marriedtoCounsel: the other in that which followethwhich wasthus: They sayafter Jupiter was mar-ried toMetisshe conceived by himand was withchildbutJupiter suffered her not to staytill shebroughtforthbut eat her up; whereby he becamehimselfwith childand was delivered of Pallasarmedoutof his head. Which monstrous fablecontainetha secret of empire; how kings are tomake useof their counsel of state. That firsttheyought torefer matters unto themwhich is the firstbegettingor impregnation; but when they areelaboratemouldedand shaped in the womb oftheircounseland grow ripeand ready to bebroughtforththat then they suffer not their coun-sel to gothrough with the resolution and direc-tionasif it depended on them; but take the matterback intotheir own handsand make it appear tothe worldthat the decrees and final directions(whichbecause they come forthwith prudenceand powerare resembled to Pallas armed) pro-ceededfrom themselves; and not only from theirauthoritybut (the more to add reputation to them-selves)from their head and device.
Let us nowspeak of the inconveniences of coun-selandof the remedies. The inconveniences thathave beennotedin calling and using counselarethree. Firstthe revealing of affairswhereby theybecomeless secret. Secondlythe weakening of theauthorityof princesas if they were less of them-selves. Thirdlythe danger of being unfaithfullycounselledand more for the good of them thatcounselthan of him that is counselled. For whichinconveniencesthe doctrine of Italyand practiceof Francein some kings' timeshath introducedcabinetcounsels; a remedy worse than the disease.
As tosecrecy; princes are not bound to commu-nicate allmatterswith all counsellors; but mayextractand select. Neither is it necessarythat hethatconsulteth what he should doshould declarewhat hewill do. But let princes bewarethat theunsecretingof their affairscomes not from them-selves. And as for cabinet counselsit may be theirmottoplenus rimarum sum: one futile personthatmaketh it his glory to tellwill do more hurtthan manythat know it their duty to conceal. It istrue therebe some affairswhich require extremesecrecywhich will hardly go beyond one or twopersonsbesides the king: neither are those coun-selsunprosperous; forbesides the secrecytheyconunonlygo on constantlyin one spirit of direc-tionwithout distraction. But then it must be aprudentkingsuch as is able to grind with a hand-mill; andthose inward counsellors had need alsobe wisemenand especially true and trusty to theking'sends; as it was with King Henry the SeventhofEnglandwhoin his great businessimpartedhimself tononeexcept it were to Morton and Fox.
Forweakening of authority; the fable showeththeremedy. Naythe majesty of kingsis ratherexaltedthan diminishedwhen they are in thechair ofcounsel; neither was there ever princebe-reaved ofhis dependencesby his counselexceptwherethere hath beeneither an over-greatnessin onecounselloror an over-strict combination indivers;which are things soon foundand holpen.
For thelast inconveniencethat men will coun-selwithan eye to themselves; certainlynoninvenietfidem super terram is meantof the na-ture oftimesand not of all particular persons.There bethat are in nature faithfuland sincereand plainand direct; not crafty and involved; letprincesabove alldraw to themselves such na-tures. Besidescounsellors are not commonly sounitedbut that one counsellorkeepeth sentineloveranother; so that if any do counsel out of fac-tion orprivate endsit commonly comes to theking'sear. But the best remedy isif princes knowtheircounsellorsas well as their counsellorsknow them:
Principisest virtus maxima nosse suos.
And on theother sidecounsellors should not betoospeculative into their sovereign's person. Thetruecomposition of a counselloris rather to beskilful intheir master's businessthan in his na-ture; forthen he is like to advise himand not feedhishumor. It is of singular use to princesif theytake theopinions of their counselboth separatelyandtogether. For private opinion is more free;butopinion before othersis more reverent. Inprivatemen are more bold in their own humors;and inconsortmen are more obnoxious to others'humors;therefore it is good to take both; and oftheinferior sortrather in privateto preserve free-dom; ofthe greaterrather in consortto preserverespect. It is in vain for princesto take counselconcerningmattersif they take no counsel like-wiseconcerning persons; for all matters are asdeadimages; and the life of the execution of af-fairsresteth in the good choice of persons. Neitheris itenoughto consult concerning persons secun-dumgeneraas in an ideaor mathematical de-scriptionwhat the kind and character of thepersonshould be; for the greatest errors are com-mittedand the most judgment is shownin thechoice ofindividuals. It was truly saidoptimi con-siliariimortui: books will speak plainwhen coun-sellorsblanch.Therefore it is good to be conversantin themspecially the books of such as themselveshave beenactors upon the stage.
Thecounsels at this dayin most placesare butfamiliarmeetingswhere matters are rather talkedonthandebated. And they run too swiftto theorderoractof counsel. It were better that incauses ofweightthe matter were propounded onedayandnot spoken to till the next day; in nocteconsilium. So was it done in the Commission ofUnionbetween England and Scotland; whichwas agrave and orderly assembly. I commend setdays forpetitions; for both it gives the sudtors morecertaintyfor their attendanceand it frees themeetingsfor matters of estatethat they may hocagere. In choice of committees; for ripening busi-ness forthe counselit is better to choose indifferentpersonsthan to make an indifferencyby puttingin thosethat are strong on both sides. I commendalsostanding commissions; as for tradefor treas-ureforwarfor suitsfor some provinces; forwherethere be divers particular counselsand butonecounsel of estate (as it is in Spain)they areineffectnomore than standing commissions: savethat theyhave greater authority. Let such as areto informcounselsout of their particular profes-sions (aslawyersseamenmintmenand the like)be firstheard before committees; and thenas oc-casionservesbefore the counsel. And let them notcome inmultitudesor in a tribunitious manner;for thatis to clamor counselsnot to inform them.A longtable and a square tableor seats about thewallsseem things of formbut are things of sub-stance;for at a long table a few at the upper endineffectsway all the business; but in the other formthere ismore use of the counsellors' opinionsthatsitlower. A kingwhen he presides in counsellethim bewarehow he opens his own inclination toomuchinthat which he propoundeth; for elsecounsellorswill but take the wind of himand in-stead ofgiving free counselsing him a song ofplacebo.
FORTUNE islike the market; where manytimes ifyou can stay a littlethe price will fall.Againitis sometimes like Sibylla's offer; which atfirstoffereth the commodity at fullthen con-sumethpart and partand still holdeth up theprice. For occasion (as it is in the common verse)turneth abald noddleafter she hath presented herlocks infrontand no hold taken; or at least turneththe handleof the bottlefirst to be receivedandafter thebellywhich is hard to clasp. There issurely nogreater wisdomthan well to time thebeginningsand onsetsof things. Dangers are nomorelightif they once seem light; and more dan-gers havedeceived menthan forced them. Nayit werebetterto meet some dangers half waythoughthey come nothing nearthan to keep toolong awatch upon their approaches; for if a manwatch toolongit is odds he will fall asleep. On theothersideto be deceived with too long shadows(as somehave beenwhen the moon was lowandshone ontheir enemies' back)and so to shoot offbefore thetime; or to teach dangers to come onbyover earlybuckling towards them; is another ex-treme. The ripenessor unripenessof the occasion(as wesaid) must ever be well weighed; and gener-ally it isgoodto commit the beginnings of allgreatactions to Arguswith his hundred eyesandthe endsto Briareuswith his hundred hands; firstto watchand then to speed. For the helmet ofPlutowhich maketh the politic man go invisibleis secrecyin the counseland celerity in the execu-tion. For when things are once come to the execu-tionthere is no secrecycomparable to celerity;like themotion of a bullet in the airwhich fliethso swiftas it outruns the eye.
WE TAKEcunning for a sinister or crookedwisdom. And certainly there is a great dif-ferencebetween a cunning manand a wise man;not onlyin point of honestybut in point of ability.There bethat can pack the cardsand yet cannotplay well;so there are some that are good in can-vasses andfactionsthat are otherwise weak men.Againitis one thing to understand personsandanotherthing to understand matters; for manyareperfect in men's humorsthat are not greatlycapable ofthe real part of business; which is theconstitutionof one that hath studied menmorethanbooks. Such men are fitter for practicethanforcounsel; and they are goodbut in their ownalley:turn them to new menand they have losttheir aim;so as the old ruleto know a fool from awise manMitte ambos nudos ad ignotoset vide-bisdothscarce hold for them. And because thesecunningmenare like haberdashers of smallwaresitis not amiss to set forth their shop.
It is apoint of cunningto wait upon him withwhom youspeakwith your eye; as the Jesuits giveit inprecept: for there be many wise menthathavesecret heartsand transparent countenances.Yet thiswould be done with a demure abasing ofyour eyesometimesas the Jesuits also do use.
Anotheristhat when you have anything toobtainofpresent despatchyou entertain andamuse thepartywith whom you dealwith someotherdiscourse; that he be not too much awake tomakeobjections. I knew a counsellor and secre-tarythatnever came to Queen Elizabeth of Eng-landwithbills to signbut he would always firstput herinto some discourse of estatethat shemought theless mind the bills.
The likesurprise may be made by movingthingswhen the party is in hasteand cannot staytoconsider advisedly of that is moved.
If a manwould cross a businessthat he doubtssome otherwould handsomely and effectuallymovelethim pretend to wish it welland move ithimself insuch sort as may foil it.
Thebreaking offin the midst of that one wasabout tosayas if he took himself upbreeds agreaterappetite in him with whom you confertoknow more.
Andbecause it works betterwhen anythingseemeth tobe gotten from you by questionthanif youoffer it of yourselfyou may lay a bait for aquestionby showing another visageand counte-nancethan you are wont; to the end to give occa-sionforthe party to askwhat the matter is of thechange? AsNehemias did; And I had not beforethat timebeen sad before the king.
In thingsthat are tender and unpleasingit isgood tobreak the iceby some whose words are oflessweightand to reserve the more weighty voiceto come inas by chanceso that he may be askedthequestion upon the other's speech: as Narcissusdidrelating to Claudius the marriage of Messa-lina andSilius.
In thingsthat a man would not be seen in him-selfitis a point of cunningto borrow the name ofthe world;as to sayThe world saysor There is aspeechabroad.
I knew onethatwhen he wrote a letterhewould putthatwhich was most materialin thepostscriptas if it had been a by-matter.
I knewanother thatwhen he came to havespeechhewould pass over thatthat he intendedmost; andgo forthand come back againandspeak ofit as of a thingthat he had almost forgot.
Someprocure themselvesto be surprisedatsuch timesas it is like the party that they workuponwillsuddenly come upon them; and to befound witha letter in their handor doing some-what whichthey are not accustomed; to the endthey maybe apposed of those thingswhich ofthemselvesthey are desirous to utter.
It is apoint of cunningto let fall those words ina man'sown namewhich he would have anotherman learnand useand thereupon take advan-tage. I knew twothat were competitors for thesecretary'splace in Queen Elizabeth's timeandyet keptgood quarter between themselves; andwouldconferone with anotherupon the busi-ness; andthe one of them saidThat to be a secre-taryinthe declination of a monarchywas aticklishthingand that he did not affect it: theotherstraight caught up those wordsand dis-coursedwith divers of his friendsthat he had noreason todesire to be secretaryin the declinationof amonarchy. The first man took hold of itandfoundmeans it was told the Queen; whohearingof adeclination of a monarchytook it so illas shewouldnever after hear of the other's suit.
There is acunningwhich we in England calltheturning of the cat in the pan; which iswhenthat whicha man says to anotherhe lays it as ifanotherhad said it to him. And to say truthit isnot easywhen such a matter passed between twoto make itappear from which of them it firstmoved andbegan.
It is away that some men haveto glance anddart atothersby justifying themselves by nega-tives; asto sayThis I do not; as Tigellinus didtowardsBurrhusSe non diversas spes sed incolu-mitatemimperatoris simpliciter spectare.
Some havein readiness so many tales andstoriesas there is nothing they would insinuatebut theycan wrap it into a tale; which serveth bothto keepthemselves more in guardand to makeotherscarry it with more pleasure. It is a goodpoint ofcunningfor a man to shape the answerhe wouldhavein his own words and propositions;for itmakes the other party stick the less.
It isstrange how long some men will lie in waitto speaksomewhat they desire to say; and how farabout theywill fetch; and how many other mat-ters theywill beat overto come near it. It is a thingof greatpatiencebut yet of much use.
A suddenboldand unexpected question dothmany timessurprise a manand lay him open.Like tohim thathaving changed his nameandwalking inPaul'sanother suddenly came behindhimandcalled him by his true namewhereatstraightwayshe looked back.
But thesesmall waresand petty pointsof cun-ningareinfinite; and it were a good deed to makea list ofthem; for that nothing doth more hurt ina statethan that cunning men pass for wise.
Butcertainly some there are that know the re-sorts andfalls of businessthat cannot sink intothe mainof it; like a house that hath convenientstairs andentriesbut never a fair room. Thereforeyou shallsee them find out pretty looses in the con-clusionbut are no ways able to examine or debatematters. And yet commonly they take advantageof theirinabilityand would be thought wits ofdirection. Some build rather upon the abusing ofothersand (as we now say) putting tricks uponthemthanupon soundness of their own proceed-ings. But Solomon saithPrudens advertit ad gres-sussuos; stultus divertit ad dolos.
OfWisdomfor aManís Self
AN ANT isa wise creature for itselfbut it is a shrewdthingin an orchard or garden. Andcertainlymen that are great lovers of themselveswaste thepublic. Divide with reason; between self-love andsociety; and be so true to thyselfas thoube notfalse to others; specially to thy king andcountry. It is a poor centre of a man's actionshim-self. It is right earth. For that only stands fast uponhis owncentre; whereas all thingsthat have af-finitywith the heavensmove upon the centre ofanotherwhich they benefit. The referring of allto a man'sselfis more tolerable in a sovereignprince;because themselves are not only them-selvesbut their good and evil is at the peril of thepublicfortune. But it is a desperate evilin a ser-vant to aprinceor a citizen in a republic. Forwhatsoeveraffairs pass such a man's handshecrookeththem to his own ends; which must needsbe ofteneccentric to the ends of his masteror state.Thereforelet princesor stateschoose such ser-vantsashave not this mark; except they meantheirservice should be made but the accessory.That whichmaketh the effect more perniciousisthat allproportion is lost. It were disproportionenoughfor the servant's good to be preferred be-fore themaster's; but yet it is a greater extremewhen alittle good of the servantshall carry thingsagainst agreat good of the master's. And yet thatis thecase of bad officerstreasurersambassadorsgeneralsand other false and corrupt servants;which seta bias upon their bowlof their ownpetty endsand enviesto the overthrow of theirmaster'sgreat and important affairs. And for themost partthe good such servants receiveis afterthe modelof their own fortune; but the hurt theysell forthat goodis after the model of theirmaster'sfortune. And certainly it is the nature ofextremeself-loversas they will set an house on fireand itwere but to roast their eggs; and yet thesemen manytimes hold credit with their mastersbecausetheir study is but to please themand profitthemselves;and for either respectthey will aban-don thegood of their affairs.
Wisdom fora man's self isin many branchesthereofadepraved thing. It is the wisdom of ratsthat willbe sure to leave a housesomewhat beforeit fall. It is the wisdom of the foxthat thrusts outthebadgerwho digged and made room for him.It is thewisdom of crocodilesthat shed tears whenthey woulddevour. But that which is specially tobe notedisthat those which (as Cicero says ofPompey)are sui amantessine rivaliare manytimesunfortunate. And whereas they havealltheirtimessacrificed to themselvesthey becomein theendthemselves sacrifices to the inconstancyoffortunewhose wings they thoughtby theirself-wisdomto have pinioned.
AS THEbirths of living creaturesat first are ill-shapensoare all innovationswhich are thebirths oftime. Yet notwithstandingas those thatfirstbring honor into their familyare commonlymoreworthy than most that succeedso the firstprecedent(if it be good) is seldom attained byimitation. For illto man's natureas it standspervertedhath a natural motionstrongest in con-tinuance;but goodas a forced motionstrongestat first. Surely every medicine is an innovation;and hethat will not apply new remediesmustexpect newevils; for time is the greatest innovator;and iftime of course alter things to the worseandwisdom andcounsel shall not alter them to thebetterwhat shall be the end? It is truethat whatis settledby customthough it be not goodyet atleast itis fit; and those things which have longgonetogetherareas it wereconfederate withinthemselves;whereas new things piece not so well;but thoughthey help by their utilityyet theytrouble bytheir inconformity. Besidesthey arelikestrangers; more admiredand less favored. Allthis istrueif time stood still; which contrariwisemoveth soroundthat a froward retention of cus-tomis asturbulent a thing as an innovation; andthey thatreverence too much old timesare but ascorn tothe new. It were goodthereforethat menin theirinnovations would follow the example oftimeitself; which indeed innovateth greatlybutquietlyby degrees scarce to be perceived. Forotherwisewhatsoever is new is unlooked for; andever itmends someand pairs others; and he thatis holpentakes it for a fortuneand thanks thetime; andhe that is hurtfor a wrongand imput-eth it tothe author. It is good alsonot to try experi-ments instatesexcept the necessity be urgentortheutility evident; and well to bewarethat it bethereformationthat draweth on the changeandnot thedesire of changethat pretendeth the refor-mation. And lastlythat the noveltythough it benotrejectedyet be held for a suspect; andas theScripturesaiththat we make a stand upon theancientwayand then look about usand discoverwhat isthe straight and right wayand so to walkin it.
AFFECTEDdispatch is one of the most danger-ous thingsto business that can be. It is likethatwhich the physicians call predigestionorhastydigestion; which is sure to fill the body full ofcruditiesand secret seeds of diseases. Thereforemeasurenot dispatchby the times of sittingbutby theadvancement of the business. And as inraces itis not the large stride or high lift that makesthe speed;so in businessthe keeping close to thematterand not taking of it too much at oncepro-curethdispatch. It is the care of someonly to comeoffspeedily for the time; or to contrive some falseperiods ofbusinessbecause they may seem menofdispatch. But it is one thingto abbreviate bycontractinganother by cutting off . And businesssohandledat several sittings or meetingsgoethcommonlybackward and forward in an unsteadymanner. I knew a wise man that had it for a by-wordwhenhe saw men hasten to a conclusionStay alittlethat we may make an end the sooner.
On theother sidetrue dispatch is a rich thing.For timeis the measure of businessas money isof wares;and business is bought at a dear handwherethere is small dispatch. The Spartans andSpaniardshave been noted to be of small dispatch;Mi vengala muerte de Spagna; Let my death comefromSpain; for then it will be sure to be long incoming.
Give goodhearing to thosethat give the firstinformationin business; and rather direct themin thebeginningthan interrupt them in the con-tinuanceof their speeches; for he that is put out ofhis ownorderwill go forward and backwardandbe moretediouswhile he waits upon his memorythan hecould have beenif he had gone on in hisowncourse. But sometimes it is seenthat themoderatoris more troublesomethan the actor.
Iterationsare commonly loss of time. But thereis no suchgain of timeas to iterate often the stateof thequestion; for it chaseth away many a frivo-lousspeechas it is coming forth. Long and curiousspeechesare as fit for dispatchas a robe or mantlewith along trainis for race. Prefaces and pas-sagesandexcusationsand other speeches of refer-ence tothe personare great wastes of time; andthoughthey seem to proceed of modestythey arebravery. Yet beware of being too materialwhenthere isany impediment or obstruction in men'swills; forpre-occupation of mind ever requirethpreface ofspeech; like a fomentation to make theunguententer.
Above allthingsorderand distributionandsinglingout of partsis the life of dispatch; so as thedistributionbe not too subtle: for he that doth notdividewill never enter well into business; and hethatdivideth too muchwill never come out of itclearly. To choose timeis to save time; and an un-seasonablemotionis but beating the air. There bethreeparts of business; the preparationthe debateorexaminationand the perfection. Whereofifyou lookfor dispatchlet the middle only be thework ofmanyand the first and last the work offew. The proceeding upon somewhat conceived inwritingdoth for the most part facilitate dispatch:for thoughit should be wholly rejectedyet thatnegativeis more pregnant of directionthan anindefinite;as ashes are more generative than dust.
IT HATHbeen an opinionthat the French arewiser thanthey seemand the Spaniards seemwiser thanthey are. But howsoever it be betweennationscertainly it is so between man and man.For as theApostle saith of godlinessHaving ashow ofgodlinessbut denying the power thereof;socertainly there arein point of wisdom and suf-ficientlythat do nothing or little very solemnly:magnoconatu nugas. It is a ridiculous thingandfit for asatire to persons of judgmentto see whatshiftsthese formalists haveand what prospectivesto makesuperficies to seem bodythat hath depthand bulk. Some are so close and reservedas theywill notshow their waresbut by a dark light; andseemalways to keep back somewhat; and whenthey knowwithin themselvesthey speak of thatthey donot well knowwould nevertheless seemto othersto know of that which they may not wellspeak. Some help themselves with countenanceandgestureand are wise by signs; as Cicero saithof Pisothat when he answered himhe fetchedone of hisbrows up to his foreheadand bent theother downto his chin; Respondesaltero ad fron-temsublato altero ad mentum depresso super-ciliocrudelitatem tibi non placere. Some thinkto bear itby speaking a great wordand being per-emptory;and go onand take by admittancethatwhich theycannot make good. Somewhatsoeveris beyondtheir reachwill seem to despiseor makelight ofitas impertinent or curious; and so wouldhave theirignorance seem judgment. Some areneverwithout a differenceand commonly byamusingmen with a subtiltyblanch the matter;of whom A.Gellius saithHominem delirumquiverborumminutiis rerum frangit pondera. Ofwhich kindalsoPlatoin his Protagorasbringethin Prodiusin scornand maketh him make aspeechthat consisteth of distinction from the be-ginning tothe end. Generallysuch men in alldeliberationsfind ease to be of the negative sideand affecta credit to object and foretell difficul-ties; forwhen propositions are deniedthere is anend ofthem; but if they be allowedit requireth anew work;which false point of wisdom is the baneofbusiness. To concludethere is no decaying mer-chantorinward beggarhath so many tricks touphold thecredit of their wealthas these emptypersonshaveto maintain the credit of their suf-ficiency. Seeming wise men may make shift to getopinion;but let no man choose them for employ-ment; forcertainly you were better take for busi-nessaman somewhat absurdthan over-formal.
IT HADbeen hard for him that spake it to haveput moretruth and untruth together in fewwordsthan in that speechWhatsoever is delightedinsolitudeis either a wild beast or a god. For it ismost truethat a natural and secret hatredandaversationtowards societyin any manhathsomewhatof the savage beast; but it is most un-truethatit should have any character at allof thedivinenature; except it proceednot out of a pleas-ure insolitudebut out of a love and desire tosequestera man's selffor a higher conversation:such as isfound to have been falsely and feignedlyin some ofthe heathen; as Epimenides the Can-dianNumathe RomanEmpedocles the SicilianandApollonius of Tyana; and truly and reallyindivers ofthe ancient hermits and holy fathers ofthechurch. But little do men perceive what soli-tude isand how far it extendeth. For a crowd isnotcompany; and faces are but a gallery of pic-tures; andtalk but a tinkling cymbalwherethere isno love. The Latin adage meeteth with it alittle:Magna civitasmagna solitudo; because ina greattown friends are scattered; so that there isnot thatfellowshipfor the most partwhich is inlessneighborhoods. But we may go furtherandaffirmmost trulythat it is a mere and miserablesolitudeto want true friends; without which theworld isbut a wilderness; and even in this sensealso ofsolitudewhosoever in the frame of hisnature andaffectionsis unfit for friendshiphetaketh itof the beastand not from humanity.
Aprincipal fruit of friendshipis the ease anddischargeof the fulness and swellings of the heartwhichpassions of all kinds do cause and induce.We knowdiseases of stoppingsand suffocationsare themost dangerous in the body; and it is notmuchotherwise in the mind; you may take sarzato openthe liversteel to open the spleenflowersof sulphurfor the lungscastoreum for the brain;but noreceipt openeth the heartbut a true friend;to whomyou may impart griefsjoysfearshopessuspicionscounselsand whatsoever lieth uponthe heartto oppress itin a kind of civil shrift orconfession.
It is astrange thing to observehow high a rategreatkings and monarchs do set upon this fruit offriendshipwhereof we speak: so greatas theypurchaseitmany timesat the hazard of theirown safetyand greatness. For princesin regardof thedistance of their fortune from that of theirsubjectsand servantscannot gather this fruitex-cept (tomake themselves capable thereof) theyraise somepersons to beas it werecompanionsand almostequals to themselveswhich manytimessorteth to inconvenience. The modern lan-guagesgive unto such persons the name of favor-itesorprivadoes; as if it were matter of graceorconversation. But the Roman name attaineth thetrue useand cause thereofnaming them parti-cipescurarum; for it is that which tieth the knot.And we seeplainly that this hath been donenotby weakand passionate princes onlybut by thewisest andmost politic that ever reigned; whohaveoftentimes joined to themselves some oftheirservants; whom both themselves have calledfriendsand allowed other likewise to call them inthe samemanner; using the word which is re-ceivedbetween private men.
L. Syllawhen he commanded RomeraisedPompey(after surnamed the Great) to that heightthatPompey vaunted himself for Sylla's over-match. For when he had carried the consulship fora friendof hisagainst the pursuit of Syllaandthat Sylladid a little resent thereatand began tospeakgreatPompey turned upon him againandin effectbade him be quiet; for that more menadored thesun risingthan the sun setting. WithJuliusCaesarDecimus Brutus had obtained thatinterestas he set him down in his testamentforheir inremainderafter his nephew. And this wasthe manthat had power with himto draw himforth tohis death. For when Caesar would havedischargedthe senatein regard of some ill pres-agesandspecially a dream of Calpurnia; thisman liftedhim gently by the arm out of his chairtellinghim he hoped he would not dismiss thesenatetill his wife had dreamt a better dream.And itseemeth his favor was so greatas Antoniusin aletter which is recited verbatim in one ofCicero'sPhilippicscalleth him veneficawitch;as if hehad enchanted Caesar. Augustus raisedAgrippa(though of mean birth) to that heightaswhen heconsulted with Maecenasabout the mar-riage ofhis daughter JuliaMaecenas took theliberty totell himthat he must either marry hisdaughterto Agrippaor take away his life; therewas nothird wayhe had made him so great. WithTiberiusCaesarSejanus had ascended to thatheightasthey two were termedand reckonedasa pair offriends. Tiberius in a letter to him saithHaec proamicitia nostra non occultavi; and thewholesenate dedicated an altar to Friendshipasto agoddessin respect of the great dearness offriendshipbetween them two. The likeor morewasbetween Septimius Severus and Plautianus.For heforced his eldest son to marry the daughterofPlautianus; and would often maintain Plau-tianusindoing affronts to his son; and did writealso in aletter to the senateby these words: I lovethe man sowellas I wish he may over-live me.Now ifthese princes had been as a Trajanor aMarcusAureliusa man might have thought thatthis hadproceeded of an abundant goodness ofnature;but being men so wiseof such strengthandseverity of mindand so extreme lovers ofthemselvesas all these wereit proveth mostplainlythat they found their own felicity (thoughas greatas ever happened to mortal men) but asan halfpieceexcept they mought have a friendto make itentire; and yetwhich is moretheywereprinces that had wivessonsnephews; andyet allthese could not supply the comfort of friend-ship.
It is notto be forgottenwhat Comineus observ-eth of hisfirst masterDuke Charles the Hardynamelythat he would communicate his secretswith none;and least of allthose secrets whichtroubledhim most. Whereupon he goeth onandsaith thattowards his latter timethat closenessdidimpairand a little perish his understanding.SurelyComineus mought have made the samejudgmentalsoif it had pleased himof his secondmasterLewis the Eleventhwhose closeness wasindeed histormentor. The parable of Pythagorasis darkbut true; Cor ne edito; Eat not the heart.Certainlyif a man would give it a hard phrasethose thatwant friendsto open themselves untoarecarnnibals of their own hearts. But one thingis mostadmirable (wherewith I will conclude thisfirstfruit of friendship)which isthat this com-municatingof a man's self to his friendworkstwocontrary effects; for it redoubleth joysandcuttethgriefs in halves. For there is no manthatimpartethhis joys to his friendbut he joyeth themore; andno man that imparteth his griefs to hisfriendbut he grieveth the less. So that it is in truthofoperation upon a man's mindof like virtue asthealchemists use to attribute to their stoneforman'sbody; that it worketh all contrary effectsbut stillto the good and benefit of nature. But yetwithoutpraying in aid of alchemiststhere is amanifestimage of thisin the ordinary course ofnature. For in bodiesunion strengtheneth andcherishethany natural action; and on the othersideweakeneth and dulleth any violent impres-sion: andeven so it is of minds.
The secondfruit of friendshipis healthful andsovereignfor the understandingas the first is fortheaffections. For friendship maketh indeed a fairday in theaffectionsfrom storm and tempests; butit makethdaylight in the understandingout ofdarknessand confusion of thoughts. Neither isthis to beunderstood only of faithful counselwhich aman receiveth from his friend; but beforeyou cometo thatcertain it isthat whosoever hathhis mindfraught with many thoughtshis witsandunderstanding do clarify and break upin thecommunicatingand discoursing with another; hetossethhis thoughts more easily; he marshalleththem moreorderlyhe seeth how they look whenthey areturned into words: finallyhe waxethwiser thanhimself; and that more by an hour'sdiscoursethan by a day's meditation. It was wellsaid byThemistoclesto the king of PersiaThatspeech waslike cloth of Arrasopened and putabroad;whereby the imagery doth appear infigure;whereas in thoughts they lie but as inpacks. Neither is this second fruit of friendshipinopeningthe understandingrestrained only tosuchfriends as are able to give a man counsel;(theyindeed are best;) but even without thatamanlearneth of himselfand bringeth his ownthoughts to lightand whetteth his wits as againsta stonewhich itself cuts not. In a worda manwerebetter relate himself to a statuaor picturethan tosuffer his thoughts to pass in smother.
Add nowto make this second fruit of friendshipcompletethat other pointwhich lieth more openandfalleth within vulgar observation; which isfaithfulcounsel from a friend. Heraclitus saithwell inone of his enigmasDry light is ever thebest. And certain it isthat the light that a manreceivethby counsel from anotheris drier andpurerthan that which cometh from his ownunderstandingand judgment; which is ever in-fusedanddrenchedin his affections and customs.So asthere is as much difference between the coun-selthata friend givethand that a man givethhimselfas there is between the counsel of a friendand of aflatterer. For there is no such flatterer asis a man'sself; and there is no such remedy againstflatteryof a man's selfas the liberty of a friend.Counsel isof two sorts: the one concerning man-nerstheother concerning business. For the firstthe bestpreservative to keep the mind in healthisthefaithful admonition of a friend. The calling ofa man'sself to a strict accountis a medicinesome-time toopiercing and corrosive. Reading goodbooks ofmoralityis a little flat and dead. Observ-ing ourfaults in othersis sometimes improper forour case. But the best receipt (bestI sayto workand bestto take) is the admonition of a friend.It is astrange thing to beholdwhat gross errorsandextreme absurdities many (especially of thegreatersort) do commitfor want of a friend to tellthem ofthem; to the great damage both of theirfame andfortune: foras St. James saiththey areas menthat look sometimes into a glassand pres-entlyforget their own shape and favor. As forbusinessa man may thinkif he winthat twoeyes seeno more than one; or that a gamester seethalwaysmore than a looker-on; or that a man inangerisas wise as he that hath said over the fourand twentyletters; or that a musket may be shotoff aswell upon the armas upon a rest; and suchother fondand high imaginationsto think him-self allin all. But when all is donethe help of goodcounselis that which setteth business straight.And if anyman think that he will take counselbut itshall be by pieces; asking counsel in onebusinessof one manand in another businessofanotherman; it is well (that is to saybetterper-hapsthanif he asked none at all); but he runnethtwodangers: onethat he shall not be faithfullycounselled;for it is a rare thingexcept it be froma perfectand entire friendto have counsel givenbut suchas shall be bowed and crooked to someendswhich he haththat giveth it. The otherthathe shallhave counsel givenhurtful and unsafe(thoughwith good meaning)and mixed partly ofmischiefand partly of remedy; even as if youwould calla physicianthat is thought good forthe cureof the disease you complain ofbut is unac-quaintedwith your body; and therefore may putyou in wayfor a present curebut overthrowethyourhealth in some other kind; and so cure thediseaseand kill the patient. But a friend that iswhollyacquainted with a man's estatewill be-warebyfurthering any present businesshow hedashethupon other inconvenience. And thereforerest notupon scattered counsels; they will ratherdistractand misleadthan settle and direct.
Afterthese two noble fruits of friendship (peacein theaffectionsand support of the judgment)followeththe last fruit; which is like the pome-granatefull of many kernels; I mean aidandbearing apartin all actions and occasions. Herethe bestway to represent to life the manifold useoffriendshipis to cast and see how many thingsthere arewhich a man cannot do himself; andthen itwill appearthat it was a sparing speech oftheancientsto saythat a friend is another him-self; forthat a friend is far more than himself.Men havetheir timeand die many timesin de-sire ofsome things which they principally take toheart; thebestowing of a childthe finishing of aworkorthe like. If a man have a true friendhemay restalmost secure that the care of those thingswillcontinue after him. So that a man hathas itweretwolives in his desires. A man hath a bodyand thatbody is confined to a place; but wherefriendshipisall offices of life are as it were grantedto himand his deputy. For he may exercise themby hisfriend. How many things are there whicha mancannotwith any face or comelinesssay ordohimself? A man can scarce allege his ownmeritswith modestymuch less extol them; a mancannotsometimes brook to supplicate or beg; anda numberof the like. But all these things are grace-fulin afriend's mouthwhich are blushing in aman'sown. So againa man's person hath manyproperrelationswhich he cannot put off. A mancannotspeak to his son but as a father; to his wifebut as ahusband; to his enemy but upon terms:whereas afriend may speak as the case requiresand not asit sorteth with the person. But to enu-meratethese things were endless; I have given therulewhere a man cannot fitly play his own part;ifhe have not a friendhe may quit the stage.
RICHES arefor spendingand spending forhonor andgood actions. Therefore extra-ordinaryexpense must be limited by the worth oftheoccasion; for voluntary undoingmay be aswell for aman's countryas for the kingdom ofheaven. But ordinary expenseought to be limitedby a man'sestate; and governed with such regardas it bewithin his compass; and not subject to de-ceit andabuse of servants; and ordered to the bestshowthatthe bills may be less than the estima-tionabroad. Certainlyif a man will keep but ofeven handhis ordinary expenses ought to be butto thehalf of his receipts; and if he think to waxrichbutto the third part. It is no basenessfor thegreatestto descend and look into their own estate.Someforbear itnot upon negligence alonebutdoubtingto bring themselves into melancholyinrespectthey shall find it broken. But wounds can-not becured without searching. He that cannotlook intohis own estate at allhad need both choosewell thosewhom he employethand change themoften; fornew are more timorous and less subtle.He thatcan look into his estate but seldomit be-hoovethhim to turn all to certainties. A man hadneedifhe be plentiful in some kind of expensetobe assaving again in some other. As if he be plenti-ful indietto be saving in apparel; if he be plenti-ful in thehallto be saving in the stable; and thelike. For he that is plentiful in expenses of all kindswillhardly be preserved from decay. In clearingof a man'sestatehe may as well hurt himself inbeing toosuddenas in letting it run on too long.For hastysellingis commonly as disadvantage-able asinterest. Besideshe that clears at once willrelapse;for finding himself out of straitshe willrevert tohis custom: but he that cleareth by de-greesinduceth a habit of frugalityand gainethas wellupon his mindas upon his estate. Cer-tainlywho hath a state to repairmay not despisesmallthings; and commonly it is less dishonor-abletoabridge petty chargesthan to stoop topettygettings. A man ought warily to beginchargeswhich once begun will continue; but inmattersthat return nothe may be more magni-ficent.
THE speechof Themistocles the Athenianwhich washaughty and arrogantin takingso much tohimselfhad been a grave and wiseobservationand censureapplied at large to others.Desired ata feast to touch a lutehe saidHe couldnotfiddlebut yet he could make a small townagreatcity. These words (holpen a little with ametaphor)may express two differing abilitiesinthose thatdeal in business of estate. For if a truesurvey betaken of counsellors and statesmenthere maybe found (though rarely) those whichcan make asmall state greatand yet cannot fid-dle; as onthe other sidethere will be found a greatmanythatcan fiddle very cunninglybut yet areso farfrom being able to make a small state greatas theirgift lieth the other way; to bring a greatandflourishing estateto ruin and decay. And cer-tainlywhose degenerate arts and shiftswherebymanycounsellors and governors gain both favorwith theirmastersand estimation with the vulgardeserve nobetter name than fiddling; being thingsratherpleasing for the timeand graceful to them-selvesonlythan tending to the weal and advance-ment ofthe state which they serve. There are also(no doubt)counsellors and governors which maybe heldsufficient (negotiis pares)able to manageaffairsand to keep them from precipices andmanifestinconveniences; which nevertheless arefar fromthe ability to raise and amplify an estatein powermeansand fortune. But be the workmenwhat theymay belet us speak of the work; thatisthetrue greatness of kingdoms and estatesandthe meansthereof. An argument fit for great andmightyprinces to have in their hand; to the endthatneither by over-measuring their forcestheyleesethemselves in vain enterprises; nor on theothersideby undervaluing themthey descend tofearfuland pusillanimous counsels.
Thegreatness of an estatein bulk and territorydoth fallunder measure; and the greatness offinancesand revenuedoth fall under computa-tion. The population may appear by musters; andthe numberand greatness of cities and towns bycards andmaps. But yet there is not any thingamongstcivil affairs more subject to errorthanthe rightvaluation and true judgment concerningthe powerand forces of an estate. The kingdom ofheaven iscomparednot to any great kernel or nutbut to agrain of mustard-seed: which is one of theleastgrainsbut hath in it a property and spirithastily toget up and spread. So are there statesgreat interritoryand yet not apt to enlarge orcommand;and some that have but a small dimen-sion ofstemand yet apt to be the foundations ofgreatmonarchies.
Walledtownsstored arsenals and armoriesgoodlyraces of horsechariots of warelephantsordnanceartilleryand the like; all this is but asheep in alion's skinexcept the breed and disposi-tion ofthe peoplebe stout and warlike. Naynum-ber(itself) in armies importeth not muchwherethe peopleis of weak courage; for (as Virgil saith)It nevertroubles a wolfhow many the sheep be.The armyof the Persiansin the plains of Arbelawas such avast sea of peopleas it did somewhatastonishthe commanders in Alexander's army;who cameto him thereforeand wished him to setupon themby night; and he answeredHe wouldnot pilferthe victory. And the defeat was easy.WhenTigranes the Armenianbeing encampedupon ahill with four hundred thousand mendis-coveredthe army of the Romansbeing not abovefourteenthousandmarching towards himhemadehimself merry with itand saidYonder menare toomany for an embassageand too few for afight. But before the sun sethe found them enowto givehim the chase with infinite slaughter.Many arethe examples of the great oddsbetweennumber andcourage; so that a man may trulymake ajudgmentthat the principal point of great-ness inany stateis to have a race of military men.Neither ismoney the sinews of war (as it is triviallysaid)where the sinews of men's armsin base andeffeminatepeopleare failing. For Solon said wellto Croesus(when in ostentation he showed him hisgold)Sirif any other comethat hath better ironthan youhe will be master of all this gold. There-fore letany prince or state think solely of his forcesexcept hismilitia of natives be of good and valiantsoldiers. And let princeson the other sidethathavesubjects of martial dispositionknow theirownstrength; unless they be otherwise wantinguntothemselves. As for mercenary forces (whichis thehelp in this case)all examples showthatwhatsoeverestate or prince doth rest upon themhe mayspread his feathers for a timebut he willmew themsoon after.
Theblessing of Judah and Issachar will nevermeet; thatthe same peopleor nationshould beboth thelion's whelp and the ass between bur-thens;neither will it bethat a people overlaidwithtaxesshould ever become valiant and mar-tial. It is true that taxes levied by consent of theestatedoabate men's courage less: as it hath beenseennotablyin the excises of the Low Countries;andinsome degreein the subsidies of England.For youmust notethat we speak now of the heartand not ofthe purse. So that although the sametributeand taxlaid by consent or by imposingbeall one tothe purseyet it works diversely upon thecourage. So that you may concludethat no peopleoverchargedwith tributeis fit for empire.
Let statesthat aim at greatnesstake heed howtheirnobility and gentlemen do multiply too fast.For thatmaketh the common subjectgrow to be apeasantand base swaindriven out of heartand ineffect butthe gentleman's laborer. Even as youmay see incoppice woods; if you leave your stad-dles toothickyou shall never have clean under-woodbutshrubs and bushes. So in countries if thegentlemenbe too manythe commons will be base;and youwill bring it to thatthat not the hundredpollwillbe fit for an helmet; especially as to theinfantrywhich is the nerve of an army; and sothere willbe great populationand little strength.This whichI speak ofhath been nowhere betterseenthanby comparing of England and France;whereofEnglandthough far less in territory andpopulationhath been (nevertheless) an over-match; inregard the middle people of Englandmake goodsoldierswhich the peasants of Francedo not. And herein the device of king Henry theSeventh(whereof I have spoken largely in theHistory ofhis Life) was profound and admirable;in makingfarms and houses of husbandry of astandard;that ismaintained with such a propor-tion ofland unto themas may breed a subject tolive inconvenient plenty and no servile condition;and tokeep the plough in the hands of the ownersand notmere hirelings. And thus indeed you shallattain toVirgil's character which he gives to an-cientItaly:
Terrapotens armis atque ubere glebae.
Neither isthat state (whichfor any thing I knowis almostpeculiar to Englandand hardly to befoundanywhere elseexcept it be perhaps inPoland) tobe passed over; I mean the state of freeservantsand attendants upon noblemen andgentlemen;which are no ways inferior unto theyeomanryfor arms. And therefore out of all ques-tionsthesplendor and magnificenceand greatretinuesand hospitalityof noblemen and gentle-menreceived into customdoth much conduceuntomartial greatness. Whereascontrariwisetheclose andreserved living of noblemen and gentle-mencauseth a penury of military forces.
By allmeans it is to be procuredthat the trunkofNebuchadnezzar's tree of monarchybe greatenough tobear the branches and the boughs; thatisthatthe natural subjects of the crown or statebear asufficient proportion to the stranger sub-jectsthat they govern.Therefore all states that areliberal ofnaturalization towards strangersare fitforempire. For to think that an handful of peoplecanwiththe greatest courage and policy in theworldembrace too large extent of dominionitmay holdfor a timebut it will fail suddenly. TheSpartanswere a nice people in point of naturaliza-tion;wherebywhile they kept their compassthey stoodfirm; but when they did spreadandtheirboughs were becomen too great for theirstemtheybecame a windfallupon the sudden.Never anystate was in this point so open to receivestrangersinto their bodyas were the Romans.Thereforeit sorted with them accordingly; forthey grewto the greatest monarchy. Their mannerwas togrant naturalization (which they called juscivitatis)and to grant it in the highest degree; thatisnotonly jus commerciijus connubiijus haere-ditatis;but also jus suffragiiand jus honorum.And thisnot to singular persons alonebut likewiseto wholefamilies; yea to citiesand sometimes tonations. Add to this their custom of plantation ofcolonies;whereby the Roman plant was removedinto thesoil of other nations. And putting bothconstitutionstogetheryou will say that it was notthe Romansthat spread upon the worldbut it wasthe worldthat spread upon the Romans; and thatwas thesure way of greatness. I have marvelledsometimesat Spainhow they clasp and containso largedominionswith so few natural Spaniards;but surethe whole compass of Spainis a very greatbody of atree; far above Rome and Sparta at thefirst. And besidesthough they have not had thatusagetonaturalize liberallyyet they have thatwhich isnext to it; that isto employalmost indif-ferentlyall nations in their militia of ordinarysoldiers;yeaand sometimes in their highest com-mands. Nayit seemeth at this instant they aresensibleof this want of natives; as by the Prag-maticalSanctionnow publishedappeareth.
It iscertain that sedentaryand within-doorartsanddelicate manufactures (that requirerather thefinger than the arm)havein their na-tureacontrariety to a military disposition. Andgenerallyall warlike people are a little idleandlovedanger better than travail. Neither must theybe toomuch broken of itif they shall be preservedin vigor. Therefore it was great advantagein theancientstates of SpartaAthensRomeand othersthat theyhad the use of slaveswhich commonlydid ridthose manufactures. But that is abolishedingreatest partby the Christian law. That whichcomethnearest to itis to leave those arts chiefly tostrangers(whichfor that purposeare the moreeasily tobe received)and to contain the principalbulk ofthe vulgar nativeswithin those threekinds-tillers of the ground; free servants; andhandicraftsmenof strong and manly artsassmithsmasonscarpentersetc.; not reckoningprofessedsoldiers.
But aboveallfor empire and greatnessit im-portethmostthat a nation do profess armsas theirprincipalhonorstudyand occupation. For thethingswhich we formerly have spoken ofare buthabilitationstowards arms; and what is habilita-tionwithout intention and act? Romulusafter hisdeath (asthey report or feign)sent a present to theRomansthat above allthey should intend arms;and thenthey should prove the greatest empire oftheworld. The fabric of the state of Sparta waswholly(though not wisely) framed and composedto thatscope and end. The Persians and Macedo-nians hadit for a flash. The GaulsGermansGothsSaxonsNormansand othershad it for atime. The Turks have it at this daythough in greatdeclination. Of Christian Europethey that have itareineffectonly the Spaniards. But it is soplainthat every man profiteth in thathe mostintendeththat it needeth not to be stood upon. Itis enoughto point at it; that no nation which dothnotdirectly profess armsmay look to have great-ness fallinto their mouths. And on the other sideit is amost certain oracle of timethat those statesthatcontinue long in that profession (as the Ro-mans andTurks principally have done) do won-ders. And those that have professed arms but foran agehavenotwithstandingcommonly at-tainedthat greatnessin that agewhich main-tainedthem long afterwhen their profession andexerciseof arms hath grown to decay.
Incidentto this point isfor a state to have thoselaws orcustomswhich may reach forth unto themjustoccasions (as may be pretended) of war. Forthere isthat justiceimprinted in the nature ofmenthatthey enter not upon wars (whereof somanycalamities do ensue) but upon someat theleastspeciousgrounds and quarrels. The Turkhath athandfor cause of warthe propagation ofhis law orsect; a quarrel that he may always com-mand. The Romansthough they esteemed theextendingthe limits of their empireto be greathonor totheir generalswhen it was doneyet theyneverrested upon that aloneto begin a war. Firstthereforelet nations that pretend to greatnesshave this;that they be sensible of wrongseitheruponborderersmerchantsor politic ministers;and thatthey sit not too long upon a provocation.Secondlylet them be prestand ready to give aidsandsuccorsto their confederates; as it ever waswith theRomans; insomuchas if the confederatehadleagues defensivewith divers other statesanduponinvasion offereddid implore their aidsseverallyyet the Romans would ever be the fore-mostandleave it to none other to have the honor.As for thewars which were anciently madeonthe behalfof a kind of partyor tacit conformity ofestateIdo not see how they may be well justified:as whenthe Romans made a warfor the liberty ofGrecia; orwhen the Lacedaemonians and Athe-niansmade wars to set up or pull down democ-racies andoligarchies; or when wars were madebyforeignersunder the pretence of justice or pro-tectionto deliver the subjects of othersfromtyrannyand oppression; and the like. Let it suf-ficethatno estate expect to be greatthat is notawake uponany just occasion of arming.
No bodycan be healthful without exerciseneithernatural body nor politic; and certainly toa kingdomor estatea just and honorable waristhe trueexercise. A civil warindeedis like theheat of afever; but a foreign war is like the heat ofexerciseand serveth to keep the body in health;for in aslothful peaceboth courages will effemi-nateandmanners corrupt. But howsoever it beforhappinesswithout all questionfor greatnessit makethto be still for the most part in arms; andthestrength of a veteran army (though it be achargeablebusiness) always on footis that whichcommonlygiveth the lawor at least the reputa-tionamongst all neighbor states; as may well beseen inSpainwhich hath hadin one part or othera veteranarmy almost continuallynow by thespace ofsix score years.
To bemaster of the seais an abridgment of amonarchy. Cicerowriting to Atticus of Pompeyhispreparation against CaesarsaithConsiliumPompeiiplane Themistocleum est; putat enimqui maripotitureum rerum potiri. AndwithoutdoubtPompey had tired out Caesarif upon vainconfidencehe had not left that way. We see thegreateffects of battles bv sea. The battle of Actiumdecidedthe empire of the world. The battle of Le-pantoarrested the greatness of the Turk. There bemanyexampleswhere sea-fights have been finalto thewar; but this is when princes or states haveset uptheir restupon the battles. But thus muchiscertainthat he that commands the seais atgreatlibertyand may take as muchand as littleof the waras he will. Whereas those that be strong-est bylandare many times nevertheless in greatstraits. Surelyat this daywith us of Europethevantage ofstrength at sea (which is one of the prin-cipaldowries of this kingdom of Great Britain) isgreat;both because most of the kingdoms of Eu-ropearenot merely inlandbut girt with the seamost partof their compass; and because the wealthof bothIndies seems in great partbut an accessoryto thecommand of the seas.
The warsof latter ages seem to be made in thedarkinrespect of the gloryand honorwhichreflectedupon men from the warsin ancient time.There benowfor martial encouragementsomedegreesand orders of chivalry; which neverthelessareconferred promiscuouslyupon soldiers andnosoldiers; and some remembrance perhapsuponthescutcheon; and some hospitals for maimed sol-diers; andsuch like things. But in ancient timesthetrophies erected upon the place of the victory;thefuneral laudatives and monuments for thosethat diedin the wars; the crowns and garlands per-sonal; thestyle of emperorwhich the great kingsof theworld after borrowed; the triumphs of thegeneralsupon their return; the great donativesandlargessesupon the disbanding of the armies;werethings able to inflame all men's courages.But aboveallthat of the triumphamongst theRomanswas not pageants or gauderybut one ofthe wisestand noblest institutionsthat ever was.For itcontained three things: honor to the general;riches tothe treasury out of the spoils; and dona-tives tothe army. But that honorperhaps were notfit formonarchies; except it be in the person of themonarchhimselfor his sons; as it came to pass inthe timesof the Roman emperorswho did impro-priate theactual triumphs to themselvesand theirsonsforsuch wars as they did achieve in person;and leftonlyfor wars achieved by subjectssometriumphalgarments and ensigns to the general.
Toconclude: no man can by care taking (as theScripturesaith) add a cubit to his staturein thislittlemodel of a man's body; but in the great frameofkingdoms and commonwealthsit is in thepower ofprinces or estatesto add amplitude andgreatnessto their kingdoms; for by introducingsuchordinancesconstitutionsand customsas wehave nowtouchedthey may sow greatness totheirposterity and succession. But these things arecommonlynot observedbut left to take theirchance.
THERE is awisdom in this; beyond the rules ofphysic: aman's own observationwhat hefinds goodofand what he finds hurt ofis the bestphysic topreserve health. But it is a safer conclu-sion tosayThis agreeth not well with methere-foreIwill not continue it; than thisI find nooffence ofthistherefore I may use it. For strengthof naturein youthpasseth over many excesseswhich areowing a man till his age. Discern of thecoming onof yearsand think not to do the samethingsstill; for age will not be defied. Beware ofsuddenchangein any great point of dietandifnecessityenforce itfit the rest to it. For it is a secretboth innature and statethat it is safer to changemanythingsthan one. Examine thy customs ofdietsleepexerciseappareland the like; and tryin anything thou shalt judge hurtfulto discon-tinue itby little and little; but soas if thou dostfind anyinconvenience by the changethou comeback to itagain: for it is hard to distinguish thatwhich isgenerally held good and wholesomefrom thatwhich is good particularlyand fit forthine ownbody. To be free-minded and cheerfullydisposedat hours of meatand of sleepand ofexerciseis one of the best precepts of long lasting.As for thepassionsand studies of the mind; avoidenvyanxious fears; anger fretting inwards;subtle andknotty inquisitions; joys and exhilara-tions inexcess; sadness not communicated. Enter-tainhopes; mirth rather than joy; variety ofdelightsrather than surfeit of them; wonder andadmirationand therefore novelties; studies thatfill themind with splendid and illustrious objectsashistoriesfablesand contemplations of nature.If you flyphysic in health altogetherit will be toostrangefor your bodywhen you shall need it. Ifyou makeit too familiarit will work no extra-ordinaryeffectwhen sickness cometh. I commendrathersome diet for certain seasonsthan frequentuse ofphysicexcept it be grown into a custom. Forthosediets alter the body moreand trouble it less.Despise nonew accident in your bodybut askopinion ofit. In sicknessrespect health prin-cipally;and in healthaction. For those that puttheirbodies to endure in healthmay in most sick-nesseswhich are not very sharpbe cured onlywith dietand tendering. Celsus could never havespoken itas a physicianhad he not been a wisemanwithalwhen he giveth it for one of the greatpreceptsof health and lastingthat a man do varyandinterchange contrariesbut with an inclina-tion tothe more benign extreme: use fasting andfulleatingbut rather full eating; watching andsleepbutrather sleep; sitting and exercisebutratherexercise; and the like. So shall nature becherishedand yet taught masteries. Physiciansaresomeof themso pleasing and conformable tothe humorof the patientas they press not the truecure ofthe disease; and some other are so regularinproceeding according to art for the diseaseastheyrespect not sufficiently the condition of thepatient. Take one of a middle temper; or if it maynot befound in one mancombine two of eithersort; andforget not to call as wellthe best ac-quaintedwith your bodyas the best reputed offor hisfaculty.
SUSPICIONSamongst thoughtsare like batsamongstbirdsthey ever fly by twilight. Cer-tainlythey are to be repressedor at least wellguarded:for they cloud the mind; they leesefriends;and they check with businesswherebybusinesscannot go on currently and constantly.Theydispose kings to tyrannyhusbands to jeal-ousywisemen to irresolution and melancholy.They aredefectsnot in the heartbut in the brain;for theytake place in the stoutest natures; as in theexample ofHenry the Seventh of England. Therewas not amore suspicious mannor a more stout.And insuch a composition they do small hurt. Forcommonlythey are not admittedbut with exami-nationwhether they be likely or no. But in fearfulnaturesthey gain ground too fast. There is nothingmakes aman suspect muchmore than to knowlittle;and therefore men should remedy suspicionbyprocuring to know moreand not to keep theirsuspicionsin smother. What would men have? Dotheythinkthose they employ and deal witharesaints? Dothey not thinkthey will have their ownendsandbe truer to themselvesthan to them?Thereforethere is no better wayto moderate sus-picionsthan to account upon such suspicions astrueandyet to bridle them as false. For so far aman oughtto make use of suspicionsas to provideas if thatshould be truethat he suspectsyet itmay do himno hurt. Suspicions that the mind ofitselfgathersare but buzzes; but suspicions thatareartificially nourishedand put into men'sheadsbythe tales and whisperings of othershavestings. Certainlythe best meanto clear the wayin thissame wood of suspicionsis frankly to com-municatethem with the partythat he suspects;forthereby he shall be sure to know more of thetruth ofthemthan he did before; and withal shallmake thatparty more circumspectnot to givefurthercause of suspicion. But this would not bedone tomen of base natures; for theyif they findthemselvesonce suspectedwill never be true. TheItaliansaysSospetto licentia fede; as if suspiciondid give apassport to faith; but it oughtrathertokindle itto discharge itself.
SOMEintheir discourse desire rather com-mendationof witin being able to hold allargumentsthan of judgmentin discerning whatis true;as if it were a praiseto know what mightbe saidand notwhat should be thought. Somehavecertain common placesand themeswhereinthey aregood and want variety; which kind ofpoverty isfor the most part tediousand when it isonceperceivedridiculous. The honorablest part oftalk is to give the occasion; and again to moderateand passto somewhat else; for then a man leads thedance. It is goodin discourse and speech of con-versation to vary and intermingle speech of thepresentoccasionwith argumentstales with rea-sonsasking of questionswith telling of opinionsand jestwith earnest: for it is a dull thing to tireandas wesay nowto jadeany thing too far. Asfor jestthere be certain thingswhich ought to beprivilegedfrom it; namelyreligionmatters ofstategreat personsany man's present business ofimportanceand any case that deserveth pity. Yetthere besomethat think their wits have beenasleepexcept they dart out somewhat that ispiquantand to the quick. That is a vein whichwould bebridled:
Parcepuerstimuliset fortius utere loris.
Andgenerallymen ought to find the differencebetweensaltness and bitterness. Certainlyhe thathath asatirical veinas he maketh others afraid ofhis witso he had need be afraid of others' memory.He thatquestioneth muchshall learn muchandcontentmuch; but especiallyif he apply his ques-tions tothe skill of the persons whom he asketh; forhe shallgive them occasionto please themselvesinspeakingand himself shall continually gatherknowledge. But let his questions not be trouble-some; forthat is fit for a poser. And let him be sureto leaveother mentheir turns to speak. Nayifthere beanythat would reign and take up allthe timelet him find means to take them offand tobring others on; as musicians use to dowiththose thatdance too long galliards. If you dis-semblesometimesyour knowledge of that youarethought to knowyou shall be thoughtanothertimetoknow that you know not. Speech of aman's selfought to be seldomand well chosen. Iknew onewas wont to say in scornHe must needsbe a wisemanhe speaks so much of himself: andthere isbut one casewherein a man may com-mendhimself with good grace; and that is incommendingvirtue in another; especially if it besuch avirtuewhereunto himself pretendeth.Speech oftouch towards othersshould be spar-inglyused; for discourse ought to be as a fieldwithoutcoming home to any man. I knew twonoblemenof the west part of Englandwhereofthe onewas given to scoffbut kept ever royal cheerin hishouse; the other would askof those that hadbeen atthe other's tableTell trulywas there nevera flout ordry blow given? To which the guestwouldanswerSuch and such a thing passed.The lordwould sayI thoughthe would mar agooddinner. Discretion of speechis more thaneloquence;and to speak agreeably to himwithwhom wedealis more than to speak in goodwordsorin good order. A good continued speechwithout agood speech of interlocutionshowsslowness:and a good reply or second speechwith-out a goodsettled speechshoweth shallownessandweakness. As we see in beaststhat those thatareweakest in the courseare yet nimblest in theturn; asit is betwixt the greyhound and the hare.To use toomany circumstancesere one come tothematteris wearisome; to use none at allisblunt.
PLANTATIONSare amongst ancientprimi-tiveandheroical works. When the world wasyoungitbegat more children; but now it is olditbegetsfewer: for I may justly account new plan-tationsto be the children of former kingdoms. Ilike aplantation in a pure soil; that iswherepeople arenot displantedto the endto plant inothers. For else it is rather an extirpationthan aplantation. Planting of countriesis like plantingof woods;for you must make account to leese al-mosttwenty years' profitand expect your recom-pense inthe end. For the principal thingthat hathbeen thedestruction of most plantationshathbeen thebase and hasty drawing of profitin thefirstyears. It is truespeedy profit is not to be neg-lectedasfar as may stand with the good of theplantationbut no further. It is a shameful andunblessedthingto take the scum of peopleandwickedcondemned mento be the people withwhom youplant; and not only sobut it spoileththeplantation; for they will ever live like roguesand notfall to workbut be lazyand do mischiefand spendvictualsand be quickly wearyandthencertify over to their countryto the discreditof theplantation. The people wherewith youplantought to be gardenersploughmenlaborerssmithscarpentersjoinersfishermenfowlerswith somefew apothecariessurgeonscooksandbakers. In a country of plantationfirst look aboutwhat kindof victual the country yields of itself tohand; aschestnutswalnutspineapplesolivesdatesplumscherrieswild honeyand the like;and makeuse of them. Then consider what victualoresculent things there arewhich grow speedilyand withinthe year; as parsnipscarrotsturnipsonionsradishartichokes of Hierusalemmaizeand thelike. For wheatbarleyand oatsthey asktoo muchlabor; but with pease and beans you maybeginboth because they ask less laborand be-cause theyserve for meatas well as for bread. Andof ricelikewise cometh a great increaseand it isa kind ofmeat. Above allthere ought to be broughtstore ofbiscuitoat-mealflourmealand the likein thebeginningtill bread may be had. For beastsor birdstake chiefly such as are least subject todiseasesand multiply fastest; as swinegoatscockshensturkeysgeesehouse-dovesand thelike. The victual in plantationsought to be ex-pendedalmost as in a besieged town; that iswithcertainallowance. And let the main part of thegroundemployed to gardens or cornbe to a com-mon stock;and to be laid inand stored upandthendelivered out in proportion; besides somespots ofgroundthat any particular person willmanure forhis own private. Consider likewisewhatcommoditiesthe soil where the plantationisdothnaturally yieldthat they may some wayhelp todefray the charge of the plantation (so it benotaswas saidto the untimely prejudice of themainbusiness)as it hath fared with tobacco inVirginia. Wood commonly aboundeth but toomuch; andtherefore timber is fit to be one. If therebe ironoreand streams whereupon to set the millsiron is abrave commodity where wood aboundeth.Making ofbay-saltif the climate be proper for itwould beput in experience. Growing silk likewiseif any beis a likely commodity. Pitch and tarwherestore of firs and pines arewill not fail. Sodrugs andsweet woodswhere they arecannotbut yieldgreat profit. Soap-ashes likewiseandotherthings that may be thought of. But moil nottoo muchunder ground; for the hope of mines isveryuncertainand useth to make the planterslazyinother things. For government; let it be inthe handsof oneassisted with some counsel; andlet themhave commission to exercise martial lawswith somelimitation. And above alllet men makethatprofitof being in the wildernessas they haveGodalwaysand his servicebefore their eyes. Letnot thegovernment of the plantationdependupon toomany counsellorsand undertakersinthecountry that plantethbut upon a temperatenumber;and let those be rather noblemen andgentlementhan merchants; for they look ever tothepresent gain. Let there be freedom from cus-tomtillthe plantation be of strength; and notonlyfreedom from custombut freedom to carrytheircommoditieswhere they may make theirbest ofthemexcept there be some special cause ofcaution. Cram not in peopleby sending too fastcompanyafter company; but rather harken howtheywasteand send supplies proportionably; butsoas thenumber may live well in the plantationand not bysurcharge be in penury. It hath been agreatendangering to the health of some planta-tionsthat they have built along the sea and riversin marishand unwholesome grounds. Thereforethough youbegin thereto avoid carriage andlikediscommoditiesyet build still rather upwardsfrom thestreamsthan along. It concerneth like-wise thehealth of the plantationthat they havegood storeof salt with themthat they may use itin theirvictualswhen it shall be necessary. If youplantwhere savages aredo not only entertainthemwithtrifles and ginglesbut use them justlyandgraciouslywith sufficient guard nevertheless;and do notwin their favorby helping them to in-vade theirenemiesbut for their defence it is notamiss; andsend oft of themover to the countrythatplantsthat they may see a better conditionthan theirownand commend it when they re-turn. When the plantation grows to strengththenit is timeto plant with womenas well as withmen; thatthe plantation may spread into genera-tionsandnot be ever pieced from without. It is thesinfullestthing in the worldto forsake or destituteaplantation once in forwardness; for besides thedishonorit is the guiltiness of blood of many com-miserablepersons.
I CANNOTcall riches better than the baggageofvirtue. The Roman word is betterimpedi-menta. For as the baggage is to an armyso is richestovirtue. It cannot be sparednor left behindbutithindereth the march; yeaand the care of itsometimesloseth or disturbeth the victory. Ofgreatriches there is no real useexcept it be in thedistribution;the rest is but conceit. So saith Solo-monWheremuch isthere are many to consumeit; andwhat hath the ownerbut the sight of itwith hiseyes? The personal fruition in any mancannotreach to feel great riches: there is a custodyof them;or a power of doleand donative of them;or a fameof them; but no solid use to the owner.Do you notsee what feigned pricesare set uponlittlestones and rarities? and what works of osten-tation areundertakenbecause there might seemto be someuse of great riches? But then you willsaytheymay be of useto buy men out of dangersortroubles. As Solomon saithRiches are as astrongholdin the imagination of the rich man.But thisis excellently expressedthat it is in imagi-nationand not always in fact. For certainly greatricheshave sold more menthan they have boughtout. Seek not proud richesbut such as thou mayestgetjustlyuse soberlydistribute cheerfullyandleavecontentedly. Yet have no abstract nor friarlycontemptof them. But distinguishas Cicero saithwell ofRabirius PosthumusIn studio rei ampli-ficandaeapparebatnon avaritiae praedamsedinstrumentumbonitati quaeri. Harken also toSolomonand beware of hasty gathering of riches;Quifestinat ad divitiasnon erit insons. The poetsfeignthat when Plutus (which is Riches) is sentfromJupiterhe limps and goes slowly; but whenhe is sentfrom Plutohe runsand is swift of foot.Meaningthat riches gotten by good meansandjustlaborpace slowly; but when they come bythe deathof others (as by the course of inheritancetestamentsand the like)they come tumblingupon aman. But it mought be applied likewise toPlutotaking him for the devil. For when richescome fromthe devil (as by fraud and oppressionand unjustmeans)they come upon speed. Theways toenrich are manyand most of them foul.Parsimonyis one of the bestand yet is not inno-cent; forit withholdeth men from works of liberal-ity andcharity. The improvement of the groundis themost natural obtaining of riches; for it is ourgreatmother's blessingthe earth's; but it is slow.And yetwhere men of great wealth do stoop tohusbandryit multiplieth riches exceedingly. Iknew anobleman in Englandthat had the great-est auditsof any man in my time; a great graziera greatsheep-mastera great timber mana greatcollieragreat corn-mastera great lead-manandso ofironand a number of the like points of hus-bandry. So as the earth seemed a sea to himinrespect ofthe perpetual importation. It was trulyobservedby onethat himself came very hardlyto alittle richesand very easilyto great riches.For when aman's stock is come to thatthat he canexpect theprime of marketsand overcome thosebargainswhich for their greatness are few men'smoneyandbe partner in the industries of youngermenhecannot but increase mainly. The gains ofordinarytrades and vocations are honest; andfurtheredby two things chiefly: by diligenceandby a goodnamefor good and fair dealing. But thegains ofbargainsare of a more doubtful nature;when menshall wait upon others' necessitybrokebyservants and instruments to draw them onputoff otherscunninglythat would be better chap-menandthe like practiceswhich are crafty andnaught. As for the chopping of bargainswhen aman buysnot to hold but to sell over againthatcommonlygrindeth doubleboth upon the sellerand uponthe buyer. Sharings do greatly enrichif thehands be well chosenthat are trusted. Usuryis thecertainest means of gainthough one of theworst; asthat whereby a man doth eat his breadin sudorevultus alieni; and besidesdoth ploughuponSundays. But yet certain though it beit hathflaws; forthat the scriveners and brokers do valueunsoundmento serve their own turn. The fortunein beingthe firstin an invention or in a privilegedoth causesometimes a wonderful overgrowth inriches; asit was with the first sugar manin theCanaries. Therefore if a man can play the truelogicianto have as well judgmentas inventionhe may dogreat matters; especially if the times befit. He that resteth upon gains certainshall hardlygrow togreat riches; and he that puts all uponadventuresdoth oftentimes break and come topoverty:it is goodthereforeto guard adventureswithcertaintiesthat may uphold losses. Monopo-liesandcoemption of wares for re-salewherethey arenot restrainedare great means to enrich;especiallyif the party have intelligencewhatthings arelike to come into requestand so storehimselfbeforehand. Riches gotten by servicethough itbe of the best riseyet when they aregotten byflatteryfeeding humorsand other serv-ileconditionsthey may be placed amongst theworst. As for fishing for testaments and executor-ships (asTacitus saith of Senecatestamenta etorbostamquam indagine capi)it is yet worse; byhow muchmen submit themselves to meaner per-sonsthanin service. Believe not muchthem thatseem todespise riches; for they despise themthatdespair ofthem; and none worsewhen they cometo them. Be not penny-wise; riches have wingsandsometimes they fly away of themselvessome-times theymust be set flyingto bring in more.Men leavetheir richeseither to their kindredorto thepublic; and moderate portionsprosper bestin both. A great state left to an heiris as a lure toall thebirds of prey round aboutto seize on himifhe be notthe better stablished in years and judg-ment. Likewise glorious gifts and foundationsarelikesacrifices without salt; and but the paintedsepulchresof almswhich soon will putrefyandcorruptinwardly. Therefore measure not thineadvancementsby quantitybut frame them bymeasure:and defer not charities till death; forcertainlyif a man weigh it rightlyhe that dothsoisrather liberal of another man'sthan of hisown.
I MEAN notto speak of divine prophecies; norof heathenoracles; nor of natural predictions;but onlyof prophecies that have been of cer-tainmemoryand from hidden causes. Saith thePythonissato SaulTo-morrow thou and thy sonshall bewith me. Homer hath these verses:
At domusAEneae cunctis dominabitur orisEt natinatorumet qui nascentur ab illis.
Aprophecyas it seemsof the Roman empire.Seneca thetragedian hath these verses:
--Venient annisSaeculaserisquibus OceanusVincularerum laxetet ingensPateatTellusTiphysque novosDetegatorbes; nec sit terrisUltimaThule:
a prophecyof the discovery of America. The daugh-ter ofPolycratesdreamed that Jupiter bathed herfatherand Apollo anointed him; and it came topassthathe was crucified in an open placewherethe sunmade his body run with sweatand therainwashed it. Philip of Macedon dreamedhesealed upbis wife's belly; whereby he did expounditthathis wife should be barren; but Aristanderthesoothsayertold him his wife was with childbecausemen do not use to seal vesselsthat areempty. A phantasm that appeared to M. Brutusinhis tentsaid to himPhilippis iterum me videbis.Tiberiussaid to GalbaTu quoqueGalbadegusta-bisimperium. In Vespasian's timethere went aprophecyin the Eastthat those that should comeforth ofJudeashould reign over the world:whichthough it may be was meant of our Savior;yetTacitus expounds it of Vespasian. Domitiandreamedthe night before he was slainthat agoldenhead was growingout of the nape of hisneck: andindeedthe succession that followed himfor manyyearsmade golden times. Henry theSixth ofEnglandsaid of Henry the Seventhwhenhe was aladand gave him waterThis is the ladthat shallenjoy the crownfor which we strive.When I wasin FranceI heard from one Dr. Penathat theQueen Motherwho was given to curiousartscaused the King her husband's nativity to becalculatedunder a false name; and the astrologergave ajudgmentthat he should be killed in a duel;at whichthe Queen laughedthinking her hus-band to beabove challenges and duels: but he wasslain upona course at tiltthe splinters of the staffofMontgomery going in at his beaver. The trivialprophecywhich I heard when I was a childandQueenElizabeth was in the flower of her yearswas
When hempeis spun
whereby itwas generally conceivedthat after theprinceshad reignedwhich had the principalletters ofthat word hempe (which were HenryEdwardMaryPhilipand Elizabeth)Englandshouldcome to utter confusion; whichthanks beto Godisverified only in the change of the name;for thatthe King's styleis now no more of Eng-land butof Britain. There was also another proph-ecybefore the year of '88which I do not wellunderstand.
Thereshall be seen upon a dayBetweenthe Baugh and the MayThe blackfleet of Norway.When thatthat is come and goneEnglandbuild houses of lime and stoneFor afterwars shall you have none.
It wasgenerally conceived to be meantof theSpanishfleet that came in '88: for that the king ofSpain'ssurnameas they sayis Norway. The pre-diction ofRegiomontanus
Octogesimusoctavus mirabilis annus
wasthought likewise accomplished in the sendingof thatgreat fleetbeing the greatest in strengththough notin numberof all that ever swam uponthe sea. As for Cleon's dreamI think it was a jest.It wasthat he was devoured of a long dragon; andit wasexpounded of a maker of sausagesthattroubledhim exceedingly. There are numbers ofthe likekind; especially if you include dreamsandpredictionsof astrology. But I have set down thesefew onlyof certain creditfor example. My judg-ment isthat they ought all to be despised; andought toserve but for winter talk by the fireside.Thoughwhen I say despisedI mean it as for be-lief; forotherwisethe spreadingor publishingof themis in no sort to be despised. For they havedone muchmischief; and I see many severe lawsmadetosuppress them. That that hath given themgraceandsome creditconsisteth in three things.Firstthat men mark when they hitand nevermark whenthey miss; as they do generally also ofdreams. The second isthat probable conjecturesor obscuretraditionsmany times turn themselvesintoprophecies; while the nature of manwhichcovetethdivinationthinks it no peril to foretellthat whichindeed they do but collect. As that ofSeneca'sverse. For so much was then subject todemonstrationthat the globe of the earth hadgreatparts beyond the Atlanticwhich moughtbeprobably conceived not to be all sea: and addingtheretothe tradition in Plato's Timaeusand hisAtlanticusit mought encourage one to turn it toaprediction. The third and last (which is the greatone) isthat almost all of thembeing infinite innumberhave been imposturesand by idle andcraftybrains merely contrived and feignedafterthe eventpast.
AMBITIONis like choler; which is an humorthatmaketh men activeearnestfull of alac-rityandstirringif it be not stopped. But if it bestoppedand cannot have his wayit becomethadustandthereby malign and venomous. So am-bitiousmenif they find the way open for theirrisingand still get forwardthey are rather busythandangerous; but if they be checked in theirdesiresthey become secretly discontentand lookupon menand matters with an evil eyeand arebestpleasedwhen things go backward; which isthe worstproperty in a servant of a princeor state.Thereforeit is good for princesif they use ambi-tious mento handle itso as they be still progres-sive andnot retrograde; whichbecause it cannotbe withoutinconvenienceit is good not to use suchnatures atall. For if they rise not with their servicethey willtake orderto make their service fall withthem. But since we have saidit were good not touse men ofambitious naturesexcept it be uponnecessityit is fit we speakin what cases they areofnecessity. Good commanders in the wars mustbe takenbe they never so ambitious; for the useof theirservicedispenseth with the rest; and totake asoldier without ambitionis to pull off hisspurs. There is also great use of ambitious meninbeingscreens to princes in matters of danger andenvy; forno man will take that partexcept he belike aseeled dovethat mounts and mountsbe-cause hecannot see about him. There is use also ofambitiousmenin pulling down the greatness ofanysubject that overtops; as Tiberius used Marcoin thepulling down of Sejanus. Sincethereforethey mustbe used in such casesthere resteth tospeakhowthey are to be bridledthat they may belessdangerous. There is less danger of themif theybe of meanbirththan if they be noble; and if theybe ratherharsh of naturethan gracious and popu-lar: andif they be rather new raisedthan growncunningand fortifiedin their greatness. It iscounted bysomea weakness in princesto havefavorites;but it isof all othersthe best remedyagainstambitious great-ones. For when the wayofpleasuringand displeasuringlieth by thefavoriteit is impossible any other should be over-great. Another means to curb themis to balancethem byothersas proud as they. But then theremust besome middle counsellorsto keep thingssteady;for without that ballastthe ship will rolltoo much. At the leasta prince may animateand inuresome meaner personsto be as it werescourgesto ambitions men. As for the having ofthemobnoxious to ruin; if they be of fearfulnaturesit may do well; but if they be stout anddaringitmay precipitate their designsand provedangerous. As for the pulling of them downif theaffairsrequire itand that it may not be done withsafetysuddenlythe only way is the interchangecontinuallyof favors and disgraces; wherebythey maynot know what to expectand beas itwerein awood. Of ambitionsit is less harmfultheambition to prevail in great thingsthan thatothertoappear in every thing; for that breedsconfusionand mars business. But yet it is less dan-gertohave an ambitious man stirring in businessthan greatin dependences. He that seeketh to beeminentamongst able menhath a great task; butthat isever good for the public. But hethat plotsto be theonly figure amongst ciphersis the decayof a wholeage. Honor hath three things in it: thevantageground to do good; the approach to kingsandprincipal persons; and the raising of a man'sownfortunes. He that hath the best of these inten-tionswhen he aspirethis an honest man; and thatprincethat can discern of these intentions in an-other thataspirethis a wise prince. Generallyletprincesand states choose such ministersas aremoresensible of duty than of using; and such aslovebusiness rather upon consciencethan uponbraveryand let them discern a busy naturefroma willingmind.
THESEthings are but toysto come amongstsuchserious observations. But yetsinceprinceswill have such thingsit is better theyshould begraced with elegancythan daubed withcost. Dancing to songis a thing of great state andpleasure. I understand itthat the song be in quireplacedaloftand accompanied with some brokenmusic; andthe ditty fitted to the device. Acting insongespecially in dialogueshath an extremegoodgrace; I say actingnot dancing (for that is amean andvulgar thing); and the voices of the dia-loguewould be strong and manly (a base and atenor; notreble); and the ditty high and tragical;not niceor dainty. Several quiresplaced one overagainstanotherand taking the voice by catchesanthem-wisegive great pleasure. Turning dancesintofigureis a childish curiosity. And generallylet it benotedthat those things which I here setdownaresuch as do naturally take the senseandnotrespect petty wonderments. It is truethe al-terationsof scenesso it be quietly and withoutnoisearethings of great beauty and pleasure; forthey feedand relieve the eyebefore it be full ofthe sameobject. Let the scenes abound with lightspeciallycolored and varied; and let the masquersor anyotherthat are to come down from thescenehave some motions upon the scene itselfbeforetheir coming down; for it draws the eyestrangelyand makes itwith great pleasuretodesire toseethat it cannot perfectly discern. Letthe songsbe loud and cheerfuland not chirpingsorpulings. Let the music likewise be sharp andloudandwell placed. The colors that show best bycandle-lightare whitecarnationand a kind ofsea-water-green;and oesor spangsas they are ofno greatcostso they are of most glory. As for richembroideryit is lost and not discerned. Let thesuits ofthe masquers be gracefuland such as be-come thepersonwhen the vizors are off; not afterexamplesof known attires; Turkesoldiersmari-ners'andthe like. Let anti-masques not be long;they havebeen commonly of foolssatyrsbaboonswild-menanticsbeastsspriteswitchesEthiopspigmiesturquetsnymphsrusticsCupidsstatuasmovingand the like. As for angelsit is not comi-calenoughto put them in anti-masques; andanythingthat is hideousas devilsgiantsis onthe otherside as unfit. But chieflylet the musicof them berecreativeand with some strangechanges. Some sweet odors suddenly coming forthwithoutany drops fallingarein such a companyas thereis steam and heatthings of great pleasureandrefreshment. Double masquesone of menanother ofladiesaddeth state and variety. But allis nothingexcept the room be kept clear and neat.
For justsand tourneysand barriers; the gloriesof themare chiefly in the chariotswherein thechallengersmake their entry; especially if theybe drawnwith strange beasts: as lionsbearscamelsand the like; or in the devices of their en-trance; orin the bravery of their liveries; or in thegoodlyfurniture of their horses and armor. Butenough ofthese toys.
NATURE isoften hidden; sometimes over-come;seldom extinguished. Forcemakethnaturemore violent in the return; doctrine and dis-coursemaketh nature less importune; but customonly dothalter and subdue nature. He that seekethvictoryover his naturelet him not set himself toogreatnortoo small tasks; for the first will makehimdejected by often failings; and the second willmake him asmall proceederthough by often pre-vailings. And at the first let him practise withhelpsasswimmers do with bladders or rushes;but aftera time let him practise with disadvan-tagesasdancers do with thick shoes. For it breedsgreatperfectionif the practice be harder than theuse. Where nature is mightyand therefore thevictoryhardthe degrees had need befirst to stayand arrestnature in time; like to him that wouldsay overthe four and twenty letters when he wasangry;then to go less in quantity; as if one shouldinforbearing winecome from drinking healthsto adraught at a meal; and lastlyto discontinuealtogether. But if a man have the fortitudeandresolutionto enfranchise himself at oncethat isthe best:
Optimusille animi vindex laedentia pectusVinculaqui rupitdedoluitque semel.
Neither isthe ancient rule amissto bend natureas a wandto a contrary extremewhereby to set itrightunderstanding itwhere the contrary ex-treme isno vice. Let not a man force a habit uponhimselfwith a perpetual continuancebut withsomeintermission. For both the pause reinforceththe newonset; and if a man that is not perfectbeever inpracticehe shall as well practise his errorsas hisabilitiesand induce one habit of both; andthere isno means to help thisbut by seasonableintermissions. But let not a man trust his victoryover hisnaturetoo far; for nature will lay burieda greattimeand yet reviveupon the occasion ortemptation. Like as it was with AEsop's damselturnedfrom a cat to a womanwho sat very de-mutely atthe board's endtill a mouse ran beforeher. Thereforelet a man either avoid the occasionaltogether;or put himself often to itthat he maybe littlemoved with it. A man's nature is best per-ceived inprivatenessfor there is no affectation;inpassionfor that putteth a man out of his pre-cepts; andin a new case or experimentfor therecustomleaveth him. They are happy menwhosenaturessort with their vocations; otherwise theymay saymultum incola fuit anima mea; whentheyconverse in those thingsthey do not affect.Instudieswhatsoever a man commandeth uponhimselflet him set hours for it; but whatsoever isagreeableto his naturelet him take no care forany settimes; for his thoughts will fly to itofthemselves;so as the spaces of other businessorstudieswill suffice. A man's natureruns either toherbs orweeds; therefore let him seasonably waterthe oneand destroy the other.
MEN'Sthoughtsare much according to theirinclination;their discourse and speechesaccordingto their learning and infused opinions;but theirdeedsare after as they have been accus-tomed. And thereforeas Machiavel well noteth(though inan evil-favored instance)there is notrustingto the force of naturenor to the braveryof wordsexcept it be corroborate by custom. Hisinstanceisthat for the achieving of a desperateconspiracya man should not rest upon the fierce-ness ofany man's natureor his resolute under-takings;but take such an oneas hath had hishandsformerly in blood. But Machiavel knew notof a FriarClementnor a Ravillacnor a Jaureguynor aBaltazar Gerard; yet his rule holdeth stillthatnaturenor the engagement of wordsare notsoforcibleas custom. Only superstition is now sowelladvancedthat men of the first bloodare asfirm asbutchers by occupation; and votary reso-lutionismade equipollent to customeven in mat-ter ofblood. In other thingsthe predominancy ofcustom iseverywhere visible; insomuch as a manwouldwonderto hear men professprotesten-gagegivegreat wordsand then dojust as theyhave donebefore; as if they were dead imagesandengines moved only by the wheels of custom.We seealso the reign or tyranny of customwhatit is. The Indians (I mean the sect of their wise men)laythemselves quietly upon a stock of woodandsosacrifice themselves by fire. Naythe wivesstrive tobe burnedwith the corpses of their hus-bands. The lads of Spartaof ancient timewerewont to bescourged upon the altar of Dianawith-out somuch as queching. I rememberin the be-ginning ofQueen Elizabeth's time of EnglandanIrishrebel condemnedput up a petition to thedeputythat he might be hanged in a witheandnot in anhalter; because it had been so usedwithformerrebels. There be monks in Russiafor pen-ancethatwill sit a whole night in a vessel of watertill theybe engaged with hard ice. Many examplesmay be putof the force of customboth upon mindand body. Thereforesince custom is the principalmagistrateof man's lifelet men by all means en-deavortoobtain good customs. Certainly customis mostperfectwhen it beginneth in young years:this wecall education; which isin effectbut anearlycustom. So we seein languagesthe tongueis morepliant to all expressions and soundsthejoints aremore suppleto all feats of activity andmotions in youth than afterwards. For it is truethat latelearners cannot so well take the ply; ex-cept it bein some mindsthat have not sufferedthemselvesto fixbut have kept themselves openandprepared to receive continual amendmentwhich isexceeding rare. But if the force of cus-tom simpleand separatebe greatthe force ofcustomcopulate and conjoined and collegiateisfargreater. For there example teachethcompanycomfortethemulation quickenethglory raiseth:so as insuch places the force of custom is in hisexaltation. Certainly the great multiplication ofvirtuesupon human natureresteth upon socie-ties wellordained and disciplined. For common-wealthsand good governmentsdo nourish virtuegrown butdo not much mend the deeds. But themisery isthat the most effectual meansare nowapplied tothe endsleast to be desired.
IT CANNOTbe deniedbut outward accidentsconducemuch to fortune; favoropportunitydeath ofothersoccasion fitting virtue. But chieflythe mouldof a man's fortune is in his own hands.Faberquisque fortunae suaesaith the poet. Andthe mostfrequent of external causes isthat thefolly ofone manis the fortune of another. For nomanprospers so suddenlyas by others' errors.Serpensnisi serpentem comederit non fit draco.Overt andapparent virtuesbring forth praise; butthere besecret and hidden virtuesthat bring forthfortune;certain deliveries of a man's selfwhichhave noname. The Spanish namedesembolturapartlyexpresseth them; when there be not stondsnorrestiveness in a man's nature; but that thewheels ofhis mindkeep way with the wheels ofhisfortune. For so Livy (after he had describedCato Majorin these wordsIn illo viro tantum ro-burcorporis et animi fuitut quocunque loco natusessetfortunam sibi facturus videretur) fallethupon thatthat he had versatile ingenium. There-fore if aman look sharply and attentivelyhe shallseeFortune: for though she be blindyet she is notinvisible. The way of fortuneis like the MilkenWay in thesky; which is a meeting or knot of anumber ofsmall stars; not seen asunderbut giv-ing lighttogether. So are there a number oflittleand scarce discerned virtuesor rather facul-ties andcustomsthat make men fortunate. TheItaliansnote some of themsuch as a man wouldlittlethink. When they speak of one that cannot doamissthey will throw ininto his other conditionsthat hehath Poco di matto. And certainly there benot twomore fortunate propertiesthan to have alittle ofthe fooland not too much of the honest.Thereforeextreme lovers of their country ormasterswere never fortunateneither can theybe. Forwhen a man placeth his thoughts withouthimselfhe goeth not his own way. An hasty for-tunemaketh an enterpriser and remover (theFrenchhath it betterentreprenantor remuant);but theexercised fortune maketh the able man.Fortune isto be honored and respectedand it bebut forher daughtersConfidence and Reputation.For thosetwoFelicity breedeth; the first withina man'sselfthe latter in others towards him. Allwise mento decline the envy of their own virtuesuse toascribe them to Providence and Fortune; forso theymay the better assume them: andbesidesit isgreatness in a manto be the care of the higherpowers. So Caesar said to the pilot in the tempestCaesaremportaset fortunam ejus. So Sylla chosethe nameof Felixand not of Magnus. And it hathbeennotedthat those who ascribe openly toomuch totheir own wisdom and policyend infor-tunate. It is written that Timotheus the Athenianafter hehadin the account he gave to the state ofhisgovernmentoften interlaced this speechandin thisFortune had no partnever prospered inanythinghe undertook afterwards. Certainlythere bewhose fortunes are like Homer's versesthat havea slide and easiness more than the versesof otherpoets; as Plutarch saith of Timoleon's for-tuneinrespect of that of Agesilaus or Epaminon-das. And that this shoulld beno doubt it is muchin a man'sself.
MANY havemade witty invectives againstusury. They say that it is a pitythe devilshouldhave God's partwhich is the tithe. That theusurer isthe greatest Sabbath-breakerbecause hisploughgoeth every Sunday. That the usurer is thedronethat Virgil speaketh of;
Ignavumfucos pecus a praesepibus arcent.
That theusurer breaketh the first lawthat wasmade formankind after the fallwhich wasinsudorevultus tui comedes panem tuum; notinsudorevultus alieni. That usurers should haveorange-tawnybonnetsbecause they do judaize.That it isagainst nature for money to beget money;and thelike. I say this onlythat usury is a conces-sumpropter duritiem cordis; for since there mustbeborrowing and lendingand men are so hardof heartas they will not lend freelyusury mustbepermitted. Some othershave made suspiciousandcunning propositions of banksdiscovery ofmen'sestatesand other inventions. But few havespoken ofusury usefully. It is good to set before ustheincommodities and commodities of usurythatthe goodmay be either weighed out or culled out;and warilyto providethat while we make forthto thatwhich is betterwe meet not with thatwhich isworse.
Thediscommodities of usury areFirstthat itmakesfewer merchants. For were it not for thislazy tradeof usurymoney would not he stillbutwould ingreat part be employed upon merchan-dizing;which is the vena porta of wealth in a state.Thesecondthat it makes poor merchants. Forasa farmercannot husband his ground so wellif hesit at agreat rent; so the merchant cannot drivehis tradeso wellif he sit at great usury. The thirdisincident to the other two; and that is the decay ofcustoms ofkings or stateswhich ebb or flowwithmerchandizing. The fourththat it bringeth thetreasureof a realmor stateinto a few hands. Forthe usurerbeing at certaintiesand others at uncer-taintiesat the end of the gamemost of the moneywill be inthe box; and ever a state flourishethwhenwealth is more equally spread. The fifththat itbeats down the price of land; for the em-ploymentof moneyis chiefly either merchandiz-ing orpurchasing; and usury waylays both. Thesixththat it doth dull and damp all industriesim-provementsand new inventionswherein moneywould bestirringif it were not for this slug. Thelastthatit is the canker and ruin of many men'sestates;whichin process of timebreeds a publicpoverty.
On theother sidethe commodities of usury arefirstthat howsoever usury in some respect hinder-ethmerchandizingyet in some other it advancethit; for itis certain that the greatest part of trade isdriven byyoung merchantsupon borrowing atinterest;so as if the usurer either call inor keepbackhismoneythere will ensuepresentlyagreatstand of trade. The second isthat were it notfor thiseasy borrowing upon interestmen's neces-sitieswould draw upon them a most sudden un-doing; inthat they would be forced to sell theirmeans (beit lands or goods) far under foot; and sowhereasusury doth but gnaw upon thembadmarketswould swallow them quite up. As formortgagingor pawningit will little mend thematter:for either men will not take pawns with-out use;or if they dothey will look precisely fortheforfeiture. I remember a cruel moneyed manin thecountrythat would sayThe devil take thisusuryitkeeps us from forfeituresof mortgagesandbonds. The third and last isthat it is a vanitytoconceivethat there would be ordinary borrow-ingwithout profit; and it is impossible to conceivethe numberof inconveniences that will ensueifborrowingbe cramped. Therefore to speak of theabolishingof usury is idle. All states have ever haditin onekind or rateor other. So as that opinionmust besent to Utopia.
To speaknow of the reformationand reigle-mentofusury; how the discommodities of it maybe bestavoidedand the commodities retained. Itappearsby the balance of commodities and dis-commoditiesof usurytwo things are to be recon-ciled. The onethat the tooth of usury be grindedthat itbite not too much; the otherthat there beleft opena meansto invite moneyed men to lendto themerchantsfor the continuing and quicken-ing oftrade. This cannot be doneexcept you intro-duce twoseveral sorts of usurya less and a greater.For if youreduce usury to one low rateit will easethe commonborrowerbut the merchant will beto seekfor money. And it is to be notedthat thetrade ofmerchandizebeing the most lucrativemay bearusury at a good rate; other contractsnot so.
To serveboth intentionsthe way would bebrieflythus. That there be two rates of usury:the onefreeand general for all; the other underlicenseonlyto certain personsand in certainplaces ofmerchandizing. Firstthereforelet usuryingeneralbe reduced to five in the hundred; andlet thatrate be proclaimedto be free and current;and letthe state shut itself outto take any penaltyfor thesame. This will preserve borrowingfromanygeneral stop or dryness. This will ease infiniteborrowersin the country. This willin good partraise theprice of landbecause land purchasedat sixteenyears' purchase will yield six in thehundredand somewhat more; whereas this rateofinterestyields but five. This by like reasonwillencourageand edgeindustrious and profit-ableimprovements; because many will ratherventure inthat kindthan take five in the hun-dredespecially having been used to greater profit.Secondlylet there be certain persons licensedto lend toknown merchantsupon usury at ahigherrate; and let it be with the cautions fol-lowing. Let the rate beeven with the merchanthimselfsomewhat more easy than that he usedformerlyto pay; for by that meansall bor-rowersshall have some ease by this reformationbe hemerchantor whosoever. Let it be nobank orcommon stockbut every man be masterof his ownmoney. Not that I altogether mis-likebanksbut they will hardly be brookedinregard ofcertain suspicions. Let the state beansweredsome small matter for the licenseandthe restleft to the lender; for if the abatement bebut smallit will no whit discourage the lender.For hefor examplethat took before ten or nine inthehundredwill sooner descend to eight in thehundredthan give over his trade of usuryand gofromcertain gainsto gains of hazard. Let theselicensedlenders be in number indefinitebut re-strainedto certain principal cities and towns ofmerchandizing;for then they will be hardly ableto colorother men's moneys in the country: so asthelicense of nine will not suck away the currentrate offive; for no man will send his moneys faroffnorput them into unknown hands.
If it beobjected that this doth in a sort authorizeusurywhich beforewas in some places but per-missive;the answer isthat it is better to mitigateusurybydeclarationthan to suffer it to ragebyconnivance.
A MAN thatis young in yearsmay be old inhoursifhe have lost no time. But that hap-penethrarely. Generallyyouth is like the firstcogitationsnot so wise as the second. For there isa youth inthoughtsas well as in ages. And yet theinventionof young menis more lively than thatof old;and imaginations stream into their mindsbetterandas it weremore divinely. Natures thathave muchheatand great and violent desires andperturbationsare not ripe for actiontill they havepassed themeridian of their years; as it was withJuliusCaesar and Septimius Severus. Of the latterof whom itis saidJuventutem egit erroribusimofuroribusplenam. And yet he was the ablest em-peroralmostof all the list. But reposed naturesmay dowell in youth. As it is seen in AugustusCaesarCosmus Duke of FlorenceGaston de Foixandothers. On the other sideheat and vivacity inageis anexcellent composition for business.Young menare fitter to inventthan to judge; fitterforexecutionthan for counsel; and fitter for newprojectsthan for settled business. For the experi-ence ofagein things that fall within the compassof itdirecteth them; but in new thingsabuseththem.
The errorsof young menare the ruin of busi-ness; butthe errors of aged menamount but tothisthatmore might have been doneor sooner.Young menin the conduct and manage of actionsembracemore than they can hold; stir more thanthey canquiet; fly to the endwithout considera-tion ofthe means and degrees; pursue somefewprincipleswhich they have chanced uponabsurdly;care not to innovatewhich draws un-knowninconveniences; use extreme remedies atfirst;andthat which doubleth all errorswill notacknowledgeor retract them; like an unreadyhorsethat will neither stop nor turn. Men of ageobject toomuchconsult too longadventure toolittlerepent too soonand seldom drive businesshome tothe full periodbut content themselveswith amediocrity of success. Certainly it is good tocompoundemployments of both; for that will begood forthe presentbecause the virtues of eitheragemaycorrect the defects of both; and good forsuccessionthat young men may be learnerswhilemen in ageare actors; andlastlygood for externaccidentsbecause authority followeth old menand favorand popularityyouth. But for the moralpartperhaps youth will have the pre-eminenceasage hathfor the politic. A certain rabbinupon thetextYouryoung men shall see visionsand yourold menshall dream dreamsinferreth that youngmenareadmitted nearer to God than oldbecausevisionisa clearer revelationthan a dream. Andcertainlythe more a man drinketh of the worldthe moreit intoxicateth; and age doth profit ratherin thepowers of understandingthan in the virtuesof thewill and affections. There be somehave anover-earlyripeness in their yearswhich fadethbetimes. These arefirstsuch as have brittle witsthe edgewhereof is soon turned; such as was Her-mogenesthe rhetoricianwhose books are exceed-ingsubtle; who afterwards waxed stupid. A secondsortisof those that have some natural dispositionswhich havebetter grace in youththan in age;such as isa fluent and luxuriant speech; whichbecomesyouth wellbut not age: so Tully saith ofHortensiusIdem manebatneque idem decebat.The thirdis of suchas take too high a strain at thefirstandare magnanimousmore than tract ofyears canuphold. As was Scipio AfricanusofwhomLivy saith in effectUltima primis cedebant.
VIRTUE islike a rich stonebest plain set; andsurelyvirtue is bestin a body that is comelythough notof delicate features; and that hathratherdignity of presencethan beauty of aspect.Neither isit almost seenthat very beautiful per-sons areotherwise of great virtue; as if nature wereratherbusynot to errthan in labor to produceexcellency. And therefore they prove accom-plishedbut not of great spirit; and study ratherbehaviorthan virtue. But this holds not always:forAugustus CaesarTitus VespasianusPhilip leBelle ofFranceEdward the Fourth of EnglandAlcibiadesof AthensIsmael the Sophy of Persiawere allhigh and great spirits; and yet the mostbeautifulmen of their times. In beautythat offavorismore than that of color; and that of decentandgracious motionmore than that of favor. Thatis thebest part of beautywhich a picture cannotexpress;nonor the first sight of the life. There is noexcellentbeautythat hath not some strangenessin theproportion. A man cannot tell whetherApellesor Albert Durerwere the more trifler;whereofthe onewould make a personage by geo-metricalproportions; the otherby taking the bestparts outof divers facesto make one excellent.SuchpersonagesI thinkwould please nobodybut thepainter that made them. Not but I think apaintermay make a better face than ever was; buthe must doit by a kind of felicity (as a musicianthatmaketh an excellent air in music)and not byrule. A man shall see facesthat if you examinethem partby partyou shall find never a good;and yetaltogether do well. If it be true that theprincipalpart of beauty is in decent motioncer-tainly itis no marvelthough persons in yearsseem manytimes more amiable; pulchrorumautumnuspulcher; for no youth can be comelybut bypardonand considering the youthas tomake upthe comeliness. Beauty is as summerfruits)which are easy to corruptand cannot last;and forthe most part it makes a dissolute youthand an agea little out of countenance; but yet cer-tainlyagainif it light wellit maketh virtue shineand vicesblush.
DEFORMEDpersons are commonly even withnature;for as nature hath done ill by themso do theyby nature; being for the most part (astheScripture saith) void of natural affection; andso theyhave their revenge of nature. Certainlythere is aconsentbetween the body and the mind;and wherenature erreth in the oneshe venturethin theother. Ubi peccat in unopericlitatur in al-tero. But because there isin manan electiontouchingthe frame of his mindand a necessity inthe frameof his bodythe stars of natural inclina-tion aresometimes obscuredby the sun of disci-pline andvirtue. Therefore it is good to consider ofdeformitynot as a signwhich is more deceivable;but as acausewhich seldom faileth of the effect.Whosoeverhath anything fixed in his personthatdothinduce contempthath also a perpetual spurinhimselfto rescue and deliver himself fromscorn. Therefore all deformed personsare extremebold. Firstas in their own defenceas being ex-posed toscorn; but in process of timeby a generalhabit. Also it stirreth in them industryand espe-cially ofthis kindto watch and observe the weak-ness ofothersthat they may have somewhat torepay. Againin their superiorsit quenchethjealousytowards themas persons that they thinkthey mayat pleasuredespise: and it layeth theircompetitorsand emulators asleep; as never believ-ing theyshould be in possibility of advancementtill theysee them in possession. So that upon thematterina great witdeformity is an advantagetorising. Kings in ancient times (and at this pres-ent insome countries) were wont to put great trustineunuchs; because they that are envious towardsall aremore obnoxious and officioustowards one.But yettheir trust towards themhath ratherbeen as togood spialsand good wbisperersthangoodmagistrates and officers. And much like isthe reasonof deformed persons. Still the groundistheywillif they be of spiritseek to free them-selvesfrom scorn; which must be either by virtueor malice;and therefore let it not be marvelledifsometimesthey prove excellent persons; as wasAgesilausZanger the son of SolymanAEsopGascaPresident of Peru; and Socrates may golikewiseamongst them; with others.
HOUSES arebuilt to live inand not to look on;thereforelet use be preferred before uni-formityexcept where both may be had. Leavethe goodlyfabrics of housesfor beauty onlytotheenchanted palaces of the poets; who build themwith smallcost. He that builds a fair houseuponan illseatcommitteth himself to prison. Neitherdo Ireckon it an ill seatonly where the air is un-wholesome;but likewise where the air is unequal;as youshall see many fine seats set upon a knap ofgroundenvironed with higher hills round aboutit;whereby the heat of the sun is pent inand thewindgathereth as in troughs; so as you shall haveand thatsuddenlyas great diversity of heat andcold as ifyou dwelt in several places. Neither is itill aironly that maketh an ill seatbut ill waysillmarkets;andif you will consult with Momusillneighbors. I speak not of many more; want ofwater;want of woodshadeand shelter; want offruitfulnessand mixture of grounds of severalnatures;want of prospect; want of level grounds;want ofplaces at some near distance for sports ofhuntinghawkingand races; too near the seatooremote;having the commodity of navigable riversor thediscommodity of their overflowing; too faroff fromgreat citieswhich may hinder businessor toonear themwhich lurcheth all provisionsand maketheverything dear; where a man hatha greatliving laid togetherand where he isscanted:all whichas it is impossible perhaps tofindtogetherso it is good to know themand thinkof themthat a man may take as many as he can;and if hehave several dwellingsthat he sort themso that what he wanteth in the onehe may find intheother. Lucullus answered Pompey well; whowhen hesaw his stately galleriesand rooms solarge andlightsomein one of his housessaidSurely anexcellent place for summerbut how doyou inwinter? Lucullus answeredWhydo younot thinkme as wise as some fowl arethat everchangetheir abode towards the winter?
To passfrom the seatto the house itself; we willdo asCicero doth in the orator's art; who writesbooks DeOratoreand a book he entitles Orator;whereofthe formerdelivers the precepts of theartandthe latterthe perfection. We will there-foredescribe a princely palacemaking a briefmodelthereof. For it is strange to seenow inEuropesuch huge buildings as the Vatican andEscurialand some others beand yet scarce a veryfair roomin them.
FirstthereforeI say you cannot have a perfectpalaceexcept you have two several sides; a side forthebanquetas it is spoken of in the book of Hesterand a sidefor the household; the one for feasts andtriumphsand the other for dwelling. I understandboth thesesides to be not only returnsbut partsof thefront; and to be uniform withoutthoughseverallypartitioned within; and to be on bothsides of agreat and stately towerin the midst ofthe frontthatas it werejoineth them togetheron eitherhand. I would have on the side of the ban-quetinfrontone only goodly room above stairsof someforty foot high; and under it a room for adressingor preparing placeat times of triumphs.On theother sidewhich is the household sideIwish itdivided at the firstinto a hall and a chapel(with apartition between); both of good state andbigness;and those not to go all the lengthbut tohave atthe further enda winter and a summerparlorboth fair. And under these roomsa fairand largecellarsunk under ground; and likewisesome privykitchenswith butteries and pantriesand thelike. As for the towerI would have it twostoriesof eighteen foot high apieceabove the twowings; anda goodly leads upon the toprailed withstatuasinterposed; and the same tower to be di-vided intoroomsas shall be thought fit. The stairslikewiseto the upper roomslet them be upon afair openneweland finely railed inwith imagesof woodcast into a brass color; and a very fairlanding-placeat the top. But this to beif you donot pointany of the lower roomsfor a dining placeofservants. For otherwiseyou shall have the ser-vants'dinner after your own: for the steam of itwill comeup as in a tunnel. And so much for thefront. Only I understand the height of the firststairs tobe sixteen footwhich is the height of thelowerroom.
Beyondthis frontis there to be a fair courtbutthreesides of itof a far lower building than thefront. And in all the four corners of that courtfairstaircasescast into turretson the outsideand notwithin therow of buildings themselves. But thosetowersare not to be of the height of the frontbutratherproportionable to the lower building. Letthe courtnot be pavedfor that striketh up a greatheat insummerand much cold in winter. Butonly someside alleyswith a crossand the quar-ters tograzebeing kept shornbut not too nearshorn. The row of return on the banquet sidelet itbe allstately galleries: in which galleries let therebe threeor fivefine cupolas in the length of itplaced atequal distance; and fine colored windowsof severalworks. On the household sidechambersofpresence and ordinary entertainmentswithsomebed-chambers; and let all three sides be adoublehousewithout thorough lights on the sidesthat youmay have rooms from the sunboth forforenoonand afternoon. Cast it alsothat you mayhaveroomsboth for summer and winter; shadyforsummerand warm for winter. You shall havesometimesfair houses so full of glassthat one can-not tellwhere to becometo be out of the sun orcold. For inbowed windowsI hold them of gooduse (incitiesindeedupright do betterin respectof theuniformity towards the street); for they beprettyretiring places for conference; and besidesthey keepboth the wind and sun off; for thatwhichwould strike almost through the roomdothscarcepass the window. But let them be but fewfour inthe courton the sides only.
Beyondthis courtlet there be an inward courtof thesame square and height; which is to be en-vironedwith the garden on all sides; and in theinsidecloistered on all sidesupon decent andbeautifularchesas high as the first story. On theunderstorytowards the gardenlet it be turnedto agrottoor a place of shadeor estivation. Andonly haveopening and windows towards the gar-den; andbe level upon the floorno whit sunkenundergroundto avoid all dampishness. And letthere be afountainor some fair work of statuasinthe midstof this court; and to be paved as the othercourtwas. These buildings to be for privy lodgingson bothsides; and the end for privy galleries.Whereofyou must foresee that one of them be foraninfirmaryif the prince or any special personshould besickwith chambersbed-chamberante-cameraand recamera joining to it. This upon thesecondstory. Upon the ground storya fair galleryopenuponpillars; and upon the third story like-wiseanopen galleryupon pillarsto take theprospectand freshness of the garden. At both cor-ners ofthe further sideby way of returnlet therebe twodelicate or rich cabinetsdaintily pavedrichlyhangedglazed with crystalline glassanda richcupola in the midst; and all other elegancythat maybe thought upon. In the upper gallerytooIwish that there may beif the place will yielditsomefountains running in divers places fromthe wallwith some fine avoidances. And thusmuch forthe model of the palace; save that youmust havebefore you come to the frontthreecourts. A green court plainwith a wall about it;a secondcourt of the samebut more garnishedwithlittle turretsor rather embellishmentsuponthe wall;and a third courtto make a square withthe frontbut not to be builtnor yet enclosed witha nakedwallbut enclosed with terracesleadedaloftandfairly garnishedon the three sides; andcloisteredon the insidewith pillarsand not witharchesbelow. As for officeslet them stand at dis-tancewith some low galleriesto pass from themto thepalace itself.
G0DAlmighty first planted a garden. Andindeed itis the purest of human pleasures.It is thegreatest refreshment to the spirits of man;withoutwhichbuildings and palaces are butgrosshandiworks; and a man shall ever seethatwhen agesgrow to civility and elegancymencome tobuild stately sooner than to garden finely;as ifgardening were the greater perfection. I dohold itin the royal ordering of gardensthereought tobe gardensfor all the months in the year;in whichseverally things of beauty may be theninseason. For Decemberand Januaryand thelatterpart of Novemberyou must take such thingsas aregreen all winter: holly; ivy; bays; juniper;cypress-trees;yew; pine-apple-trees; fir-trees;rosemary;lavender; periwinklethe whitethepurpleand the blue; germander; flags; orange-trees;lemon-trees; and myrtlesif they be stoved;and sweetmarjoramwarm set. There followethfor thelatter part of January and Februarythemezereon-treewhich then blossoms; crocus ver-nusboththe yellow and the grey; primrosesanemones;the early tulippa; hyacinthus orien-talis;chamairis; fritellaria. For Marchtherecomevioletsspecially the single bluewhich aretheearliest; the yellow daffodil; the daisy; thealmond-treein blossom; the peach-tree in blos-som; thecornelian-tree in blossom; sweet-briar.In Aprilfollow the double white violet; the wall-flower;the stock-gilliflower; the cowslip; flower-delicesand lilies of all natures; rosemary-flowers;thetulippa; the double peony; the pale daffodil;the Frenchhoneysuckle; the cherry-tree in blos-som; thedamson and plum-trees in blossom; thewhitethorn in leaf; the lilac-tree. In May andJune comepinks of all sortsspecially the blush-pink;roses of all kindsexcept the muskwhichcomeslater; honeysuckles; strawberries; bugloss;columbine;the French marigoldflos Africanus;cherry-treein fruit; ribes; figs in fruit; rasps; vine-flowers;lavender in flowers; the sweet satyrianwith thewhite flower; herba muscaria; liliumconvallium;the apple-tree in blossom. In Julycomegilliflowers of all varieties; musk-roses; thelime-treein blossom; early pears and plums infruit;jennetingscodlins. In August come plumsof allsorts in fruit; pears; apricocks; berberries;filberds;musk-melons; monks-hoodsof all colors.InSeptember come grapes; apples; poppies ofallcolors; peaches; melocotones; nectarines; cor-nelians;wardens; quinces. In October and thebeginningof November come services; medlars;bullaces;roses cut or removed to come late; holly-hocks; andsuch like. These particulars are for theclimate ofLondon; but my meaning is perceivedthat youmay have ver perpetuumas the placeaffords.
Andbecause the breath of flowers is far sweeterin the air(where it comes and goes like the warb-ling ofmusic) than in the handtherefore nothingis morefit for that delightthan to know what betheflowers and plants that do best perfume the air.Rosesdamask and redare fast flowers of theirsmells; sothat you may walk by a whole row ofthemandfind nothing of their sweetness; yeathough itbe in a morning's dew. Bays likewiseyield nosmell as they grow. Rosemary little; norsweetmarjoram. That which above all othersyields thesweetest smell in the air is the violetspeciallythe white double violetwhich comestwice ayear; about the middle of Apriland aboutBartholomew-tide. Next to that is the musk-rose.Then thestrawberry-leaves dyingwhich yield amostexcellent cordial smell. Then the flower ofvines; itis a little dustlike the dust of a bentwhichgrows uponthe cluster in the first coming forth.Thensweet-briar. Then wall-flowerswhich areverydelightful to be set under a parlor or lowerchamberwindow. Then pinks and gilliflowersespeciallythe matted pink and clove gilliflower.Then theflowers of the lime-tree. Then the honey-sucklesso they be somewhat afar off. Of bean-flowers Ispeak notbecause they are field flowers.But thosewhich perfume the air most delightfullynot passedby as the restbut being trodden uponandcrushedare three; that isburnetwild-thymeandwatermints. Therefore you are to setwholealleys of themto have the pleasure whenyou walkor tread.
Forgardens (speaking of those which are indeedprincelikeas we have done of buildings)the con-tentsought not well to be under thirty acres ofground;and to be divided into three parts; a greenin theentrance; a heath or desert in the goingforth; andthe main garden in the midst; besidesalleys onboth sides. And I like well that four acresof groundbe assigned to the green; six to theheath;four and four to either side; and twelve tothe maingarden. The green hath two pleasures:the onebecause nothing is more pleasant to theeye thangreen grass kept finely shorn; the otherbecause itwill give you a fair alley in the midstbywhich youmay go in front upon a stately hedgewhich isto enclose the garden. But because thealley willbe longandin great heat of the year ordayyouought not to buy the shade in the gardenby goingin the sun through the greenthereforeyou areof either side the greento plant a covertalley uponcarpenter's workabout twelve foot inheightbywhich you may go in shade into thegarden. As for the making of knots or figureswithdiverscolored earths that they may lie under thewindows ofthe house on that side which the gar-denstandsthey be but toys; you may see as goodsightsmany timesin tarts. The garden is best tobe squareencompassed on all the four sides witha statelyarched hedge. The arches to be upon pil-lars ofcarpenter's workof some ten foot highandsix footbroad; and the spaces between of the samedimensionwith the breadth of the arch. Over thearches letthere be an entire hedge of some fourfoot highframed also upon carpenter's work; andupon theupper hedgeover every archa little tur-retwitha bellyenough to receive a cage of birds:and overevery space between the arches someotherlittle figurewith broad plates of round col-ored glassgiltfor the sun to play upon. But thishedge Iintend to be raised upon a banknot steepbut gentlyslopeof some six footset all withflowers. Also I understandthat this square of thegardenshould not be the whole breadth of thegroundbut to leave on either sideground enoughfordiversity of side alleys; unto which the twocovertalleys of the greenmay deliver you. Butthere mustbe no alleys with hedgesat either endof thisgreat enclosure; not at the hither endforlettingyour prospect upon this fair hedge fromthe green;nor at the further endfor letting yourprospectfrom the hedgethrough the arches uponthe heath.
For theordering of the groundwithin the greathedgeIleave it to variety of device; advisingneverthelessthat whatsoever form you cast it intofirstitbe not too busyor full of work. Wherein Ifor mypartdo not like images cut out in juniperor othergarden stuff; they be for children. Littlelowhedgesroundlike weltswith some prettypyramidsI like well; and in some placesfaircolumnsupon frames of carpenter's work. I wouldalso havethe alleysspacious and fair. You mayhavecloser alleysupon the side groundsbut nonein themain garden. I wish alsoin the very middlea fairmountwith three ascentsand alleysenough forfour to walk abreast; which I wouldhave to beperfect circleswithout any bulwarksorembossments; and the whole mount to be thirtyfoot high;and some fine banqueting-housewithsomechimneys neatly castand without too muchglass.
Forfountainsthey are a great beauty and re-freshment;but pools mar alland make the gardenunwholesomeand full of flies and frogs. Foun-tains Iintend to be of two natures: the one thatsprinklethor spouteth water; the other a fair re-ceipt ofwaterof some thirty or forty foot squarebutwithout fishor slimeor mud. For the firsttheornaments of images giltor of marblewhichare inusedo well: but the main matter is so toconvey thewateras it never stayeither in thebowls orin the cistern; that the water be never byrestdiscoloredgreen or red or the like; or gatheranymossiness or putrefaction. Besides thatit is tobecleansed every day by the hand. Also somesteps upto itand some fine pavement about itdothwell. As for the other kind of fountainwhichwe maycall a bathing poolit may admit muchcuriosityand beauty; wherewith we will nottroubleourselves: asthat the bottom be finelypavedandwith images; the sides likewise; andwithalembellished with colored glassand suchthings oflustre; encompassed also with fine railsof lowstatuas. But the main point is the samewhich wementioned in the former kind of foun-tain;which isthat the water be in perpetualmotionfed by a water higher than the poolanddeliveredinto it by fair spoutsand then dis-chargedaway under groundby some equality ofboresthat it stay little. And for fine devicesofarchingwater without spillingand making it risein severalforms (of feathersdrinking glassescanopiesand the like)they be pretty things tolook onbut nothing to health and sweetness.
For theheathwhich was the third part of ourplotIwish it to be framedas much as may betoa naturalwildness. Trees I would have none in itbut somethickets made only of sweet-briar andhoneysuckleand some wild vine amongst; andthe groundset with violetsstrawberriesandprimroses. For these are sweetand prosper in theshade. And these to be in the heathhere and therenot in anyorder. I like also little heapsin the na-ture ofmole-hills (such as are in wild heaths)tobe setsome with wild thyme; some with pinks;some withgermanderthat gives a good flower tothe eye;some with periwinkle; some with violets;some withstrawberries; some with cowslips; somewithdaisies; some with red roses; some with liliumconvallium;some with sweet-williams red; somewithbear's-foot: and the like low flowersbeingwithalsweet and sightly. Part of which heapsareto be withstandards of little bushes pricked upontheir topand part without. The standards to beroses;juniper; holly; berberries (but here andtherebecause of the smell of their blossoms); redcurrants;gooseberries; rosemary; bays; sweet-briar; andsuch like. But these standards to be keptwithcuttingthat they grow not out of course.
For theside groundsyou are to fill them withvariety ofalleysprivateto give a full shadesomeof themwheresoever the sun be. You are to framesome ofthemlikewisefor shelterthat when thewind blowssharp you may walk as in a gallery.And thosealleys must be likewise hedged at bothendstokeep out the wind; and these closer alleysmust beever finely gravelledand no grassbe-cause ofgoing wet. In many of these alleyslike-wiseyouare to set fruit-trees of all sorts; as wellupon thewallsas in ranges. And this would begenerallyobservedthat the borders wherein youplant yourfruit-treesbe fair and largeand lowand notsteep; and set with fine flowersbut thinandsparinglylest they deceive the trees. At theend ofboth the side groundsI would have a mountof somepretty heightleaving the wall of the en-closurebreast highto look abroad into the fields.
For themain gardenI do not denybut thereshould besome fair alleys ranged on both sideswithfruit-trees; and some pretty tufts of fruit-treesandarbors with seatsset in some decentorder; butthese to be by no means set too thick; butto leavethe main garden so as it be not closebutthe airopen and free. For as for shadeI wouldhave yourest upon the alleys of the side groundsthere towalkif you be disposedin the heat of theyear orday; but to make accountthat the maingarden isfor the more temperate parts of the year;and in theheat of summerfor the morning andtheeveningor overcast days.
ForaviariesI like them notexcept they be ofthatlargeness as they may be turfedand havelivingplants and bushes set in them; that the birdsmay havemore scopeand natural nestingandthat nofoulness appear in the floor of the aviary.So I havemade a platform of a princely gardenpartly bypreceptpartly by drawingnot a modelbut somegeneral lines of it; and in this I havespared forno cost. But it is nothing for greatprincesthat for the most part taking advice withworkmenwith no less cost set their things to-gether;and sometimes add statuas and such thingsfor stateand magnificencebut nothing to the truepleasureof a garden.
IT ISgenerally better to deal by speech than byletter;and by the mediation of a third than bya man'sself. Letters are goodwhen a man woulddraw ananswer by letter back again; or when itmay servefor a man's justification afterwards toproducehis own letter; or where it may be dangerto beinterruptedor heard by pieces. To deal inperson isgoodwhen a man's face breedeth regardascommonly with inferiors; or in tender caseswhere aman's eyeupon the countenance of himwith whomhe speakethmay give him a directionhow far togo; and generallywhere a man willreserve tohimself libertyeither to disavow or toexpound. In choice of instrumentsit is better tochoose menof a plainer sortthat are like to dothatthatis committed to themand to report backagainfaithfully the successthan those that arecunningto contriveout of other men's businesssomewhatto grace themselvesand will help thematter inreport for satisfaction's sake. Use alsosuchpersons as affect the businesswherein theyareemployed; for that quickeneth much; andsuchasare fit for the matter; as bold men for ex-postulationfair-spoken men for persuasioncraftymen forinquiry and observationfrowardandabsurdmenfor business that doth not well bearoutitself. Use also such as have been luckyandprevailedbeforein things wherein you have em-ployedthem; for that breeds confidenceand theywillstrive to maintain their prescription. It is bet-ter tosound a personwith whom one deals afaroffthanto fall upon the point at first; except youmean tosurprise him by some short question. It isbetterdealing with men in appetitethan withthose thatare where they would be. If a man dealwithanother upon conditionsthe start or first per-formanceis all; which a man cannot reasonablydemandexcept either the nature of the thing besuchwhich must go before; or else a man canpersuadethe other partythat he shall still needhim insome other thing; or else that he be countedthehonester man. All practice is to discoveror towork. Men discover themselves in trustin passionatunawaresand of necessitywhen they wouldhavesomewhat doneand cannot find an apt pre-text. If you would work any manyou must eitherknow hisnature and fashionsand so lead him; orhis endsand so persuade him; or his weakness anddisadvantagesand so awe him; or those that haveinterestin himand so govern him. In dealing withcunningpersonswe must ever consider their endstointerpret their speeches; and it is good to saylittle tothemand that which they least look for.In allnegotiations of difficultya man may notlook tosow and reap at once; but must preparebusinessand so ripen it by degrees.
COSTLYfollowers are not to be liked; lestwhile aman maketh his train longerhemake hiswings shorter. I reckon to be costlynotthem alonewhich charge the pursebut which arewearisomeand importune in suits. Ordinary fol-lowersought to challenge no higher conditionsthancountenancerecommendationand protec-tion fromwrongs. Factious followers are worse tobe likedwhich follow not upon affection to himwith whomthey range themselvesbut upondiscontentmentconceived against some other;whereuponcommonly ensueth that ill intelli-gencethat we many times see between great per-sonages. Likewise glorious followerswho makethemselvesas trumpets of the commendation ofthose theyfolloware full of inconvenience; forthey taintbusiness through want of secrecy; andtheyexport honor from a manand make him areturn inenvy. There is a kind of followers like-wisewhich are dangerousbeing indeed espials;whichinquire the secrets of the houseand beartales ofthemto others. Yet such menmany timesare ingreat favor; for they are officiousand com-monlyexchange tales. The following by certainestates ofmenanswerable to thatwhich a greatpersonhimself professeth (as of soldiersto himthat hathbeen employed in the warsand the like)hath everbeen a thing civiland well takeneveninmonarchies; so it be without too much pomporpopularity. But the most honorable kind of fol-lowingisto be followed as onethat apprehendethto advancevirtueand desertin all sorts of per-sons. And yetwhere there is no eminent odds insufficiencyit is better to take with the more pass-ablethanwith the more able. And besidestospeaktruthin base timesactive men are of moreuse thanvirtuous. It is true that in governmentitis good touse men of one rank equally: for to coun-tenancesome extraordinarilyis to make theminsolentand the rest discontent; because theymay claima due. But contrariwisein favortouse menwith much difference and election isgood; forit maketh the persons preferred morethankfuland the rest more officious: because all isof favor. It is good discretionnot to make too muchof any manat the first; because one cannot holdout thatproportion. To be governed (as we call it)by one isnot safe; for it shows softnessand givesa freedomto scandal and disreputation; for thosethat wouldnot censure or speak ill of a man imme-diatelywill talk more boldly of those that are sogreat withthemand thereby wound their honor.Yet to bedistracted with many is worse; for itmakes mento be of the last impressionand full ofchange. To take advice of some few friendsis everhonorable;for lookers-on many times see morethangamesters; and the vale best discovereth thehill. There is little friendship in the worldand leastof allbetween equalswhich was wont to be mag-nified. That that isis between superior and in-feriorwhose fortunes may comprehend the onetheother.
MANY illmatters and projects are under-taken; andprivate suits do putrefy the pub-lic good. Many good mattersare undertaken withbad minds;I mean not only corrupt mindsbutcraftymindsthat intend not performance. Someembracesuitswhich never mean to deal effectu-ally inthem; but if they see there may be life inthematterby some other meanthey will be con-tent towin a thankor take a second rewardor atleast tomake usein the meantimeof the suitor'shopes. Some take hold of suitsonly for an occa-sion tocross some other; or to make an informa-tionwhereof they could not otherwise have aptpretext;without care what become of the suitwhen thatturn is served; orgenerallyto makeothermen's business a kind of entertainmenttobring intheir own. Naysome undertake suitswith afull purpose to let them fall; to the end togratifythe adverse partyor competitor. Surelythere isin some sort a right in every suit; either aright ofequityif it be a suit of controversy; or aright ofdesertif it be a suit of petition. If affectionlead a manto favor the wrong side in justicelethim ratheruse his countenance to compound thematterthan to carry it. If affection lead a manto favorthe less worthy in desertlet him do itwithoutdepraving or disabling the better deserver.In suitswhich a man doth not well understanditis good torefer them to some friend of trust andjudgmentthat may reportwhether he may dealin themwith honor: but let him choose well hisreferendariesfor else he may be led by the nose.Suitorsare so distasted with delays and abusesthat plaindealingin denying to deal in suits atfirstandreporting the success barelyand in chal-lenging nomore thanks than one hath deservedis grownnot only honorablebut also gracious. Insuits offavorthe first coming ought to take littleplace: sofar forthconsideration may be had ofhis trustthat if intelligence of the matter couldnototherwise have been hadbut by himadvan-tage benot taken of the notebut the party left tohis othermeans; and in some sort recompensedfor hisdiscovery. To be ignorant of the value of asuitissimplicity; as well as to be ignorant of therightthereofis want of conscience. Secrecy insuitsisa great mean of obtaining; for voicingthem to bein forwardnessmay discourage somekind ofsuitorsbut doth quicken and awake others.But timingof the suit is the principal. TimingIsaynotonly in respect of the person that shouldgrant itbut in respect of thosewhich are like tocross it. Let a manin the choice of his meanratherchoose thefittest meanthan the greatest mean;and ratherthem that deal in certain thingsthanthose thatare general. The reparation of a denialissometimes equal to the first grant; if a manshowhimself neither dejected nor discontented.Iniquumpetas ut aequum feras is a good rulewhere aman hath strength of favor: but other-wiseaman were better rise in his suit; forhethatwould have ventured at first to have lostthesuitorwill not in the conclusion lose both thesuitorand his own former favor. Nothing isthought soeasy a request to a great personas hisletter;and yetif it be not in a good causeit is somuch outof his reputation. There are no worseinstrumentsthan these general contrivers of suits;for theyare but a kind of poisonand infectiontopublicproceedings.
STUDIESserve for delightfor ornamentandforability. Their chief use for delightis inprivatenessand retiring; for ornamentis in dis-course;and for abilityis in the judgmentanddispositionof business. For expert men can exe-cuteandperhaps judge of particularsone by one;but thegeneral counselsand the plots and mar-shallingof affairscome bestfrom those that arelearned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth;to usethem too much for ornamentis affectation;to makejudgment wholly by their rulesis thehumor of ascholar. They perfect natureand areperfectedby experience: for natural abilities arelikenatural plantsthat need proyningby study;andstudies themselvesdo give forth directions toomuch atlargeexcept they be bounded in by ex-perience. Crafty men contemn studiessimple menadmirethemand wise men use them; for theyteach nottheir own use; but that is a wisdom with-out themand above themwon by observation.Read notto contradict and confute; nor to believeand takefor granted; nor to find talk and dis-course;but to weigh and consider. Some books areto betastedothers to be swallowedand some fewto bechewed and digested; that issome books areto be readonly in parts; others to be readbut notcuriously;and some few to be read whollyandwithdiligence and attention. Some books also maybe read bydeputyand extracts made of them byothers;but that would be only in the less impor-tantargumentsand the meaner sort of bookselsedistilledbooks are like common distilled watersflashythings. Reading maketh a full man; confer-ence aready man; and writing an exact man. Andthereforeif a man write littlehe had need havea greatmemory; if he confer littlehe had needhave apresent wit: and if he read littlehe hadneed havemuch cunningto seem to knowthathe dothnot. Histories make men wise; poets witty;themathematics subtile; natural philosophy deep;moralgrave; logic and rhetoric able to contend.Abeuntstudia in mores. Naythere is no stond orimpedimentin the witbut may be wrought outby fitstudies; like as diseases of the bodymayhaveappropriate exercises. Bowling is good forthe stoneand reins; shooting for the lungs andbreast;gentle walking for the stomach; riding forthe head;and the like. So if a man's wit be wan-deringlet him study the mathematics; for indemonstrationsif his wit be called away never solittlehemust begin again. If his wit be not apt todistinguishor find differenceslet him study theSchoolmen;for they are cymini sectores. If he benot apt tobeat over mattersand to call up onething toprove and illustrate anotherlet him study 197thelawyers' cases. So every defect of the mindmay have aspecial receipt.
MANY havean opinion not wisethat for aprince togovern his estateor for a greatperson togovern his proceedingsaccording to therespect offactionsis a principal part of policy;whereascontrariwisethe chiefest wisdomiseither inordering those things which are generalandwherein men of several factions do neverthe-lessagree; or in dealing with correspondence toparticularpersonsone by one. But I say not thattheconsiderations of factionsis to be neglected.Mean menin their risingmust adhere; butgreat menthat have strength in themselveswerebetter tomaintain themselves indifferentandneutral. Yet even in beginnersto adhere so moder-atelyashe be a man of the one factionwhich ismostpassable with the othercommonly givethbest way. The lower and weaker factionis thefirmer inconjunction; and it is often seenthat afew thatare stiffdo tire out a greater numberthatare moremoderate. When one of the factions is ex-tinguishedthe remaining subdivideth; as thefactionbetween Lucullusand the rest of thenobles ofthe senate (which they called Optimates)held outawhileagainst the faction of PompeyandCaesar; but when the senate's authority waspulleddownCaesar and Pompey soon after brake.Thefaction or party of Antonius and OctavianusCaesaragainst Brutus and Cassiusheld out like-wise for atime; but when Brutus and Cassius wereoverthrownthen soon afterAntonius and Octa-vianusbrake and subdivided. These examples areof warsbut the same holdeth in private factions.Andthereforethose that are seconds in factionsdo manytimeswhen the faction subdividethproveprincipals; but many times alsothey proveciphersand cashiered; for many a man's strengthis inopposition; and when that failethhe growethout ofuse. It is commonly seenthat menonceplacedtake in with the contrary factionto thatby whichthey enter: thinking belikethat theyhave thefirst sureand now are ready for a newpurchase. The traitor in factionlightly goethaway withit; for when matters have stuck long inbalancingthe winning of some one man casteththemandhe getteth all the thanks. The even car-riagebetween two factionsproceedeth not alwaysofmoderationbut of a trueness to a man's selfwith endto make use of both. Certainly in Italythey holdit a little suspect in popeswhen theyhave oftenin their mouth Padre commune: andtake it tobe a sign of onethat meaneth to refer allto thegreatness of his own house. Kings had needbewarehow they side themselvesand makethemselvesas of a faction or party; for leagueswithin thestateare ever pernicious to monarchies:for theyraise an obligationparamount to obliga-tion ofsovereigntyand make the king tanquamunus exnobis; as was to be seen in the League ofFrance. When factions are carried too high and tooviolentlyit is a sign of weakness in princes; andmuch tothe prejudiceboth of their authority andbusiness. The motions of factions under kingsought tobelike the motions (as the astronomersspeak) ofthe inferior orbswhich may have theirpropermotionsbut yet still are quietly carriedbythe highermotion of primum mobile.
HE THAT isonly realhad need have exceed-ing greatparts of virtue; as the stone hadneed to berichthat is set without foil. But if aman markit well it isin praise and commenda-tion ofmenas it is in gettings and gains: for theproverb istrueThat light gains make heavypurses;for light gains come thickwhereas greatcome butnow and then. So it is truethat smallmatterswin great commendationbecause theyarecontinually in use and in note: whereas theoccasionof any great virtuecometh but on festi-vals. Therefore it doth much add to a man's reputa-tionandis (as Queen Isabella said) like perpetualletterscommendatoryto have good forms. To at-tain themit almost sufficeth not to despise them;for soshall a man observe them in others; and lethim trusthimself with the rest. For if he labor toomuch toexpress themhe shall lose their grace;which isto be natural and unaffected. Some men'sbehavioris like a versewherein every syllable ismeasured;how can a man comprehend great mat-tersthatbreaketh his mind too muchto smallobservations?Not to use ceremonies at allis toteachothers not to use them again; and so dimin-ishethrespect to himself; especially they be not tobeomittedto strangers and formal natures; butthedwelling upon themand exalting them abovethe moonis not only tediousbut doth diminishthe faithand credit of him that speaks. And cer-tainlythere is a kind of conveyingof effectualandimprinting passages amongst complimentswhich isof singular useif a man can hit upon it.Amongst aman's peersa man shall be sure offamiliarity;and therefore it is gooda little to keepstate. Amongst a man's inferiors one shall be sureofreverence; and therefore it is gooda little to befamiliar. He that is too much in anythingso thathe givethanother occasion of satietymaketh him-selfcheap. To apply one's self to othersis good; soit be withdemonstrationthat a man doth it uponregardand not upon facility. It is a good preceptgenerallyin seconding anotheryet to add some-what ofone's own: as if you will grant his opinionlet it bewith some distinction; if you will followhismotionlet it be with condition; if you allowhiscounsellet it be with alleging further reason.Men hadneed bewarehow they be too perfect incompliments;for be they never so sufficient other-wisetheir enviers will be sure to give them thatattributeto the disadvantage of their greater vir-tues. It is loss also in businessto be too full of re-spectsorto be curiousin observing times andopportunities. Solomon saithHe that considereththe windshall not sowand he that looketh tothecloudsshall not reap. A wise man will makemoreopportunitiesthan he finds. Men's behaviorshould belike their apparelnot too strait or pointdevicebut free for exercise or motion.
PRAISE isthe reflection of virtue; but it is asthe glassor bodywhich giveth the reflec-tion. If it be from the common peopleit is com-monlyfalse and naught; and rather followeth vainpersonsthan virtuous. For the common peopleunderstandnot many excellent virtues. The lowestvirtuesdraw praise from them; the middle virtueswork inthem astonishment or admiration; but ofthehighest virtuesthey have no sense of perceiv-ing atall. But showsand species virtutibus similesserve bestwith them. Certainly fame is like a riverthatbeareth up things light and swolnand drownsthingsweighty and solid. But if persons of qualityandjudgment concurthen it is (as the Scripturesaith)nomen bonum instar unguenti fragrantis.It firethall round aboutand will not easily away.For theodors of ointments are more durablethanthose offlowers. There be so many false points ofpraisethat a man may justly hold it a suspect.Somepraises proceed merely of flattery; and if hebe anordinary flattererhe will have certain com-monattributeswhich may serve every man; if hebe acunning flattererhe will follow the arch-flattererwhich is a man's self; and wherein a manthinkethbest of himselftherein the flatterer willuphold himmost: but if he be an impudent flat-tererlook wherein a man is conscious to himselfthat he ismost defectiveand is most out of counte-nance inhimselfthat will the flatterer entitle himtoperforcespreta conscientia. Some praises comeof goodwishes and respectswhich is a form dueincivilityto kings and great personslaudandopraeciperewhen by telling men what they aretheyrepresent to themwhat they should be. Somemen arepraised maliciouslyto their hurttherebyto stirenvy and jealousy towards them: pessimumgenusinimicorum laudantium; insomuch as itwas aproverbamongst the Greciansthat he thatwaspraised to his hurtshould have a push riseupon hisnose; as we saythat a blister will riseupon one'stonguethat tells a lie. Certainly mod-eratepraiseused with opportunityand not vul-garisthat which doth the good. Solomon saithHe thatpraiseth his friend aloudrising earlyitshall beto him no better than a curse. Too muchmagnifyingof man or matterdoth irritate con-tradictionand procure envy and scorn. To praisea man'sselfcannot be decentexcept it be in rarecases; butto praise a man's office or professionhemay do itwith good graceand with a kind of mag-nanimity. The cardinals of Romewhich are theo-loguesand friarsand Schoolmenhave a phraseof notablecontempt and scorn towards civil busi-ness: forthey call all temporal business of warsembassagesjudicatureand other employmentssbirreriewhich is under-sheriffries; as if theywere butmattersfor under-sheriffs and catch-poles:though many times those under-sheriffriesdo moregoodthan their high speculations. St.Paulwhenhe boasts of himselfhe doth oft inter-laceIspeak like a fool; but speaking of his callinghe saithmagnificabo apostolatum meum.
IT WASprettily devised of AEsopThe fly satupon theaxle-tree of the chariot wheelandsaidWhata dust do I raise! So are there some vainpersonsthat whatsoever goeth aloneor movethupongreater meansif they have never so littlehand initthey think it is they that carry it. Theythat aregloriousmust needs be factious; for allbraverystands upon comparisons. They mustneeds beviolentto make good their own vaunts.Neithercan they be secretand therefore not ef-fectual;but according to the French proverbBeaucoupde bruitpeu de fruit; Much bruit littlefruit. Yet certainlythere is use of this quality incivilaffairs. Where there is an opinion and fame tobecreatedeither of virtue or greatnessthese menare goodtrumpeters. Againas Titus Livius notethin thecase of Antiochus and the AEtoliansTherearesometimes great effectsof cross lies; as if amanthatnegotiates between two princesto drawthem tojoin in a war against the thirddoth extolthe forcesof either of themabove measuretheone to theother: and sometimes he that deals be-tween manand manraiseth his own credit withbothbypretending greater interest than he hathineither. And in these and the like kindsit oftenfalls outthat somewhat is produced of nothing;for liesare sufficient to breed opinionand opinionbrings onsubstance. In militar commanders andsoldiersvain-glory is an essential point; for asironsharpens ironso by gloryone courage sharp-enethanother. In cases of great enterprise uponcharge andadventurea composition of gloriousnaturesdoth put life into business; and those thatare ofsolid and sober natureshave more of theballastthan of the sail. In fame of learningtheflightwill be slow without some feathers of osten-tation. Qui de contemnenda gloria libros scri-buntnomensuum inscribunt. SocratesAristotleGalenwere men full of ostentation. Certainlyvain-gloryhelpeth to perpetuate a man's memory;and virtuewas never so beholding to human na-tureasit received his due at the second hand.Neitherhad the fame of CiceroSenecaPliniusSecundusborne her age so wellif it had not beenjoinedwith some vanity in themselves; like untovarnishthat makes ceilings not only shine butlast. But all this whilewhen I speak of vain-gloryI mean notof that propertythat Tacitus doth at-tribute toMucianus; Omnium quae dixerat fece-ratquearte quadam ostentator: for that proceedsnot ofvanitybut of natural magnanimity anddiscretion;and in some personsis not only comelybutgracious. For excusationscessionsmodestyitselfwell governedare but arts of ostentation.Andamongst those artsthere is none better thanthat whichPlinius Secundus speaketh ofwhich isto beliberal of praise and commendation to othersin thatwherein a man's self hath any perfection.For saithPlinyvery wittilyIn commendinganotheryou do yourself right; for he that youcommendis either superior to you in that youcommendor inferior. If he be inferiorif he be tobecommendedyou much more; if he be superiorif he benot to be commendedyou much less.Gloriousmen are the scorn of wise menthe ad-mirationof foolsthe idols of parasitesand theslaves oftheir own vaunts.
THEwinning of honoris but the revealing ofa mansvirtue and worthwithout disadvan-tage. For some in their actionsdo woo and effecthonor andreputationwhich sort of menarecommonlymuch talked ofbut inwardly littleadmired. And somecontrariwisedarken theirvirtue inthe show of it; so as they be undervaluedinopinion. If a man perform thatwhich hath notbeenattempted before; or attempted and givenover; orhath been achievedbut not with so goodcircumstance;he shall purchase more honorthanbyeffecting a matter of greater difficulty or virtuewherein heis but a follower. If a man so temperhisactionsas in some one of them he doth contenteveryfactionor combination of peoplethe musicwill bethe fuller. A man is an ill husband of bishonorthat entereth into any actionthe failingwhereinmay disgrace himmore than the carry-ing of itthroughcan honor him. Honor that isgained andbroken upon anotherhath the quick-estreflectionlike diamonds cut with facets. Andthereforelet a man contend to excel any competi-tors ofhis in honorin outshooting themif he canin theirown bow. Discreet followers and servantshelp muchto reputation. Omnis fama a domesticisemanat. Envywhich is the canker of honorisbestextinguished by declaring a man's self inhis endsrather to seek merit than fame; and byattributinga man's successesrather to divineProvidenceand felicitythan to his own virtue orpolicy.
The truemarshalling of the degrees of sovereignhonorarethese: In the first place are conditoresimperiorumfounders of states and common-wealths;such as were RomulusCyrusCaesarOttomanIsmael. In the second place are legis-latoreslawgivers; which are also called secondfoundersor perpetui principesbecause they gov-ern bytheir ordinances after they are gone; suchwereLycurgusSolonJustinianEadgarAlphon-sus ofCastilethe Wisethat made the Siete Parti-das. In the third place are liberatoresor salvatoressuch ascompound the long miseries of civilwarsordeliver their countries from servitude ofstrangersor tyrants; as Augustus CaesarVespasi-anusAurelianusTheodoricusKing Henry theSeventh ofEnglandKing Henry the Fourth ofFrance. In the fourth place are propagatores orpropugnatoresimperii; such as in honorable warsenlargetheir territoriesor make noble defenceagainstinvaders. And in the last place are patrespatriae;which reign justlyand make the timesgoodwherein they live. Both which last kinds neednoexamplesthey are in such number. Degrees ofhonorinsubjectsarefirst participes curarumthose uponwhomprinces do discharge the great-est weightof their affairs; their right handsaswe callthem. The next are duces belligreat leadersin war;such as are princes' lieutenantsand dothemnotable services in the wars. The third aregratiosifavorites; such as exceed not this scant-lingtobe solace to the sovereignand harmless tothepeople. And the fourthnegotiis pares; such ashave greatplaces under princesand execute theirplaceswith sufficiency. There is an honorlike-wisewhich may be ranked amongst the greatestwhichhappeneth rarely; that isof such as sacri-ficethemselves to death or danger for the good oftheircountry; as was M. Regulusand the twoDecii.
JUDGESought to rememberthat their office isjusdicereand not jus dare; to interpret lawand not tomake lawor give law. Else will it belike theauthorityclaimed by the Church of Romewhichunder pretext of exposition of Scripturedoth notstick to add and alter; and to pronouncethat whichthey do not find; and by show of an-tiquityto introduce novelty. Judges ought to bemorelearnedthan wittymore reverendthanplausibleandmore advisedthan confident. Aboveallthingsintegrity is their portion and propervirtue. Cursed (saith the law) is he that removeththelandmark. The mislayer of a mere-stone is toblame. But it is the unjust judgethat is the capitalremover oflandmarkswhen he defineth amissoflands andproperty. One foul sentence doth morehurtthanmany foul examples. For these do butcorruptthe streamthe other corrupteth the foun-tain. So with SolomonFons turbatuset venacorruptaest justus cadens in causa sua coramadversario. The office of judges may have referenceunto theparties that useunto the advocates thatpleadunto the clerks and ministers of justiceunderneaththemand to the sovereign or stateabovethem.
Firstforthe causes or parties that sue. There be(saith theScripture) that turn judgmentintowormwood;and surely there be alsothat turn itintovinegar; for injustice maketh it bitteranddelaysmake it sour. The principal duty of a judgeis tosuppress force and fraud; whereof force is themoreperniciouswhen it is openand fraudwhenit isclose and disguised. Add thereto contentioussuitswhich ought to be spewed outas the surfeitofcourts. A judge ought to prepare his way to ajustsentenceas God useth to prepare his waybyraisingvalleys and taking down hills: so whenthereappeareth on either side an high handvio-lentprosecutioncunning advantages takencom-binationpowergreat counselthen is the virtueof a judgeseento make inequality equal; that hemay planthis judgment as upon an even ground.Quifortiter emungitelicit sanguinem; and wherethewine-press is hard wroughtit yields a harshwinethattastes of the grape-stone. Judges mustbeware ofhard constructionsand strained infer-ences; forthere is no worse torturethan the tor-ture oflaws. Specially in case of laws penaltheyought tohave carethat that which was meant forterrorbenot turned into rigor; and that theybring notupon the peoplethat shower whereoftheScripture speakethPluet super eos laqueos;for penallaws pressedare a shower of snares uponthepeople. Therefore let penal lawsif they havebeensleepers of longor if they be grown unfit forthepresent timebe by wise judges confined in theexecution:Judicis officium estut resita temporarerumetc. In causes of life and deathjudges ought(as far asthe law permitteth) in justice to remem-ber mercy;and to cast a severe eye upon theexamplebut a merciful eye upon the person.
Secondlyfor the advocates and counsel thatplead. Patience and gravity of hearingis an essen-tial partof justice; and an overspeaking judge is nowell-tunedcymbal. It is no grace to a judgefirstto findthatwhich he might have heard in duetime fromthe bar; or to show quickness of conceitin cuttingoff evidence or counsel too short; or topreventinformation by questionsthough perti-nent. The parts of a judge in hearingare four: todirect theevidence; to moderate lengthrepetitionorimpertinency of speech; to recapitulateselectandcollate the material pointsof that which hathbeen said;and to give the rule or sentence. What-soever isabove these is too much; and proceedetheither ofgloryand willingness to speakor of im-patienceto hearor of shortness of memoryor ofwant of astaid and equal attention. It is a strangething toseethat the boldness of advocates shouldprevailwith judges; whereas they should imitateGodinwhose seat they sit; who represseth the pre-sumptuousand giveth grace to the modest. But itis morestrangethat judges should have notedfavorites;which cannot but cause multiplicationof feesand suspicion of by-ways. There is due fromthe judgeto the advocatesome commendationandgracingwhere causes are well handled andfairpleaded; especially towards the side whichobtainethnot; for that upholds in the clientthereputationof his counseland beats down in himtheconceit of his cause. There is likewise due to thepublicacivil reprehension of advocateswherethereappeareth cunning counselgross neglectslightinformationindiscreet pressingor an over-bolddefence. And let not the counsel at the barchop withthe judgenor wind himself into thehandlingof the cause anewafter the judge hathdeclaredhis sentence; buton the other sideletnot thejudge meet the cause half waynor giveoccasionto the partyto say his counsel or proofswere notheard.
Thirdlyfor that that concerns clerks and minis-ters. The place of justice is an hallowed place; andthereforenot only the benchbut the foot-place;andprecincts and purprise thereofought to bepreservedwithout scandal and corruption. Forcertainlygrapes (as the Scripture saith) will notbegathered of thorns or thistles; either can justiceyield herfruit with sweetnessamongst the briarsandbrambles of catching and polling clerksandministers. The attendance of courtsis subject tofour badinstruments. Firstcertain persons thatare sowersof suits; which make the court swelland thecountry pine. The second sort is of thosethatengage courts in quarrels of jurisdictionandare nottruly amici curiaebut parasiti curiaeinpuffing acourt up beyond her boundsfor theirown scrapsand advantage. The third sortis ofthose thatmay be accounted the left hands ofcourts;persons that are full of nimble and sinistertricks andshiftswhereby they pervert the plainand directcourses of courtsand bring justice intoobliquelines and labyrinths. And the fourthis thepoller andexacter of fees; which justifies the com-monresemblance of the courts of justiceto thebushwhereuntowhile the sheep flies for defenceinweatherhe is sure to lose part of his fleece. Onthe othersidean ancient clerkskilful in prece-dentswary in proceedingand understanding inthebusiness of the courtis an excellent finger ofa court;and doth many times point the way to thejudgehimself.
Fourthlyfor that which may concern the sov-ereign andestate. Judges ought above all to re-member theconclusion of the Roman TwelveTables;Salus populi suprema lex; and to knowthat lawsexcept they be in order to that endarebut thingscaptiousand oracles not well inspired.Thereforeit is an happy thing in a statewhenkings andstates do often consult with judges; andagainwhen judges do often consult with the kingand state:the onewhen there is matter of lawintervenientin business of state; the otherwhenthere issome consideration of stateintervenientin matterof law. For many times the things de-duced tojudgment may be meum and tuumwhenthe reasonand consequence thereof may trench topoint ofestate: I call matter of estatenot only theparts ofsovereigntybut whatsoever introducethany greatalterationor dangerous precedent; orconcernethmanifestly any great portion of peo-ple. And let no man weakly conceivethat justlaws andtrue policy have any antipathy; for theyare likethe spirits and sinewsthat one moves withtheother. Let judges also rememberthat Solo-mon'sthrone was supported by lions on both sides:let thembe lionsbut yet lions under the throne;beingcircumspect that they do not check or opposeany pointsof sovereignty. Let not judges also beignorantof their own rightas to think there is notleft tothemas a principal part of their officeawise useand application of laws. For they mayrememberwhat the apostle saith of a greater lawthantheirs; Nos scimus quia lex bona estmodoquis eautatur legitime.
TO SEEK toextinguish anger utterlyis but abravery ofthe Stoics. We have better oracles:Be angrybut sin not. Let not the sun go downupon youranger. Anger must be limited and con-finedboth in race and in time. We will first speakhow thenatural inclination and habit to be angrymay beattempted and calmed. Secondlyhow theparticularmotions of anger may be repressedorat leastrefrained from doing mischief. Thirdlyhow toraise angeror appease anger in another.
For thefirst; there is no other way but to medi-tateandruminate well upon the effects of angerhow ittroubles man's life. And the best time to dothisisto look back upon angerwhen the fit isthoroughlyover. Seneca saith wellThat anger islike ruinwhich breaks itself upon that it falls.TheScripture exhorteth us to possess our souls inpatience. Whosoever is out of patienceis out ofpossessionof his soul. Men must not turn bees;
... animasque in vulnere ponunt.
Anger iscertainly a kind of baseness; as it ap-pears wellin the weakness of those subjects inwhom itreigns; childrenwomenold folkssickfolks. Only men must bewarethat they carrytheiranger rather with scornthan with fear; sothat theymay seem rather to be above the injurythan belowit; which is a thing easily doneif aman willgive law to himself in it.
For thesecond point; the causes and motives ofangerarechiefly three. Firstto be too sensible ofhurt; forno man is angrythat feels not himselfhurt; andtherefore tender and delicate personsmust needsbe oft angry; they have so many thingsto troublethemwhich more robust natures havelittlesense of. The next isthe apprehension andconstructionof the injury offeredto bein the cir-cumstancesthereoffull of contempt: for contemptis thatwhich putteth an edge upon angeras muchor morethan the hurt itself. And thereforewhenmen areingenious in picking out circumstances ofcontemptthey do kindle their anger much. Lastlyopinion ofthe touch of a man's reputationdothmultiplyand sharpen anger. Wherein the remedyisthat aman should haveas Consalvo was wontto saytelam honoris crassiorem. But in all refrain-ings ofangerit is the best remedy to win time;and tomake a man's self believethat the oppor-tunity ofhis revenge is not yet comebut that heforesees atime for it; and so to still himself in themeantimeand reserve it.
To containanger from mischiefthough it takehold of amanthere be two thingswhereof youmust havespecial caution. The oneof extreme bit-terness ofwordsespecially if they be aculeate andproper;for cummunia maledicta are nothing somuch; andagainthat in anger a man reveal nosecrets;for thatmakes him not fit for society. Theotherthat you do not peremptorily break offinanybusinessin a fit of anger; but howsoever youshowbitternessdo not act anythingthat is notrevocable.
Forraising and appeasing anger in another; itis donechiefly by choosing of timeswhen menarefrowardest and worst disposedto incensethem. Againby gathering (as was touched before)all thatyou can find outto aggravate the con-tempt. And the two remedies are by the contraries.The formerto take good timeswhen first to relateto a manan angry business; for the first impres-sion ismuch; and the other isto severas much asmay bethe construction of the injury from thepoint ofcontempt; imputing it to misunderstand-ingfearpassionor what you will.
SOLOMONsaithThere is no new thing upontheearth. So that as Plato had an imaginationThat allknowledge was but remembrance; soSolomongiveth his sentenceThat all novelty isbutoblivion. Whereby you may seethat the riverof Letherunneth as well above ground as below.There isan abstruse astrologer that saithIf it werenot fortwo things that are constant (the one isthat thefixed stars ever stand a like distance onefromanotherand never come nearer togethernorgo furtherasunder; the otherthat the diurnalmotionperpetually keepeth time)no individualwould lastone moment. Certain it isthat the mat-ter is ina perpetual fluxand never at a stay. Thegreatwinding-sheetsthat bury all things in ob-livionare two; deluges and earthquakes. As forconflagrationsand great droughtsthey do notmerelydispeople and destroy. Phaeton's car wentbut aday. And the three years' drought in the timeof Eliaswas but particularand left people alive.As for thegreat burnings by lightningswhich areoften inthe West Indiesthey are but narrow. Butin theother two destructionsby deluge and earth-quakeitis further to be notedthat the remnantof peoplewhich hap to be reservedare commonlyignorantand mountainous peoplethat can giveno accountof the time past; so that the oblivion isall oneas if none had been left. If you considerwell ofthe people of the West Indiesit is veryprobablethat they are a newer or a younger peo-plethanthe people of the Old World. And it ismuch morelikelythat the destruction that hathheretoforebeen therewas not by earthquakes (astheEgyptian priest told Solon concerning theisland ofAtlantisthat it was swallowed by anearthquake)but rather that it was desolated by aparticulardeluge. For earthquakes are seldom inthoseparts. But on the other sidethey have suchpouringriversas the rivers of Asia and Africk andEuropeare but brooks to them. Their Andeslike-wiseormountainsare far higher than those withus;whereby it seemsthat the remnants of gen-eration ofmenwere in such a particular delugesaved. As for the observation that Machiavel haththat thejealousy of sectsdoth much extinguishthe memoryof things; traducing Gregory theGreatthat he did what in him layto extinguishallheathen antiquities; I do not find that thosezeals doany great effectsnor last long; as it ap-peared inthe succession of Sabinianwho didrevive theformer antiquities.
Thevicissitude of mutations in the superiorglobeareno fit matter for this present argument.It may bePlato's great yearif the world shouldlast solongwould have some effect; not in renew-ing thestate of like individuals (for that is the fumeof thosethat conceive the celestial bodies havemoreaccurate influences upon these things belowthanindeed they have)but in gross. Cometsoutofquestionhave likewise power and effectoverthe grossand mass of things; but they are rathergazeduponand waited upon in their journeythanwisely observed in their effects; specially intheirrespective effects; that iswhat kind of cometformagnitudecolorversion of the beamsplac-ing in thereign of heavenor lastingproducethwhat kindof effects.
There is atoy which I have heardand I wouldnot haveit given overbut waited upon a little.They sayit is observed in the Low Countries (Iknow notin what part) that every five and thirtyyearsthesame kind and suit of years and weath-ers comeabout again; as great frostsgreat wetgreatdroughtswarm winterssummers with littleheatandthe like; and they call it the Prime. It isa thing Ido the rather mentionbecausecomput-ingbackwardsI have found some concurrence.
But toleave these points of natureand to cometo men. The greatest vicissitude of things amongstmenisthe vicissitude of sects and religions. Forthose orbsrule in men's minds most. The true re-ligion isbuilt upon the rock; the rest are tossedupon thewaves of time. To speakthereforeof thecauses ofnew sects; and to give some counsel con-cerningthemas far as the weakness of humanjudgmentcan give stayto so great revolutions.When thereligion formerly receivedis rent bydiscords;and when the holiness of the professorsofreligionis decayed and full of scandal; andwithal thetimes be stupidignorantand bar-barous;you may doubt the springing up of a newsect; ifthen alsothere should arise any extrava-gant andstrange spiritto make himself authorthereof. All which points heldwhen Mahometpublishedhis law. If a new sect have not two prop-ertiesfear it not; for it will not spread. The one isthesupplantingor the opposingof authority es-tablished;for nothing is more popular than that.The otheris the giving license to pleasuresand avoluptuouslife. For as for speculative heresies(such aswere in ancient times the Ariansand nowtheArmenians)though they work mightily uponmen'switsyet they do not produce any great al-terationsin states; except it be by the help of civiloccasions. There be three manner of plantations ofnewsects. By the power of signs and miracles; bytheeloquenceand wisdomof speech and persua-sion; andby the sword. For martyrdomsI reckonthemamongst miracles; because they seem to ex-ceed thestrength of human nature: and I may dothe likeof superlative and admirable holiness oflife. Surely there is no better wayto stop the risingof newsects and schismsthan to reform abuses; tocompoundthe smaller differences; to proceedmildlyand not with sanguinary persecutions;and ratherto take off the principal authors by win-ning andadvancing themthan to enrage thembyviolence and bitterness.
Thechanges and vicissitude in wars are many;butchiefly in three things; in the seats or stages ofthe war;in the weapons; and in the manner of theconduct. Warsin ancient timeseemed more tomove fromeast to west; for the PersiansAssyriansArabiansTartars (which were the invaders) werealleastern people. It is truethe Gauls were west-ern; butwe read but of two incursions of theirs:the one toGallo-Greciathe other to Rome. But eastand westhave no certain points of heaven; and nomore havethe warseither from the east or westanycertainty of observation. But north and southare fixed;and it hath seldom or never been seenthat thefar southern people have invaded thenorthernbut contrariwise. Whereby it is manifestthat thenorthern tract of the worldis in naturethe moremartial region: be it in respect of the starsof thathemisphere; or of the great continents thatare uponthe northwhereas the south partforaught thatis knownis almost all sea; or (which ismostapparent) of the cold of the northern partswhich isthat whichwithout aid of disciplinedoth makethe bodies hardestand the courageswarmest.
Upon thebreaking and shivering of a great stateandempireyou may be sure to have wars. Forgreatempireswhile they standdo enervate anddestroythe forces of the natives which they havesubduedresting upon their own protecting forces;and thenwhen they fail alsoall goes to ruinandtheybecome a prey. So was it in the decay of theRomanempire; and likewise in the empire ofAlmaigneafter Charles the Greatevery bird tak-ing afeather; and were not unlike to befall toSpainifit should break. The great accessions andunions ofkingdomsdo likewise stir up wars; forwhen astate grows to an over-powerit is like agreatfloodthat will be sure to overflow. As it hathbeen seenin the states of RomeTurkeySpainandothers. Look when the world hath fewest bar-barouspeoplesbut such as commonly will notmarry orgenerateexcept they know means to live(as it isalmost everywhere at this dayexcept Tar-tary)there is no danger of inundations of people;but whenthere be great shoals of peoplewhich goon topopulatewithout foreseeing means of lifeandsustentationit is of necessity that once in anage ortwothey discharge a portion of their peopleupon othernations; which the ancient northernpeoplewere wont to do by lot; casting lots whatpartshould stay at homeand what should seektheirfortunes. When a warlike state grows soft andeffeminatethey may be sure of a war. For com-monly suchstates are grownm rich in the time oftheirdegenerating; and so the prey invitethandtheirdecay in valorencourageth a war.
As for theweaponsit hardly falleth under ruleandobservation: yet we see even theyhave re-turns andvicissitudes. For certain it isthat ord-nance wasknown in the city of the Oxidrakes inIndia; andwas thatwhich the Macedonianscalledthunder and lightningand magic. And itis wellknown that the use of ordnancehath beenin Chinaabove two thousand years. The conditionsofweaponsand their improvementare; Firstthefetchingafar off; for that outruns the danger; asit is seenin ordnance and muskets. Secondlythestrengthof the percussion; wherein likewise ord-nance doexceed all arietations and ancient inven-tions. The third isthe commodious use of them; asthat theymay serve in all weathers; that the car-riage maybe light and manageable; and the like.
For theconduct of the war: at the firstmenrestedextremely upon number: they did put thewarslikewise upon main force and valor; pointingdays forpitched fieldsand so trying it out uponan evenmatch and they were more ignorant inrangingand arraying their battles. Aftertheygrew torest upon number rather competentthanvast; theygrew to advantages of placecunningdiversionsand the like: and they grew more skil-ful in theordering of their battles.
In theyouth of a statearms do flourish; in themiddle ageof a statelearning; and then both ofthemtogether for a time; in the declining age of astatemechanical arts and merchandize. Learninghath hisinfancywhen it is but beginning andalmostchildish; then his youthwhen it is luxuri-ant andjuvenile; then his strength of yearswhenit issolid and reduced; and lastlyhis old agewhenit waxethdry and exhaust. But it is not good to looktoo longupon these turning wheels of vicissitudelest webecome giddy. As for the philology ofthemthatis but a circle of talesand therefore notfit forthis writing.
THE poetsmake Fame a monster. They de-scribe herin part finely and elegantlyandin partgravely and sententiously. They saylookhow manyfeathers she hathso many eyes shehathunderneath; so many tongues; so manyvoices;she pricks up so many ears.
This is aflourish. There follow excellent par-ables; asthatshe gathereth strength in going;that shegoeth upon the groundand yet hideth herhead inthe clouds; that in the daytime she sittethin a watchtowerand flieth most by night; thatshemingleth things donewith things not done;and thatshe is a terror to great cities. But thatwhichpasseth all the rest is: They do recount thatthe Earthmother of the giants that made waragainstJupiterand were by him destroyedthere-upon in ananger brought forth Fame. For certainit isthat rebelsfigured by the giantsand seditiousfames andlibelsare but brothers and sistersmas-culine andfeminine. But nowif a man can tamethismonsterand bring her to feed at the handand governherand with her fly other raveningfowl andkill themit is somewhat worth. But weareinfected with the style of the poets. To speaknow in asad and serious manner: There is notinall thepoliticsa place less handled and moreworthy tobe handledthan this of fame. We willthereforespeak of these points: What are falsefames; andwhat are true fames; and how theymay bebest discerned; how fames may be sownandraised; how they may be spreadand multi-plied; andhow they may be checkedand laiddead. And other things concerning the nature offame. Fame is of that forceas there is scarcely anygreatactionwherein it hath not a great part; es-peciallyin the war. Mucianus undid Vitelliusbya famethat he scatteredthat Vitellius had in pur-pose toremove the legions of Syria into Germanyand thelegions of Germany into Syria; where-upon thelegions of Syria were infinitely inflamed.JuliusCaesar took Pompey unprovidedand laidasleep hisindustry and preparationsby a famethat hecunningly gave out: Caesar's own soldiersloved himnotand being wearied with the warsand ladenwith the spoils of Gaulwould forsakehimassoon as he came into Italy. Livia settledall thingsfor the succession of her son Tiberiusbycontinualgiving outthat her husband Augustuswas uponrecovery and amendmentand it is anusualthing with the pashasto conceal the deathof theGreat Turk from the janizaries and men ofwartosave the sacking of Constantinople andothertownsas their manner is. Themistocles madeXerxesking of Persiapost apace out of Greciabygivingoutthat the Grecians had a purpose tobreak hisbridge of shipswhich he had made ath-wartHellespont. There be a thousand such likeexamples;and the more they arethe less theyneed to berepeated; because a man meeteth withthemeverywhere. Therefore let all wise governorshave asgreat a watch and care over famesas theyhave ofthe actions and designs themselves.
[Thisessay was not finished]
Avoidance: secret outlet
Bestow: settle in life
Broke: deal in brokerage
Broken: shine by comparison
Broken music: part music
Calendar: weather forecast
Care not to: are reckless
Charge and adventure: cost and risk
Check with: interfere
Chop: bandy words
Custom: import duties
Donative: money gift
Equipollent: equally powerful
Facility: of easy persuasion
Foreseen: guarded against
Globe: complete body
Hundred poll: hundredth head
In a mean: in moderation
In smother: suppressed
Intend: attend to
Mere-stone: boundary stone
Oes: round spangles
Point device: excessively precise
Return: wing running back
Save: account for
Steal: do secretly
Sumptuary law: law against extravagance
Superior globe: the heavens
Trench to: touch
Turquet: Turkish dwarf
Under foot: below value