BRADFORD'S AND WINSLOW'S JOURNAL
by William Bradford
An Excersion to Cape Cod
MONDAYthe 13th of Novemberwe unshipped our shallopand drew her on landto mend and repair herhaving been forced to cut her down in bestowing herbetwixt the decksand she was much opened with the people's lying in her; whichkept us long therefor it was sixteen or seventeen days before the carpenterhad finished her. Our people went on shore to refresh themselvesand our womento washas they had great need. But whilst we lay thus stillhoping ourshallop would be ready in five or six daysat the furthest(but our carpentermade slow work of itso that) some of our peopleimpatient of delaydesiredfor our better furtherance to travel by land into the country(which was notwithout appearance of dangernot having the shallop with themnor means tocarry provision but on their backs) to see whether it might be fit for us toseat in or no; and the ratherbecauseas we sailed into the harbourthereseemed to be a river opening itself into the main land. The willingness of thepersons was likedbut the thing itselfin regard to the dangerwas ratherpermitted than approved; and so with cautionsdirectionsand instructionssixteen men were set outwith every man his mus- ketswordand corsletunderthe conduct of Captain Miles Standish; unto whom was adjoinedfor counsel andadviceWilliam BradfordStephen Hopkinsand Edward Tilley.
Wednesdaythe 15th of Novemberthey were set ashore; and when they hadordered themselves in the order of a single fileand marched about the space ofa mile by the seathey espied five or six peoplewith a dogcoming towardsthemwho were savages; whowhen they saw themran into the woodand whistledthe dog after them&c. First they supposed them to be Master Jonesthemasterand some of his menfor they were ashore and knew of their coming; butafter they knew them to be Indiansthey marched after them into the woodslestother of the Indians should lie in ambush. But when the Indians saw our menfollowing themthey ran away with might and main; and our men turned out of thewood after themfor it was the way they intended to gobut they could not comenear them. They followed them that night about ten miles by the trace of theirfootingsand saw how they had come the same way they wentand at a turningperceived how they ran up a hillto see whether they followed them. At lengthnight came upon themand they were constrained to take up their lodging. Sothey set forth three sentinels; and the restsome kindled a fireand othersfetched woodand there held our rendezvous that night.
In the morningso soon as we could see the tracewe proceeded on ourjourneyand had the track until we had compassed the head of a long creek; andthere they took into another woodand we after themsupposing to find some oftheir dwellings. But we marched through boughs and bushesand under hills andvalleyswhich tore our very armor in piecesand yet could meet with none ofthemnor their housesnor find any fresh waterwhich we greatly desired andstood in need of; for we brought neither beer nor water with usand ourvictuals was only biscuit and Holland cheeseand a little bottle of aquavitaeso as we were sore athirst. About ten o'clock we came into a deep valleyfullof brushwood-gaileand long grassthrough which we found little paths ortracks; and there we saw a deerand found springs of fresh waterof which wewere heartily gladand set us down and drunk our first New England waterwithas much delight as ever we drunk drink in all our lives.
When we had refreshed ourselveswe directed our course full souththat wemight come to the shorewhich within a short while after we didand there madea firethat they in the ship might see where we wereas we had direction; andso marched on towards this supposed river. And as we went in another valleywefound a fine clear pond of fresh waterbeing about a musket shot broadandtwice as long. There grew also many small vinesand fowl and deer haunted there.There grew much sassafras. From thence we went onand found much plain groundabout fifty acresfit for the ploughand some signs where the Indians hadformerly planted their corn. After thissome thought it bestfor nearness ofthe riverto go down and travel on the sea sandsby which means some of ourmen were tiredand lagged behind. So we stayed and gathered them upand struckinto the land again; where we found a little path to certain heaps of sandonewhereof was covered with old matsand had a wooden thinglike a mortarwhelmed on the top of itand an earthen pot laid in a little hole at the endthereof. Wemusing what it might bedigged and found a bowandas we thoughtarrowsbut they were rotten. We supposed there were many other things; butbecause we deemed them graveswe put in the bow againand made it up as it wasand left the rest untouchedbecause we thought it would be odious unto them toransack their sepulchres.
We went on further and found new stubbleof which they had gotten corn thisyearand many walnut trees full of nutsand great store of strawberriesandsome vines. Passing thus a field or twowhich were not greatwe came toanotherwhich had also been new gottenand there we found where a house hadbeenand four or five old planks laid together. Also we found a great kettlewhich had been some ship's kettleand brought out of Europe. There was also aheap of sandmade like the formerbut it was newly donewe might see how theyhad paddled it with their handswhich we digged upand in it we found a littleold basketfull of fair Indian corn; and digged furtherand found a fine greatnew basketfull of very fair corn of this yearwith some six and thirty goodlyears of cornsome yellowand some redand others mixed with bluewhich was avery goodly sight. The basket was roundand narrow at the top. It held aboutthreeor four bushelswhich was as much as two of us could lift up from thegroundand was very handsomely and cunningly made. But whilst we were busyabout these thingswe set our men sentinel in a round ringall but two orthreewhich digged up the corn. We were in suspense what to do with it and thekettle; and at lengthafter much consultationwe concluded to take the kettleand as much of the corn as we could carry away with us; and when our shallopcameif we could find any of the peopleand come to parley with themwe wouldgive them the kettle againand satisfy them for their corn. So we took all theearsand put a good deal of the loose corn in the kettlefor two men to bringaway on a staff. Besidesthey that could put any into their pocketsfilled thesame. The rest we buried again; for we were so laden with armor that we couldcarry no more.
Not far from this place we found the remainder of an old fort or palisadowhichas we conceivedhad been made by some Christians. This was also hard bythat place which we thought had been a river; unto which we wentand found itso to bedividing itself into two arms by a high bankstanding right by thecut or mouthwhich came from the sea. That which was next unto us was the less.The other arm was more than twice as bigand not unlike to be a harbour forships; but whether it be a fresh riveror only an indraught of the seawe hadno time to discover; for we had commandment to be out but two days. Here also wesaw two canoes; the one on the one sidethe other on the other side. We couldnot believe it was a canoetill we came near it. So we returnedleaving thefurther discovery hereof to our shallopand came that night back again to thefresh water pond; and there we made our rendezvous that nightmaking a greatfireand a barricado to windward of usand kept good watch with threesentinels all nightevery one standing when his turn camewhile five or sixinches of match was burning. It proved a very rainy night.
In the morningwe took our kettle and sunk it in the pondand trimmed ourmusketsfor few of them would go off because of the wet; and so coasted thewood again to come homein which we were shrewdly puzzledand lost our way. Aswe wandered we came to a treewhere a young sprit was bowed down over a bowand some acorns strewed underneath. Stephen Hopkins saidit had been to catchsome deer. So as we were looking at itWilliam Bradford being in the rearwhenhe came looked also upon itand as he went aboutit gave a sudden jerk upandhe was immediately caught by the leg. It was a very pretty devicemade with arope of their own makingand having a noose as artificially made as any roperin England can makeand as like ours as can be; which we brought away with us.In the end we got out of the woodand were fallen about a mile too high abovethe creek; where we saw three bucksbut we had rather have had one of them. Wealso did spring three couple of partridges; and as we came along by the creekwe saw great flocks of wild geese and ducksbut they were very fearful of us.So we marched some while in the woodssome while on the sandsand other whilein the water up to the knees; till at length we came near the ship; and then weshot off our piecesand the long boat came to fetch us. Master Jones and MasterCarver being on the shorewith many of our peoplecame to meet us. And thus wecame both weary and welcome home; and delivered in our corn into the store to bekept for seedfor we knew not how to come by anyand therefore were very gladpurposingso soon as we could meet with any of the inhabitants of that placeto make them large satisfaction. This was our first discoverywhilst ourshallop was in repairing.
Our people did make things as fitting as they couldand time wouldinseeking out woodand helving of toolsand sawing of timberto build a newshallop. But the discommodiousness of the harbour did much hinder us; for wecould neither go to nor come from the shore but at high waterwhich was much toour hindrance and hurt; for oftentimes they waded to the middle of the thighand oft to the kneesto go and come from land. Some did it necessarilyandsome for their own pleasure; but it brought to the mostif not to allcoughsand colds(the weather proving suddenly cold and stormy) which afterwardsturned to the scurvywhereof many died.
The Story of the First Encounter
WEDNESDAYthe 6th of Decemberwe set outbeing very cold and hard weather.We were a long whileafter we launched from the shipbefore we could get clearof a sandy pointwhich lay within less than a furlong of the same. In whichtime two were very sickand Edward Tilley had like to have sounded with cold.The gunner also was sick unto death(but hope of trucking made him to go) andso remained all that day and the next night. At length we got clear of the sandypointand got up our sailsand within an hour or two we got under the weathershoreand then had smoother water and better sailing. But it was very cold; forthe water froze on our clothesand made them many times like coats of iron.
We sailed six or seven leagues by the shorebut saw neither river nor creek.At length we met with a tongue of landbeing flat off from the shorewith asandy point. We bore up to gain the pointand found there a fair income or roadof a baybeing a league over at the narrowestand some two or three in length;but we made right over to the land before usand left the discovery of thisincome till the next day. As we drew near to the shorewe espied some ten ortwelve Indians very busy about a black thingwhat it was we could not telltill afterwards they saw usand ran to and froas if they had been carryingsomething away. We landed a league or two from themand had much ado to putashore any whereit lay so full of flat sands. When we came to shorewe madeus a barricadoand got firewoodand set out sentinelsand betook us to ourlodgingsuch as it was. We saw the smoke of the fire which the savages madethat nightabout four or five miles from us.
In the morning we divided our companysome eight in the shallopand therest on the shore went to discover this place. But we found it only to be a baywithout either river or creek coming into it. Yet we deemed it to be as good aharbour as Cape Cod; for they that sounded it found a ship might ride in fivefathom water. We on the land found it to be a level soilthough none of thefruitfullest. We saw two becks of fresh waterwhich were the first runningstreams that we saw in the country; but one might stride over them. We foundalso a great fishcalled a grampus. dead on the sands. They in the shallopfound two of them also in the bottom of the baydead in like sort. They werecast
up at high waterand could not get off for the frost and ice. They were somefive or six paces longand about two inches thick of fatand fleshed like aswine. They would have yielded a great deal of oilif there had been time andmeans to have taken it. So we finding nothing for our turnboth we and ourshallop returned.
We then directed our course along the sea sands to the place where we firstsaw the Indians. When we were therewe saw it was also a grampus which theywere cutting up. They cut it into long rands or piecesabout an ell long andtwo handfull broad. We found here and there a piece scattered by the wayas itseemed for haste. This place the most were minded we should call the GrampusBaybecause we found so many of them there. We followed the track of theIndians' bare feet a good way on the sands. At length we saw where they struckinto the woods by the side of a pond. As we went to view the placeone said hethought he saw an Indian house among the trees; so went up to see. And here weand the shallop lost sight one of another till nightit being now about nine orten o'clock. So we light on a pathbut saw no houseand followed a great wayinto the woods. At length we found where corn had been setbut not that year.Anonwe found a great burying-placeone part whereof was encompassed with alarge palisadolike a church-yardwith young spiresfour or five yards longset as close one by another as they couldtwo or three foot in the ground.Within it was full of gravessome bigger and some less. Some were also paledabout; and others had like an Indian house made over thembut not matted. Thosegraves were more sumptuous than those at Cornhill; yet we digged none of themupbut only viewed them and went our way. Without the palisado were gravesalsobut not so costly. From this place we went and found more corngroundbutnot of this year. As we rangedwe light on four or five Indian houseswhichhad been lately dwelt in; but they were uncoveredand had no mats about them;else they were like those we found at Cornhillbut had not been so lately dweltin. There was nothing left but two or three pieces of old matsand a littlesedge. Alsoa little furtherwe found two baskets full of parched acorns hidin the groundwhich we supposed had been corn when we began to dig the same; wecast earth thereon againand went our way. All this while we saw no people.
We went ranging up and down till the sun began to draw lowand then wehasted out of the woodsthat we might come to our shallop; whichwhen we wereout of the woodswe espied a great way offand called them to come unto us;the which they did as soon as they couldfor it was not yet high water. Theywere exceeding glad to see usfor they feared because they had not seen us inso long a timethinking we would have kept by the shore side. So being bothweary and faintfor we had eaten nothing all that daywe fell to make ourrendezvous and get firewoodwhich always costs us a great deal of labor. Bythat time we had doneand our shallop come to usit was within night; and wefed upon such victuals as we hadand betook us to our restafter we had setout our watch. About midnight we heard a great and hideous cry; and oursentinels called"Arm! Arm!" So we bestirred ourselvesand shot offa couple of musketsand the noise ceased. We concluded that it was a company ofwolves or foxes; for one told us he had heard such a noise in Newfoundland.
About five o'clock in the morning we began to be stirring; and two or threewhich doubted whether their pieces would go off or nomade trial of them andshot them offbut thought nothing at all. After prayer we prepared ourselvesfor breakfastand for a journey; and it being now the twilight in the morningit was thought meet to carry the things down to the shallop. Some saidit wasnot best to carry the armor down. Others saidthey would be readier. Two orthree saidthey would not carry theirs till they went themselvesbutmistrusting nothing at all. As it fell outthe water not being high enoughthey laid the things down upon the shoreand came up to breakfast. Anonallupon a suddenwe heard a great and strange crywhich we knew to be the samevoieesthough they varied their notes. One of our companybeing abroadcamerunning inand cried"'They are men! Indians! Indians!" and withaltheir arrows came flying amongst us. Our men ran out with all speed to recovertheir arms; as by the good providence of God they did. In the mean timeCaptainMiles Standishhaving a snaphance readymade a shot; and after him another.After they two had shotother two of us were ready; but he wished us not toshoot till we could take aimfor we knew not what need we should have; andthere were four only of us which had their arms there readyand stood beforethe open side of our barricadowhich was first assaulted. They thought it bestto defend itlest the enemy should take it and our stuff; and so have the morevantage against us. Our care was no less for the shallop; but we hoped all therest would defend it. We called unto them to know how it was with them; and theyanswered "Well! Well!" every oneand "Be of good courage!"We heard three of their pieces go offand the rest called for a firebrand tolight their matches. One took a log out of the fire on his shoulder and went andcarried it unto them; which was thought did not a little discourage our enemies.The cry of our enemies was dreadfulespecially when our men ran out to recovertheir arms. Their note was after this mannerWoachwoachha ha hachwoach." Our men were no sooner come to their armsbut the enemy was readyto assault them.
There was a lusty manand no whit less valiantwho was thought to be theircaptainstood behind a tree within half a musket shot of usand there let hisarrows fly at us. He was seen to shoot three arrowswhich were all avoided; forhe at whom the first arrow was aimedsaw itand stooped downand it flew overhim. The rest were avoided also. He stood three shots of a musket. At lengthone tookas he saidfull aim at him; after which he gave an extraordinary cryand away they went all. We followed them about a quarter of a mile; but we leftsix to keep our shallopfor we were very careful of our business. Then weshouted all together two several timesand shot off a couple of musketsand soreturned. This we did that they might see we were not afraid of themnordiscouraged.
Thus it pleased God to vanquish our enemies and give us deliverance. By theirnoise we could not guess that they were less than thirty or fortythough somethought that they were many more. Yetin the dark of the morningwe could notso well discern them among the treesas they could see us by our fire- side. Wetook up eighteen of their arrowswhich we have sent to England by Master Jones;some whereof was headed with brassothers with harts' hornand others witheagles' claws. Many more no doubt were shotfor these we found were almostcovered with leaves; yetby the especial providence of Godnone of them
either hit or hurt usthough many came close by us and on every side of usand some coats which hung up in our barricado were shot through and through.
So after we had given God thanks for our deliverancewe took our shallop andwent on our journeyand called this place The First Encounter.
The Landing of the Pilgrims and Their Settlement at Plymouth
HAVING the wind goodwe sailed all that day along the coast about fifteenleagues; but saw neither river nor creek to put into. After we had sailed anhour or twoit began to snow and rainand to be bad weather. About the midstof the afternoon the wind increasedand the seas began to be very rough; andthe hinges of the rudder brokeso that we could steer no longer with itbuttwo menwith much adowere fain to serve with a couple of oars. The seas weregrown so great that we were much troubled and in great danger; and night grewon-. AnonMaster Coppin bade us be of good cheer; he saw the harbour. As wedrew nearthe gale being stiffand we bearing great sail to get insplit ourmast in three piecesand were like to have cast away our shallop. Yetby God'smercyrecovering ourselveswe had the flood with usand struck into theharbour.
Now he that thought that had been the placewas deceivedit being a placewhere not any of us had been before; and coming into the harbourhe that wasour pilotdid bear up northwardwhich if we had continuedwe had been castaway. Yet still the Lord kept usand we bare up for an island before us; andrecovering of that islandbeing compassed about with many rocksand dark nightgrowing upon usit pleased the Divine Providence that we fell upon a place ofsandy groundwhere our shallop did ride safe and secure all that night; andcoming upon a strange islandkept our watch all night in the rain upon thatisland. And in the morning we marched about itand found no inhabitants at all;and here we made our rendezvous all that daybeing Saturday10th of December.On the Sabbath day we rested; and on Monday we sounded the harbourand found ita very good harbour for our shipping. We marched also into the landand founddivers cornfieldsand little running brooksa place very good for situation.So we returned to our ship again with good news to the rest of our peoplewhichdid much comfort their hearts.
Some of ushaving a good mindfor safetyto plant in the greater islewecrossed the baywhich is there five or six miles overand found the isle abouta mile and a half or two miles aboutall woodedand no fresh water but two orthree pitsthat we doubted of fresh water in summerand so full of wood as wecould hardly clear so much as to serve us for corn. Besideswe judged it coldfor our cornand some part very rocky; yet divers thought of it as a placedefensibleand of great security. That night we returned again a shipboardwith resolution the next morning to settle on some of those places.
So in the morningafter we had called on God for directionwe came to thisresolutionto go presently ashore againand to take a better view of twoplaces which we thought most fitting for us; for we could not now take time forfurther search or considerationour victuals being much spentespecially ourbeerand it being now the 19th of December. After our landing and viewing ofthe placesso well as we couldwe came to a conclusionby most voicesto seton the main landon the first placeon a high groundwhere there is a greatdeal of land clearedand hath been planted with corn three or four years ago;and there is a very sweet brook runs under the hill sideand many delicatesprings of as good water as can be drunkand where we may harbour our shallopsand boats exceeding well; and in this brook much good fish in their seasons; onthe further side of the river also much corn-ground cleared. In one field is agreat hillon which we point to make a platformand plant our ordnancewhichwill command all round about. From thence we may see into the bayand far intothe sea; and we may see thence Cape Cod. Our greatest labor will be fetching ofour woodwhich is half a quarter of an English mile; but there is enough so faroff. What people inhabit here we yet know notfor as yet we have seen none. Sothere we made our rendezvousand a place for some of our peopleabout twentyresolving in the morning to come all ashore and to build houses.
But the next morningbeing Thursdaythe 21st of Decemberit was stormy andwetthat we could not go ashore; and those that remained there all night coulddo nothingbut were wetnot having daylight enough to make them a sufficientcourt of guardto keep them dry. All that night it blew and rained extremely.It was so tempestuous that the shallop could not go on land so soon as was meetfor they had no victuals on land. About eleven o'clock the shallop went off withmuch ado with provisionbut could not returnit blew so strong; and was suchfoul weather that we were forced to let fall our anchorand ride with threeanchors ahead.
Fridaythe 22dthe storm still continuedthat we could not get a landnorthey come to us aboard....
Saturdaythe 23dso many of us as could went on shorefelled and carriedtimberto provide themselves stuff for building.
Sundaythe 24thour people on shore heard a cry of some savagesas theythoughtwhich caused an alarm and to stand on their guardexpecting anassault; but all was quiet.
Mondaythe 25th daywe went on shoresome to fell timbersome to sawsome to riveand some to carry; so no man rested all that day. Buttowardsnightsomeas they were at workheard a noise of some Indianswhich causedus all to go to our muskets; but we heard no further. So we came aboard againand left some twenty to keep the court of guard. That night we had a sore stormof wind and rain.
Mondaythe 25thbeing Christmas daywe began to drink water aboard. But atnight the master caused us to have some beer; and so on board we had diverstimes now and then some beerbut on shore none at all....
Thursdaythe 28th of Decemberso many as could went to work on the hillwhere we purposed to build our platform for our ordinanceand which dothcommand all the plain and the bayand from whence we may see far into the seaand might be easier impaledhaving two rows of houses and a fair street. So inthe afternoon we went to measure out the groundsand first we took notice howmany families there werewilling all single men that had no wives to join withsome familyas they thought fitthat so we might build fewer houses; which wasdoneand we reduced them to nineteen families. To greater families we allottedlarger plots; to every person half a pole in breadthand three in length; andso lots were cast where every man should lie; which was done and staked out. Wethought this proportion was large enough at the firstfor houses and gardens toimpale them roundconsidering the weakness of our peoplemany of them growingill with colds; for our former discoveries in frost and stormsand the wadingat Cape Cod had brought much weakness amongst uswhich increased so every daymore and moreand after was the cause of many of their deaths....
Mondaythe 8th of Januarywas a very fair dayand we went betimes to work.Master Jones sent the shallopas he had formerly doneto see where fish couldbe got. They had a great storm at seaand were in some danger. At night theyreturned with three great sealsand an excellent good codwhich did assure usthat we should have plenty of fish shortly.
This day Francis Billingtonhaving the week before seen from the top of atree on a high hill a great seaas he thoughtwent with one of the master'smates to see it. They went three miles and then came to a great waterdividedinto two great lakes; the bigger of them five or six miles in circuitand in itan isle of a cable length square; the other three miles in compassin theirestimation. They are fine fresh waterfull of fish and fowl. A brook issuesfrom it; it will be an excellent place for us in time. They found seven or eightIndian housesbut not lately inhabited. When they saw the housesthey were insome fear; for they were but two personsand one piece.
Tuesdaythe 9th of Januarywas a reasonable fair day; and we went to laborthat day in the building of our townin two rows of housesfor more safety. Wedivided by lot the plot of ground whereon to build our townafter theproportion formerly allotted. We agreed that every man should build his ownhouse. thinking by that course men would make more haste than working in common.The common housein which for the first we made our rendezvousbeing nearfinishedwanted only coveringit being about twenty foot square. Some shouldmake mortarand some gather thatch; so that in four days half of it wasthatched. Frost and foul weather hindered us much. This time of the year seldomcould we work half the week....
Saturdaythe 17th dayin the morningwe called a meeting for theestablishing of military orders among ourselves; and we chose Miles Standish ourcaptainand gave him authority of command in affairs. And as we were inconsultation hereaboutstwo savages presented themselves upon the top of ahillover against our plantationabout a quarter of a mile and lessand madesigns unto us to come unto them; we likewise made signs unto them to come to us.Whereupon we armed ourselves and stood readyand sent two over the brooktowards themto witCaptain Standish and Steven Hopkinswho went towardsthem. Only one of them had a musketwhich they laid down on the ground in theirsightin sign of peaceand to parley with them. But the savages would nottarry their coming. A noise of a great many more was heard behind the hill; butno more came in sight. This caused us to plant our great ordnances in placesmost convenient....
Saturdaythe 3d of Marchthe wind was souththe morning mistybut towardsnoon warm and fair weather. The birds sang in the woods most pleasantly. At oneof the clock it thunderedwhich was the first we heard in that country. It wasstrong and great clapsbut short; but after an hour it rained very sadly tillmidnight.
Wednesdaythe 7th of Marchthe wind was full eastcoldbut fair. That dayMaster Carverwith five otherswent to the great pondswhich seem to beexcellent fishing places. All the way they went they found it exceedinglybeatenand haunted with deer; but they saw none. Amongst other fowl they sawonea milk- white fowlwith a very black head. This day some garden seeds weresown.
Fridaythe 16tha fair warm day towards. This morning we determined toconclude of the military orderswhich we had begun to consider of beforebutwere interrupted by the savagesas we mentioned formerly. And whilst we werebusied hereaboutwe were interrupted again; for there presented himself asavagewhich caused an alarm. He very boldly came all aloneand along thehousesstraight to the rendezvous; where we intercepted himnot suffering himto go inas undoubtedly he would out of his boldness. He saluted us in Englishand bade us "Welcome!" for he had learned some broken English amongthe Englishmen that came to fish at Monhiggonand knew by name the most of thecaptainscommanders and mastersthat usually come. He was a man free inspeechso far as he could express his mindand of a seemly carriage. Wequestioned him of many things; he was the first savage we could meet withal. Hesaid he was not of these partsbut of Morattiggonand one of the sagamores orlords thereof; and had been eight months in these partsit lying hence a day'ssail with a great windand five days by land. He discoursed of the wholecountryand of every provinceand of their sagamoresand their number of menand strength. The wind beginning to rise a littlewe cast a horseman's coatabout him; for he was stark nakedonly a leather about his waistwith a fringeabout a span long or little more. He had a bow and two arrowsthe one headedand the other unheaded. He was a tallstraight manthe hair of his head blacklong behindonly short beforenone on his face at all. He asked some beerbutwe gave him strong waterand biscuitand butterand cheeseand puddinganda piece of mallard; all which he liked welland had been acquainted with suchamongst the English. He told us the place where we now live is called Patuxetand that about four years ago all the inhabitants died of an extraordinaryplagueand there is neither manwomannor child remainingas indeed we havefound none; so as there is none to hinder our possessionor to lay claim untoit. All the afternoon we spent in communication with him. We would gladly havebeen rid of him at nightbut he was not willing to go this night. Then wethought to carry him on shipboardwherewith he was well contentand went intothe shallop; but the wind was high and the water scantthat it could not returnback. We lodged him that night at Steven Hopkins houseand watched him. Thenext day he went away back to the Masasoitsfrom whence he said he camewhoare our next bordering neighbours. They are sixty strongas he saith. TheNausites are as nearsoutheast of themand are a hundred strong; and thosewere they of whom our people were encounteredas we before related. They aremuch incensed and provoked against the English; and about eight months ago slewthree Englishmenand two more hardly escaped by flight to Monhiggon. They wereSir Ferdinando Gorge's menas this savage told us; as he did likewise of thehuggerythat isfightthat our discoverers had with the Nausitesand of ourtools that were taken out of the woodswhich we willed himshould be broughtagain; otherwise we would right ourselves. These people are ill affected towardsthe English by reason of one Hunta master of a shipwho deceived the peopleand got themunder color of trucking with themtwenty out of this very placewhere we inhabitand seven men from the Nausitesand carried them awayandsold them for slaveslike a wretehed man (for twenty pound a man) that caresnot what misehief he doth for his profit.
Saturdayin the morningwe dismissed the salvageand gave him a knifeabraceletand a ring. He promised within a night or two to come again and tobring with him some of the Massasoytsour neighbourswith such beavers' skinsas they had to truck with us.
Saturday and Sunday reasonable fair days. On this day came again the savageand brought with him five other tallproper men. They had every man a deer'sskin on himand the principal of them had a wild cat's skinor such likeonthe one arm. They had most of them long hosen up to their groinsclose madeand above their groins to their waist another leather; they were altogether likethe Irish trousers. They are of complexion like our English gipseys; no hair orvery little on their faces; on their heads long hair to their shouldersonlycut before; some trussed up before with a featherbroad-wiselike a fan;another a fox tailhanging out. These left (according to our charge given himbefore) their bows and arrows a quarter of a mile from our town. We gave thementertainment as we thought was fitting them. They did eat liberally of ourEnglish victuals. They made semblance unto us of friendship and amity. They sangand danced after their mannerlike antics. They brought with them in a thinglike a bow-case (which the principal of them had about his waist) a little oftheir corn pounded to powderwhichput to a little waterthey eat. He had alittle tobacco in a bag; but none of them drank but when he liked. Some of themhad their faces painted blackfrom the forehead to the chinfour or fivefingers broad; others after other fashionsas they liked. They brought three orfour skins; but we would not truck with them at all that daybut wished them tobring moreand we would truck for all; which they promised within a night ortwoand would leave these behind themthough we were not willing they should;and they brought us all our tools againwhich were taken in the woodsin ourmen's absence. Sobecause of the daywe dismissed them so soon as we could.But Samosetour first acquaintanceeither was sick or feigned himself soandwould not go with themand stayed with us till Wednesday morning. Then we senthim to them to know the reason they came not according to their words; and wegave him a hata pair of stockings and shoesa shirtand a piece of cloth totie about his waist.
The Sabbath daywhen we sent them from uswe gave every one of them sometriflesespecially the principal of them. We carried themalong with our armsto the place where they left their bows and arrows; whereat they were amazedand two of them began to slink awaybut that the other called them. When theytook their arrows we bade them farewelland they were glad; and sowith manythanks given usthey departedwith promise they would come again.