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Typee: A Romance of the South Seas

By Herman Melville


MORE than three years have elapsed since the occurrence of the
events recorded in this volume. The intervalwith the exception
of the last few monthshas been chiefly spent by the author
tossing about on the wide ocean. Sailors are the only class of
men who now-a-days see anything like stirring adventure; and many
things which to fire-side people appear strange and romanticto
them seem as common-place as a jacket out at elbows. Yet
notwithstanding the familiarity of sailors with all sorts of
curious adventurethe incidents recorded in the following pages
have often servedwhen 'spun as a yarn' not only to relieve the
weariness of many a night-watch at seabut to excite the warmest
sympathies of the author's shipmates. He has beentherefore
led to think that his story could scarcely fail to interest those
who are less familiar than the sailor with a life of adventure.

In his account of the singular and interesting people among whom
he was thrownit will be observed that he chiefly treats of
their more obvious peculiarities; andin describing their
customsrefrains in most cases from entering into explanations
concerning their origin and purposes. As writers of travels
among barbarous communities are generally very diffuse on these
subjectshe deems it right to advert to what may be considered a
culpable omission. No one can be more sensible than the author
of his deficiencies in this and many other respects; but when the
very peculiar circumstances in which he was placed are
understoodhe feels assured that all these omissions will be

In very many published narratives no little degree of attention
is bestowed upon dates; but as the author lost all knowledge of
the days of the weekduring the occurrence of the scenes herein
relatedhe hopes that the reader will charitably pass over his
shortcomings in this particular.

In the Polynesian words used in this volume--except in those
cases where the spelling has been previously determined by
others--that form of orthography has been employedwhich might
be supposed most easily to convey their sound to a stranger. In
several works descriptive of the islands in the Pacificmany of
the most beautiful combinations of vocal sounds have been
altogether lost to the ear of the reader by an over-attention to
the ordinary rules of spelling.

There are a few passages in the ensuing chapters which may be
thought to bear rather bard upon a reverend order of menthe
account of whose proceedings in different quarters of the globe-transmitted
to us through their own hands--very generallyand
often very deservedlyreceives high commendation. Such passages

will be foundhoweverto be based upon facts admitting of no
contradictionand which have come immediately under the writer's
cognizance. The conclusions deduced from these facts are
unavoidableand in stating them the author has been influenced
by no feeling of animosityeither to the individuals themselves
or to that glorious cause which has not always been served by the
proceedings of some of its advocates.

The great interest with which the important events lately
occurring at the SandwichMarquesasand Society Islandshave
been regarded in America and Englandand indeed throughout the
worldwillhe trustsjustify a few otherwise unwarrantable

There are some things related in the narrative which will be
sure to appear strangeor perhaps entirely incomprehensibleto
the reader; but they cannot appear more so to him than they did
to the author at the time. He has stated such matters just as
they occurredand leaves every one to form his own opinion
concerning them; trusting that his anxious desire to speak the
unvarnished truth will gain for him the confidence of his
readers. 1846.



OF the trinity of American authors whose births made the year
1819 a notable one in our literary history--LowellWhitmanand
Melville--it is interesting to observe that the two latter were
both descendedon the fathers' and mothers' sides respectively
from have families of British New England and Dutch New York
extraction. Whitman and Van VelsorMelville and Gansevoort
were the several combinations which produced these men; and it is
easy to trace in the life and character of each author the
qualities derived from his joint ancestry. Herehoweverthe
resemblance ceasesfor Whitman's forebearswhile worthy country
people of good descentwere not prominent in public or private
life. Melvilleon the other handwas of distinctly patrician
birthhis paternal and maternal grandfathers having been leading
characters in the Revolutionary War; their descendants still
maintaining a dignified social position.

Allan Melvillegreat-grandfather of Herman Melvilleremoved
from Scotland to America in 1748and established himself as a
merchant in Boston. His sonMajor Thomas Melvillewas a leader
in the famous 'Boston Tea Party' of 1773 and afterwards became an
officer in the Continental Army. He is reported to have been a
Conservative in all matters except his opposition to unjust
taxationand he wore the old-fashioned cocked hat and
knee-breeches until his deathin 1832thus becoming the
original of Doctor Holmes's poem'The Last Leaf'. Major
Melville's son Allanthe father of Hermanwas an importing
merchant--first in Bostonand later in New York. He was a man
of much cultureand was an extensive traveller for his time. He
married Maria Gansevoortdaughter of General Peter Gansevoort
best known as 'the hero of Fort Stanwix.' This fort was situated
on the present site of RomeN.Y.; and there Gansevoortwith a
small body of menheld in check reinforcements on their way to
join Burgoyneuntil the disastrous ending of the latter's
campaign of 1777 was insured. The Gansevoortsit should be said
were at that time and subsequently residents of AlbanyN.Y.

Herman Melville was born in New York on August 11819and
received his early education in that city. There he imbibed his
first love of adventurelisteningas be says in 'Redburn'
while his father 'of winter eveningsby the well-remembered
sea-coal fire in old Greenwich Streetused to tell my brother
and me of the monstrous waves at seamountain highof the masts
bending like twigsand all about Havre and Liverpool.' The
death of his father in reduced circumstances necessitated the
removal of his mother and the family of eight brothers and
sisters to the village of Lansingburgon the Hudson River.
There Herman remained until 1835when he attended the Albany
Classical School for some months. Dr. Charles E. Westthe
well-known Brooklyn educatorwas then in charge of the school
and remembers the lad's deftness in English compositionand his
struggles with mathematics.

The following year was passed at PittsfieldMass.where he
engaged in work on his uncle's farmlong known as the 'Van
Schaack place.' This uncle was Thomas Melvillepresident of the
Berkshire Agricultural Societyand a successful gentleman

Herman's roving dispositionand a desire to support himself
independently of family assistancesoon led him to ship as cabin
boy in a New York vessel bound for Liverpool. He made the
voyagevisited Londonand returned in the same ship. 'Redburn:
His First Voyage' published in 1849is partly founded on the
experiences of this tripwhich was undertaken with the full
consent of his relativesand which seems to have satisfied his
nautical ambition for a time. As told in the bookMelville met
with more than the usual hardships of a sailor-boy's first
venture. It does not seem difficult in 'Redburn' to separate the
author's actual experiences from those invented by himthis
being the case in some of his other writings.

A good part of the succeeding three yearsfrom 1837 to 1840was
occupied with school-teaching. While so engaged at Greenbush
now East AlbanyN.Y.he received the munificent salary of 'six
dollars a quarter and board.' He taught for one term at
PittsfieldMass.'boarding around' with the families of his
pupilsin true American fashionand easily suppressingon one
memorable occasionthe efforts of his larger scholars to
inaugurate a rebellion by physical force.

I fancy that it was the reading of Richard Henry Dana's 'Two
Years Before the Mast' which revived the spirit of adventure in
Melville's breast. That book was published in 1840and was at
once talked of everywhere. Melville must have read it at the
timemindful of his own experience as a sailor. At any ratehe
once more signed a ship's articlesand on January 11841
sailed from New Bedford harbour in the whaler Acushnetbound for
the Pacific Ocean and the sperm fishery. He has left very little
direct information as to the events of this eighteen months'
cruisealthough his whaling romance'Moby Dick; orthe Whale'
probably gives many pictures of life on board the Acushnet. In
the present volume he confines himself to a general account of
the captain's bad treatment of the crewand of his
non-fulfilment of agreements. Under these considerations
Melville decided to abandon the vessel on reaching the Marquesas
Islands; and the narrative of 'Typee' begins at this point.
Howeverhe always recognised the immense influence the voyage
had had upon his careerand in regard to its results has said in
'Moby Dick'-

'If I shall ever deserve any real repute in that small but high
hushed world which I might not be unreasonably ambitious of; if
hereafter I shall do anything that on the whole a man might
rather have done than to have left undone . . . .then here I
prospectively ascribe all the honour and the glory to whaling;
for a whale-ship was my Yale College and my Harvard.'

The recordthenof Melville's escape from the Dollyotherwise
the Acushnetthe sojourn of his companion Toby and himself in
the Typee Valley on the island of NukuhevaToby's mysterious
disappearanceand Melville's own escapeis fully given in the
succeeding pages; and rash indeed would he be who would enter
into a descriptive contest with these inimitable pictures of
aboriginal life in the 'Happy Valley.' So great an interest has
always centred in the character of Tobywhose actual existence
has been questionedthat I am glad to be able to declare him an
authentic personageby name Richard T. Greene. He was enabled
to discover himself again to Mr. Melville through the publication
of the present volumeand their acquaintance was renewed
lasting for quite a long period. I have seen his portrait--a
rare old daguerrotype--and some of his letters to our author.
One of his children was named for the latterbut Mr. Melville
lost trace of him in recent years.

With the author's rescue from what Dr. T. M. Coan has styled his
'anxious paradise' 'Typee' endsand its sequel'Omoo' begins.
Hereagainit seems wisest to leave the remaining adventures in
the South Seas to the reader's own discoverysimply stating
thatafter a sojourn at the Society IslandsMelville shipped
for Honolulu. There he remained for four monthsemployed as a
clerk. He joined the crew of the American frigate United States
which reached Bostonstopping on the way at one of the Peruvian
portsin October of 1844. Once more was a narrative of his
experiences to be preserved in 'White Jacket; orthe World in a
Man-of-War.' Thusof Melville's four most important books
three'Typee' 'Omoo' and 'White-Jacket' are directly auto
biographicaland 'Moby Dick' is partially so; while the less
important 'Redburn' is between the two classes in this respect.
Melville's other prose worksas will be shownwerewith some
exceptionsunsuccessful efforts at creative romance.

Whether our author entered on his whaling adventures in the South
Seas with a determination to make them available for literary
purposesmay never be certainly known. There was no such
elaborate announcement or advance preparation as in some later
cases. I am inclined to believe that the literary prospect was
an after-thoughtand that this insured a freshness and
enthusiasm of style not otherwise to be attained. Returning to
his mother's home at LansingburgMelville soon began the writing
of 'Typee' which was completed by the autumn of 1845. Shortly
after this his older brotherGansevoort Melvillesailed for
England as secretary of legation to Ambassador McLaneand the
manuscript was intrusted to Gansevoort for submission to John
Murray. Its immediate acceptance and publication followed in
1846. 'Typee' was dedicated to Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw of
Massachusettsan old friendship between the author's family and
that of Justice Shaw having been renewed about this time. Mr.
Melville became engaged to Miss Elizabeth Shawthe only daughter
of the Chief Justiceand their marriage followed on August 4
1847in Boston.

The wanderings of our nautical Othello were thus brought to a
conclusion. Mr. and Mrs. Melville resided in New York City until

1850when they purchased a farmhouse at Pittsfieldtheir farm
adjoining that formerly owned by Mr. Melville's unclewhich had
been inherited by the latter's son. The new place was named
'Arrow Head' from the numerous Indian antiquities found in the
neighbourhood. The house was so situated as to command an
uninterrupted view of Greylock Mountain and the adjacent hills.
Here Melville remained for thirteen yearsoccupied with his
writingand managing his farm. An article in Putnam's Monthly
entitled 'I and My Chimney' another called 'October Mountain'
and the introduction to the 'Piazza Tales' present faithful
pictures of Arrow Head and its surroundings. In a letter to
Nathaniel Hawthornegiven in 'Nathaniel Hawthorne and His Wife'
his daily life is set forth. The letter is dated June 11851.

'Since you have been here I have been building some shanties of
houses (connected with the old one)and likewise some shanties
of chapters and essays. I have been ploughing and sowing and
raising and printing and prayingand now begin to come out upon
a less bristling timeand to enjoy the calm prospect of things
from a fair piazza at the north of the old farmhouse here. Not
entirely yetthougham I without something to be urgent with.
The 'Whale' is only half through the press; forwearied with the
long delays of the printersand disgusted with the heat and dust
of the Babylonish brick-kiln of New YorkI came back to the
country to feel the grassand end the book reclining on itif I

Mr. Hawthornewho was then living in the red cottage at Lenox
had a week at Arrow Head with his daughter Una the previous
spring. It is recorded that the friends 'spent most of the time
in the barnbathing in the early spring sunshinewhich streamed
through the open doorsand talking philosophy.' According to
Mr. J. E. A. Smith's volume on the Berkshire Hillsthese
gentlemenboth reserved in naturethough near neighbours and
often in the same companywere inclined to be shy of each other
partlyperhapsthrough the knowledge that Melville had written
a very appreciative review of 'Mosses from an Old Manse' for the
New York Literary Worldedited by their mutual friendsthe
Duyckincks. 'But one day' writes Mr. Smith'it chanced that
when they were out on a picnic excursionthe two were compelled
by a thundershower to take shelter in a narrow recess of the
rocks of Monument Mountain. Two hours of this enforced
intercourse settled the matter. They learned so much of each
other's character. . . that the most intimate friendship for
the future was inevitable.' A passage in Hawthorne's 'Wonder
Book' is noteworthy as describing the number of literary
neighbours in Berkshire:-

'For my partI wish I had Pegasus here at this moment' said the
student. 'I would mount him forthwithand gallop about the
country within a circumference of a few milesmaking literary
calls on my brother authors. Dr. Dewey would be within ray
reachat the foot of the Taconic. In Stockbridgeyonderis
Mr. James [G. P. R. James]conspicuous to all the world on his
mountain-pile of history and romance. LongfellowI believeis
not yet at the Oxbowelse the winged horse would neigh at him.
But here in Lenox I should find our most truthful novelist [Miss
Sedgwick]who has made the scenery and life of Berkshire all her
own. On the hither side of Pittsfield sits Herman Melville
shaping out the gigantic conception of his 'White Whale' while
the gigantic shadow of Greylock looms upon him from his study
window. Another bound of my flying steed would bring me to the
door of Holmeswhom I mention lastbecause Pegasus would
certainly unseat me the next minuteand claim the poet as his


While at PittsfieldMr. Melville was induced to enter the
lecture field. From 1857 to 1860 he filled many engagements in
the lyceumschiefly speaking of his adventures in the South
Seas. He lectured in cities as widely apart as Montreal
ChicagoBaltimoreand San Franciscosailing to the last-named
place in 1860by way of Cape Hornon the Meteorcommandedby
his younger brotherCaptain Thomas Melvilleafterward governor
of the 'Sailor's Snug Harbor' at Staten IslandN.Y. Besides his
voyage to San Franciscohe hadin 1849 and 1856visited
Englandthe Continentand the Holy Landpartly to superintend
the publication of English editions of his worksand partly for

A pronounced feature of Melville's character was his
unwillingness to speak of himselfhis adventuresor his
writings in conversation. He washoweverable to overcome this
reluctance on the lecture platform. Our author's tendency to
philosophical discussion is strikingly set forth in a letter from
Dr. Titus Munson Coan to the latter's motherwritten while a
student at Williams College over thirty years agoand
fortunately preserved by her. Dr. Coan enjoyed the friendship
and confidence of Mr. Melville during most of his residence in
New York. The letter reads:-

'I have made my first literary pilgrimagea call upon Herman
Melvillethe renowned author of 'Typee' etc. He lives in a
spacious farmhouse about two miles from Pittsfielda weary walk
through the dust. But it as well repaid. I introduced myself as
a Hawaiian-Americanand soon found myself in full tide of talk
or rather of monologue. But he would not repeat the experiences
of which I had been reading with rapture in his books. In vain I
sought to hear of Typee and those paradise islandsbut he
preferred to pour forth his philosophy and his theories of life.
The shade of Aristotle arose like a cold mist between myself and
Fayaway. We have quite enough of deep philosophy at Williams
Collegeand I confess I was disappointed in this trend of the
talk. But what a talk it was! Melville is transformed from a
Marquesan to a gypsy studentthe gypsy element still remaining
strong within him. And this contradiction gives him the air of
one who has suffered from oppositionboth literary and social.
With his liberal viewshe is apparently considered by the good
people of Pittsfield as little better than a cannibal or a
'beach-comber.' His attitude seemed to me something like that of
Ishmael; but perhaps I judged hastily. I managed to draw him out
very freely on everything but the Marquesas Islandsand when I
left him he was in full tide of discourse on all things sacred
and profane. But he seems to put away the objective side of his
lifeand to shut himself up in this cold north as a cloistered

I have been told by Dr. Coan that his fatherthe Rev. Titus
Coanof the Hawaiian Islandspersonally visited the Marquesas
groupfound the Typee Valleyand verified in all respects the
statements made in 'Typee.' It is known that Mr. Melville from
early manhood indulged deeply in philosophical studiesand his
fondness for discussing such matters is pointed out by Hawthorne
alsoin the 'English Note Books.' This habit increased as he
advanced in yearsif possible.

The chief event of the residence in Pittsfield was the completion
and publication of 'Moby Dick; orthe Whale' in 1851. How many
young men have been drawn to sea by this book is a question of

interest. Meeting with Mr. Charles Henry Webb ('John Paul') the
day after Mr. Melville's deathI asked him if he were not
familiar with that author's writings. He replied that 'Moby
Dick' was responsible for his three years of life before the mast
when a ladand added that while 'gamming' on board another
vessel he had once fallen in with a member of the boat's crew
which rescued Melville from his friendly imprisonment among the

While at Pittsfieldbesides his own familyMr. Melville's
mother and sisters resided with him. As his four children grew
up he found it necessary to obtain for them better facilities for
study than the village school afforded; and soseveral years
afterthe household was broken upand he removed with his wife
and children to the New York house that was afterwards his home.
This house belonged to his brother Allanand was exchanged for
the estate at Pittsfield. In December1866he was appointed by
Mr. H. A. Smytha former travelling companion in Europea
district officer in the New York Custom House. He held the
position until 1886preferring it to in-door clerical workand
then resignedthe duties becoming too arduous for his failing

In addition to his philosophical studiesMr. Melville was much
interested in all matters relating to the fine artsand devoted
most of his leisure hours to the two subjects. A notable
collection of etchings and engravings from the old masters was
gradually made by himthose from Claude's paintings being a
specialty. After he retired from the Custom Househis tall
stalwart figure could be seen almost daily tramping through the
Fort George district or Central Parkhis roving inclination
leading him to obtain as much out-door life as possible. His
evenings were spent at home with his bookshis picturesand his
familyand usually with them alone; forin spite of the
melodramatic declarations of various English gentlemen
Melville's seclusion in his latter yearsand in fact throughout
his lifewas a matter of personal choice. More and moreas he
grew olderhe avoided every action on his partand on the part
of his familythat might tend to keep his name and writings
before the public. A few friends felt at liberty to visit the
recluseand were kindly welcomedbut he himself sought no one.
His favorite companions were his grandchildrenwith whom he
delighted to pass his timeand his devoted wifewho was a
constant assistant and adviser in his literary workchiefly done
at this period for his own amusement. To her he addressed his
last little poemthe touching 'Return of the Sire de Nesle.'
Various efforts were made by the New York literary colony to draw
him from his retirementbut without success. It has been
suggested that he might have accepted a magazine editorshipbut
this is doubtfulas he could not bear business details or
routine work of any sort. His brother Allan was a New York
lawyerand until his deathin 1872managed Melville's affairs
with abilityparticularly the literary accounts.

During these later years he took great pleasure in a friendly
correspondence with Mr. W. Clark Russell. Mr. Russell had taken
many occasions to mention Melville's sea-taleshis interest in
themand his indebtedness to them. The latter felt impelled to
write Mr. Russell in regard to one of his newly published novels
and received in answer the following letter:

July 211886.

MY DEAR Mr. MELVILLEYour letter has given me a very great and
singular pleasure. Your delightful books carry the imagination

into a maritime period so remote thatoften as you have been in
my mindI could never satisfy myself that you were still amongst
the living. I am gladindeedto learn from Mr. Toft that you
are still hale and heartyand I do most heartily wish you many
years yet of health and vigour.

Your books I have in the American edition. I have 'Typee
'Omoo' 'Redburn' and that noble piece 'Moby Dick.' These are
all I have been able to obtain. There have been many editions of
your works in this countryparticularly the lovely South Sea
sketches; but the editions are not equal to those of the American
publishers. Your reputation here is very great. It is hard to
meet a man whose opinion as a reader is worth leaving who does
not speak of your works in such terms as he might hesitate to
employwith all his patriotismtoward many renowned English

Dana isindeedgreat. There is nothing in literature more
remarkable than the impression produced by Dana's portraiture of
the homely inner life of a little brig's forecastle.

I beg that you will accept my thanks for the kindly spirit in
which you have read my books. I wish it were in my power to
cross the Atlanticfor you assuredly would be the first whom it
would be my happiness to visit.

The condition of my right hand obliges me to dictate this to my
son; but painful as it is to me to hold a penI cannot suffer
this letter to reach the hands of a man of so admirable genitis
as Herman Melville without begging him to believe me to bewith
my own handhis most respectful and hearty admirer

W. Clark Russell.
It should be noted here that Melville's increased reputation in
England at the period of this letter was chiefly owing to a
series of articles on his work written by Mr. Russell. I am
sorry to say that few English papers made more than a passing
reference to Melville's death. The American press discussed his
life and work in numerous and lengthy reviews. At the same time
there always has been a steady sale of his books in Englandand
some of them never have been out of print in that country since
the publication of 'Typee.' One result of this friendship
between the two authors was the dedication of new volumes to each
other in highly complimentary terms--Mr. Melville's 'John Marr
and Other Sailors' of which twenty-five copies only were
printedon the one handand Mr. Russell's 'An Ocean Tragedy'
on the otherof which many thousand have been printednot to
mention unnumbered pirated copies.

Beside HawthorneMr. Richard Henry Stoddardof American
writersspecially knew and appreciated Herman Melville. Mr.
Stoddard was connected with the New York dock department at the
time of Mr. Melville's appointment to a custom-house position
and they at once became acquainted. For a good many years
during the period in which our author remained in seclusionmuch
that appeared in print in America concerning Melville came from
the pen of Mr. Stoddard. Neverthelessthe sailor author's
presence in New York was well known to the literary guild. He
was invited to join in all new movementsbut as often felt
obliged to excuse himself from doing so. The present writer
lived for some time within a short distance of his housebut
found no opportunity to meet him until it became necessary to
obtain his portrait for an anthology in course of publication.
The interview was briefand the interviewer could not help

feeling although treated with pleasant courtesythat more
important matters were in hand than the perpetuation of a
romancer's countenance to future generations; but a friendly
family acquaintance grew up from the incidentand will remain an
abiding memory.

Mr. Melville died at his home in New York City early on the
morning of September 281891. His serious illness had lasted a
number of monthsso that the end came as a release. True to his
ruling passionphilosophy had claimed him to the lasta set of
Schopenhauer's works receiving his attention when able to study;
but this was varied with readings in the 'Mermaid Series' of old
playsin which he took much pleasure. His libraryin addition
to numerous works on philosophy and the fine artswas composed
of standard books of all classesincludingof coursea
proportion of nautical literature. Especially interesting are
fifteen or twenty first editions of Hawthorne's books inscribed
to Mr. and Mrs. Melville by the author and his wife.

The immediate acceptance of 'Typee' by John Murray was followed
by an arrangement with the London agent of an American publisher
for its simultaneous publication in the United States. I
understand that Murray did not then publish fiction. At any
ratethe book was accepted by him on the assurance of Gansevoort
Melville that it contained nothing not actually experienced by
his brother. Murray brought it out early in 1846in his
Colonial and Home Libraryas 'A Narrative of a Four Months'
Residence among the Natives of a Valley of the Marquesas Islands;
ora Peep at Polynesian Life' ormore briefly'Melville's
Marquesas Islands.' It was issued in America with the author's
own title'Typee' and in the outward shape of a work of
fiction. Mr. Melville found himself famous at once. Many
discussions were carried on as to the genuineness of the author's
name and the reality of the events portrayedbut English and
American critics alike recognised the book's importance as a
contribution to literature.

Melvillein a letter to Hawthornespeaks of himself as having
no development at all until his twenty-fifth yearthe time of
his return from the Pacific; but surely the process of
development must have been well advanced to permit of so virile
and artistic a creation as 'Typee.' While the narrative does not
always run smoothlyyet the style for the most part is graceful
and alluringso that we pass from one scene of Pacific
enchantment to another quite oblivious of the vast amount of
descriptive detail which is being poured out upon us. It is the
varying fortune of the hero which engrosses our attention. We
follow his adventures with breathless interestor luxuriate with
him in the leafy bowers of the 'Happy Valley' surrounded by
joyous children of nature. When all is endedwe then for the
first time realise that we know these people and their ways as if
we too had dwelt among them.

I do not believe that 'Typee' will ever lose its position as a
classic of American Literature. The pioneer in South Sea
romance- -for the mechanical descriptions of earlier voyagers are
not worthy of comparison--this book has as yet met with no
superioreven in French literature; nor has it met with a rival
in any other language than the French. The character of
'Fayaway' andno lessWilliam S. Mayo's 'Kaloolah' the
enchanting dreams of many a youthful heartwill retain their
charm; and this in spite of endless variations by modern
explorers in the same domain. A faint type of both characters
may be found in the Surinam Yarico of Captain John Gabriel

Stedmanwhose 'Narrative of a Five Years' Expedition' appeared
in 1796.

'Typee' as writtencontained passages reflecting with
considerable severity on the methods pursued by missionaries in
the South Seas. The manuscript was printed in a complete form in
Englandand created much discussion on this accountMelville
being accused of bitterness; but he asserted his lack of
prejudice. The passages referred to were omitted in the first
and all subsequent American editions. They have been restored in
the present issuewhich is complete save for a few paragraphs
excluded by written direction of the author. I havewith the
consent of his familychanged the long and cumbersome sub-title
of the bookcalling it a 'Real-Romance of the South Seas' as
best expressing its nature.

The success of his first volume encouraged Melville to proceed in
his workand 'Omoo' the sequel to 'Typee' appeared in England
and America in l847. Here we leavefor the most partthe
dreamy pictures of island lifeand find ourselves sharing the
extremely realistic discomforts of a Sydney whaler in the early
forties. The rebellious crew's experiences in the Society Islands
are quite as realistic as events on board ship and very
entertainingwhile the whimsical characterDr. Long Ghostnext
to Captain Ahab in 'Moby Dick' is Melville's most striking
delineation. The errors of the South Sea missions are pointed
out with even more force than in 'Typee' and it is a fact that
both these books have ever since been of the greatest value to
outgoing missionaries on account of the exact information
contained in them with respect to the islanders.

Melville's power in describing and investing with romance scenes
and incidents witnessed and participated in by himselfand his
frequent failure of success as an inventor of characters and
situationswere early pointed out by his critics. More recently
Mr. Henry S. Salt has drawn the same distinction very carefully
in an excellent article contributed to the Scottish Art Review.
In a prefatory note to 'Mardi' (1849)Melville declares thatas
his former books have been received as romance instead of
realityhe will now try his hand at pure fiction. 'Mardi' may
be called a splendid failure. It must have been soon after the
completion of 'Omoo' that Melville began to study the writings of
Sir Thomas Browne. Heretofore our author's style was rough in
placesbut marvellously simple and direct. 'Mardi' is burdened
with an over-rich dictionwhich Melville never entirely outgrew.
The scene of this romancewhich opens wellis laid in the South
Seasbut everything soon becomes overdrawn and fantasticaland
the thread of the story loses itself in a mystical allegory.

'Redburn' already mentionedsucceeded 'Mardi' in the same year
and was a partial return to the author's earlier style. In
'White-Jacket; orthe World in a Man-of-War' (1850)Melville
almost regained it. This book has no equal as a picture of life
aboard a sailing man-of-warthe lights and shadows of naval
existence being well contrasted.

With 'Moby Dick; orthe Whale' (1851)Melville reached the
topmost notch of his fame. The book representsto a certain
extentthe conflict between the author's earlier and later
methods of compositionbut the gigantic conception of the 'White
Whale' as Hawthorne expressed itpermeates the whole workand
lifts it bodily into the highest domain of romance. 'Moby Dick'
contains an immense amount of information concerning the habits
of the whale and the methods of its capturebut this is

characteristically introduced in a way not to interfere with the
narrative. The chapter entitled 'Stubb Kills a Whale' ranks with
the choicest examples of descriptive literature.

'Moby Dick' appearedand Melville enjoyed to the full the
enhanced reputation it brought him. He did nothowevertake
warning from 'Mardi' but allowed himself to plunge more deeply
into the sea of philosophy and fantasy.

'Pierre; orthe Ambiguities' (1852) was publishedand there
ensued a long series of hostile criticismsending with a severe
though impartialarticle by Fitz-James O'Brien in Putnam's
Monthly. About the same time the whole stock of the author's
books was destroyed by firekeeping them out of print at a
critical moment; and public interestwhich until then had been
on the increasegradually began to diminish.

After this Mr. Melville contributed several short stories to
Putnam's Monthly and Harper's Magazine. Those in the former
periodical were collected in a volume as Piazza Tales (1856); and
of these 'Benito Cereno' and 'The Bell Tower' are equal to his
best previous efforts.

'Israel Potter: His Fifty Years of Exile' (1855)first printed
as a serial in Putnam'sis an historical romance of the American
Revolutionbased on the hero's own account of his adventuresas
given in a little volume picked up by Mr. Melville at a
book-stall. The story is well toldbut the book is hardly
worthy of the author of 'Typee.' 'The Confidence Man' (1857)
his last serious effort in prose fictiondoes not seem to
require criticism.

Mr. Melville's pen had rested for nearly ten yearswhen it was
again taken up to celebrate the events of the Civil War. 'Battle
Pieces and Aspects of the War' appeared in 1866. Most of these
poems originatedaccording to the authorin an impulse imparted
by the fall of Richmond; but they have as subjects all the chief
incidents of the struggle. The best of them are "The Stone
Fleet' 'In the Prison Pen' 'The College Colonel' 'The March to
the Sea' 'Running the Batteries' and 'Sheridan at Cedar Creek.'
Some of these had a wide circulation in the pressand were
preserved in various anthologies. 'Clarela Poem and Pilgrimage
in the Holy Land' (1876)is a long mystical poem requiringas
some one has saida dictionarya cyclopaediaand a copy of the
Bible for its elucidation. in the two privately printed volumes
the arrangement of which occupied Mr. Melville during his last
illnessthere are several fine lyrics. The titles of these
books are'John Marr and Other Sailors' (1888)and 'Timoleon'

There is no question that Mr. Melville's absorption in
philosophical studies was quite as responsible as the failure of
his later books for his cessation from literary productiveness.
That he sometimes realised the situation will be seen by a
passage in 'Moby Dick':-

'Didn't I tell you so?' said Flask. 'Yesyou'll soon see this
right whale's head hoisted up opposite that parmacetti's.'

'In good time Flask's saying proved true. As beforethe Pequod
steeply leaned over towards the sperm whale's headnowby the
counterpoise of both headsshe regained her own keelthough
sorely strainedyou may well believe. Sowhen on one side you
hoist in Locke's headyou go over that way; but nowon the

other sidehoist in Kant's and you come back again; but in very
poor plight. Thussome minds forever keep trimming boat. Oh
ye foolish! throw all these thunderheads overboardand then you
will float right and light.'

Mr. Melville would have been more than mortal if he had been
indifferent to his loss of popularity. Yet he seemed contented
to preserve an entirely independent attitudeand to trust to the
verdict of the future. The smallest amount of activity would
have kept him before the public; but his reserve would not permit
this. That reinstatement of his reputation cannot be doubted.

In the editing of this reissue of 'Melville's Works' I have been
much indebted to the scholarly aid of Dr. Titus Munson Coan
whose familiarity with the languages of the Pacific has enabled
me to harmonise the spelling of foreign words in 'Typee' and
'Omoo' though without changing the phonetic method of printing
adopted by Mr. Melville. Dr. Coan has also been most helpful
with suggestions in other directions. Finallythe delicate
fancy of La Fargehas supplemented the immortal pen-portrait of
the Typee maiden with a speaking impersonation of her beauty.

New YorkJune1892.




Six months at sea! Yesreaderas I livesix months out of
sight of land; cruising after the sperm-whale beneath the
scorching sun of the Lineand tossed on the billows of the
wide-rolling Pacific--the sky abovethe sea aroundand nothing
else! Weeks and weeks ago our fresh provisions were all
exhausted. There is not a sweet potato left; not a single yam.
Those glorious bunches of bananaswhich once decorated our stern
and quarter-deckhavealasdisappeared! and the delicious
oranges which hung suspended from our tops and stays--theytoo
are gone! Yesthey are all departedand there is nothing left
us but salt-horse and sea-biscuit. Oh! ye state-room sailors
who make so much ado about a fourteen-days' passage across the
Atlantic; who so pathetically relate the privations and hardships
of the seawhereafter a day of breakfastinglunchingdining
off five courseschattingplaying whistand drinking
champagne-punchit was your hard lot to be shut up in little
cabinets of mahogany and mapleand sleep for ten hourswith
nothing to disturb you but 'those good-for-nothing tarsshouting
and tramping overhead'--what would ye say to our six months out
of sight of land?

Oh! for a refreshing glimpse of one blade of grass--for a snuff
at the fragrance of a handful of the loamy earth! Is there
nothing fresh around us? Is there no green thing to be seen?
Yesthe inside of our bulwarks is painted green; but what a vile
and sickly hue it isas if nothing bearing even the semblance of
verdure could flourish this weary way from land. Even the bark
that once clung to the wood we use for fuel has been gnawed off
and devoured by the captain's pig; and so long agotoothat the
pig himself has in turn been devoured.

There is but one solitary tenant in the chicken-cooponce a gay
and dapper young cockbearing him so bravely among the coy hens.

But look at him now; there he standsmoping all the day long on
that everlasting one leg of his. He turns with disgust from the
mouldy corn before himand the brackish water in his little
trough. He mourns no doubt his lost companionsliterally
snatched from him one by oneand never seen again. But his days
of mourning will be few for Mungoour black cooktold me
yesterday that the word had at last gone forthand poor Pedro's
fate was sealed. His attenuated body will be laid out upon the
captain's table next Sundayand long before night will be buried
with all the usual ceremonies beneath that worthy individual's
vest. Who would believe that there could be any one so cruel as
to long for the decapitation of the luckless Pedro; yet the
sailors pray every minuteselfish fellowsthat the miserable
fowl may be brought to his end. They say the captain will never
point the ship for the land so long as he has in anticipation a
mess of fresh meat. This unhappy bird can alone furnish it; and
when he is once devouredthe captain will come to his senses. I
wish thee no harmPedro; but as thou art doomedsooner or
laterto meet the fate of all thy race; and if putting a period
to thy existence is to be the signal for our deliverance
why--truth to speak--I wish thy throat cut this very moment; for
oh! how I wish to see the living earth again! The old ship
herself longs to look out upon the land from her hawse-holes once
moreand Jack Lewis said right the other day when the captain
found fault with his steering.

'Why d'ye seeCaptain Vangs' says bold Jack'I'm as good a
helmsman as ever put hand to spoke; but none of us can steer the
old lady now. We can't keep her full and byesir; watch her
ever so closeshe will fall off and thensirwhen I put the
helm down so gentlyand try like to coax her to the workshe
won't take it kindlybut will fall round off again; and it's all
because she knows the land is under the leesirand she won't
go any more to windward.' Ayeand why should sheJack? didn't
every one of her stout timbers grow on shoreand hasn't she
sensibilities; as well as we?

Poor old ship! Her very looks denote her desires! how
deplorably she appears! The paint on her sidesburnt up by the
scorching sunis puffed out and cracked. See the weeds she
trails along with herand what an unsightly bunch of those
horrid barnacles has formed about her stern-piece; and every time
she rises on a seashe shows her copper torn awayor hanging in
jagged strips.

Poor old ship! I say again: for six months she has been rolling
and pitching aboutnever for one moment at rest. But courage
old lassI hope to see thee soon within a biscuit's toss of the
merry landriding snugly at anchor in some green coveand
sheltered from the boisterous winds.

. . . . . .

'Hurramy lads! It's a settled thing; next week we shape our
course to the Marquesas!' The Marquesas! What strange visions
of outlandish things does the very name spirit up! Naked
houris--cannibal banquets--groves of cocoanut--coral
reefs--tattooed chiefs--and bamboo temples; sunny valleys planted
with bread-fruit-trees--carved canoes dancing on the flashing
blue waters--savage woodlands guarded by horrible


Such were the strangely jumbled anticipations that haunted me
during our passage from the cruising ground. I felt an
irresistible curiosity to see those islands which the olden
voyagers had so glowingly described.

The group for which we were now steering (although among the
earliest of European discoveries in the South Seashaving been
first visited in the year 1595) still continues to be tenanted by
beings as strange and barbarous as ever. The missionaries sent
on a heavenly errandhad sailed by their lovely shoresand had
abandoned them to their idols of wood and stone. How interesting
the circumstances under which they were discovered! In the
watery path of Mendannacruising in quest of some region of
goldthese isles had sprung up like a scene of enchantmentand
for a moment the Spaniard believed his bright dream was realized.

In honour of the Marquess de Mendozathen viceroy of Peru--under
whose auspices the navigator sailed--he bestowed upon them the
name which denoted the rank of his patronand gave to the world
on his return a vague and magnificent account of their beauty.
But these islandsundisturbed for yearsrelapsed into their
previous obscurity; and it is only recently that anything has
been known concerning them. Once in the course of a half
centuryto be suresome adventurous rover would break in upon
their peaceful repose. and astonished at the unusual scene
would be almost tempted to claim the merit of a new discovery.

Of this interesting groupbut little account has ever been
givenif we except the slight mention made of them in the
sketches of South-Sea voyages. Cookin his repeated
circumnavigations of the globebarely touched at their shores;
and all that we know about them is from a few general narratives.

Among thesethere are two that claim particular notice.
Porter's 'Journal of the Cruise of the U.S. frigate Essexin
the Pacificduring the late War'is said to contain some
interesting particulars concerning the islanders. This is a
workhoweverwhich I have never happened to meet with; and
Stewartthe chaplain of the American sloop of war Vincenneshas
likewise devoted a portion of his bookentitled 'A Visit to the
South Seas'to the same subject.

Within the last fewyears American and English vessels engaged
in the extensive whale fisheries of the Pacific have
occasionallywhen short of provisionsput into the commodious
harbour which there is in one of the islands; but a fear of the
nativesfounded on the recollection of the dreadful fate which
many white men have received at their handshas deterred their
crews from intermixing with the population sufficiently to gain
any insight into their peculiar customs and manners.

The Protestant Missions appear to have despaired of reclaiming
these islands from heathenism. The usage they have in every case
received from the natives has been such as to intimidate the
boldest of their number. Ellisin his 'Polynesian Researches'
gives some interesting accounts of the abortive attempts made by
the ''Tahiti Mission'' to establish a branch Mission upon certain
islands of the group. A short time before my visit to the
Marquesasa somewhat amusing incident took place in connection
with these effortswhich I cannot avoid relating.

An intrepid missionaryundaunted by the ill-success that had

attended all previous endeavours to conciliate the savagesand
believing much in the efficacy of female influenceintroduced
among them his young and beautiful wifethe first white woman
who had ever visited their shores. The islanders at first gazed
in mute admiration at so unusual a prodigyand seemed inclined
to regard it as some new divinity. But after a short time
becoming familiar with its charming aspectand jealous of the
folds which encircled its formthey sought to pierce the sacred
veil of calico in which it was enshrinedand in the
gratification of their curiosity so far overstepped the limits of
good breedingas deeply to offend the lady's sense of decorum.
Her sex once ascertainedtheir idolatry was changed into
contempt and there was no end to the contumely showered upon her
by the savageswho were exasperated at the deception which they
conceived had been practised upon them. To the horror of her
affectionate spouseshe was stripped of her garmentsand given
to understand that she could no longer carry on her deceits with
impunity. The gentle dame was not sufficiently evangelical to
endure thisandfearful of further improprietiesshe forced
her husband to relinquish his undertakingand together they
returned to Tahiti.

Not thus shy of exhibiting her charms was the Island Queen
herselfthe beauteous wife of Moviannathe king of Nukuheva.
Between two and three years after the adventures recorded in this
volumeI chancedwhile aboard of a man-of-war to touch at these
islands. The French had then held possession of the Marquesas
some timeand already prided themselves upon the beneficial
effects of their jurisdictionas discernible in the deportment
of the natives. To be surein one of their efforts at reform
they had slaughtered about a hundred and fifty of them at
Whitihoo--but let that pass. At the time I mentionthe French
squadron was rendezvousing in the bay of Nukuhevaand during an
interview between one of their captains and our worthy Commodore
it was suggested by the formerthat weas the flag-ship of the
American squadronshould receivein statea visit from the
royal pair. The French officer likewise representedwith
evident satisfactionthat under their tuition the king and queen
had imbibed proper notions of their elevated stationand on all
ceremonious occasions conducted themselves with suitable dignity.
Accordinglypreparations were made to give their majesties a
reception on board in a style corresponding with their rank.

One bright afternoona giggaily bedizened with streamerswas
observed to shove off from the side of one of the French
frigatesand pull directly for our gangway. In the stem sheets
reclined Mowanna and his consort. As they approachedwe paid
them all the honours clue to royalty;--manning our yardsfiring
a saluteand making a prodigious hubbub.

They ascended the accommodation ladderwere greeted by the
Commodorehat in handand passing along the quarter-deckthe
marine guard presented armswhile the band struck up 'The King
of the Cannibal Islands'. So far all went well. The French
officers grimaced and smiled in exceedingly high spirits
wonderfully pleased with the discreet manner in which these
distinguished personages behaved themselves.

Their appearance was certainly calculated to produce an effect.
His majesty was arrayed in a magnificent military uniformstiff
with gold lace and embroiderywhile his shaven crown was
concealed by a huge chapeau braswaving with ostrich plumes.
There was one slight blemishhoweverin his appearance. A
broad patch of tattooing stretched completely across his facein

a line with his eyesmaking him look as if he wore a huge pair
of goggles; and royalty in goggles suggested some ludicrous
ideas. But it was in the adornment of the fair person of his
dark-complexioned spouse that the tailors of the fleet had
evinced the gaiety of their national taste. She was habited in a
gaudy tissue of scarlet clothtrimmed with yellow silkwhich
descending a little below the kneesexposed to view her bare
legsembellished with spiral tattooingand somewhat resembling
two miniature Trajan's columns. Upon her head was a fanciful
turban of purple velvetfigured with silver sprigsand
surmounted by a tuft of variegated feathers.

The ship's companycrowding into the gangway to view the sight
soon arrested her majesty's attention. She singled out from
their number an old saltwhose bare arms and feetand exposed
breastwere covered with as many inscriptions in India ink as
the lid of an Egyptian sarcophagus. Notwithstanding all the sly
hints and remonstrances of the French officersshe immediately
approached the manand pulling further open the bosom of his
duck frockand rolling up the leg of his wide trousersshe
gazed with admiration at the bright blue and vermilion pricking
thus disclosed to view. She hung over the fellowcaressing him
and expressing her delight in a variety of wild exclamations and
gestures. The embarrassment of the polite Gauls at such an
unlooked-for occurrence may be easily imaginedbut picture their
consternationwhen all at once the royal ladyeager to display
the hieroglyphics on her own sweet formbent forward for a
momentand turning sharply roundthrew up the skirt of her
mantle and revealed a sight from which the aghast Frenchmen
retreated precipitatelyand tumbling into their boatsfled the
scene of so shocking a catastrophe.



I CAN never forget the eighteen or twenty days during which the
light trade-winds were silently sweeping us towards the islands.
In pursuit of the sperm whalewe had been cruising on the line
some twenty degrees to the westward of the Gallipagos; and all
that we had to dowhen our course was determined onwas to
square in the yards and keep the vessel before the breezeand
then the good ship and the steady gale did the rest between them.
The man at the wheel never vexed the old lady with any
superfluous steeringbut comfortably adjusting his limbs at the
tillerwould doze away by the hour. True to her workthe Dolly
headed to her courseand like one of those characters who always
do best when let aloneshe jogged on her way like a veteran old
sea-pacer as she was.

What a delightfullazylanguid time we had whilst we were thus
gliding along! There was nothing to be done; a circumstance that
happily suited our disinclination to do anything. We abandoned
the fore-peak altogetherand spreading an awning over the
forecastlesleptateand lounged under it the live-long day.
Every one seemed to be under the influence of some narcotic.
Even the officers aftwhose duty required them never to be
seated while keeping a deck watchvainly endeavoured to keep on

their pins; and were obliged invariably to compromise the matter
by leaning up against the bulwarksand gazing abstractedly over
the side. Reading was out of the question; take a book in your
handand you were asleep in an instant.

Although I could not avoid yielding in a great measure to the
general languorstill at times I contrived to shake off the
spelland to appreciate the beauty of the scene around me. The
sky presented a clear expanse of the most delicate blueexcept
along the skirts of the horizonwhere you might see a thin
drapery of pale clouds which never varied their form or colour.
The longmeasureddirge-like well of the Pacific came rolling
alongwith its surface broken by little tiny wavessparkling in
the sunshine. Every now and then a shoal of flying fishscared
from the water under the bowswould leap into the airand fall
the next moment like a shower of silver into the sea. Then you
would see the superb albicorewith his glittering sidessailing
aloftand often describing an arc in his descentdisappear on
the surface of the water. Far offthe lofty jet of the whale
might be seenand nearer at hand the prowling sharkthat
villainous footpad of the seaswould come skulking alongand
at a wary distanceregard us with his evil eye. At timessome
shapeless monster of the deepfloating on the surfacewouldas
we approachedsink slowly into the blue watersand fade away
from the sight. But the most impressive feature of the scene was
the almost unbroken silence that reigned over sky and water.
Scarcely a sound could be heard but the occasional breathing of
the grampusand the rippling at the cut-water.

As we drew nearer the landI hailed with delight the appearance
of innumerable sea-fowl. Screaming and whirling in spiral
tracksthey would accompany the vesseland at times alight on
our yards and stays. That piratical-looking fellow
appropriately named the man-of-war's-hawkwith his blood-red
bill and raven plumagewould come sweeping round us in gradually
diminishing circlestill you could distinctly mark the strange
flashings of his eye; and thenas if satisfied with his
observationwould sail up into the air and disappear from the
view. Soonother evidences of our vicinity to the land were
apparentand it was not long before the glad announcement of its
being in sight was heard from aloft--given with that peculiar
prolongation of sound that a sailor loves--'Land ho!'

The captaindarting on deck from the cabinbawled lustily for
his spy-glass; the mate in still louder accents hailed the
masthead with a tremendous 'where-away?' The black cook thrust
his woolly head from the galleyand Boatswainthe dogleaped
up between the knight-headsand barked most furiously. Land ho!
Ayethere it was. A hardly perceptible blue irregular outline
indicating the bold contour of the lofty heights of Nukuheva.

This islandalthough generally called one of the Marquesasis
by some navigators considered as forming one of a distinct
clustercomprising the islands of RuhookaRopoand Nukuheva;
upon which three the appellation of the Washington Group has been
bestowed. They form a triangleand lie within the parallels of
8 degrees 38" and 9 degrees 32" South latitude and 139 degrees
20" and 140 degrees 10" West longitude from Greenwich. With how
little propriety they are to be regarded as forming a separate
group will be at once apparentwhen it is considered that they
lie in the immediate vicinity of the other islandsthat is to
sayless than a degree to the northwest of them; that their
inhabitants speak the Marquesan dialectand that their laws
religionand general customs are identical. The only reason why

they were ever thus arbitrarily distinguished may be attributed
to the singular factthat their existence was altogether unknown
to the world until the year 1791when they were discovered by
Captain Ingrahamof BostonMassachusettsnearly two centuries
after the discovery of the adjacent islands by the agent of the
Spanish Viceroy. Notwithstanding thisI shall follow the
example of most voyagersand treat of them as forming part and
parcel of Marquesas.

Nukuheva is the most important of these islandsbeing the only
one at which ships are much in the habit of touchingand is
celebrated as being the place where the adventurous Captain
Porter refitted his ships during the late war between England and
the United Statesand whence he sallied out upon the large
whaling fleet then sailing under the enemy's flag in the
surrounding seas. This island is about twenty miles in length
and nearly as many in breadth. It has three good harbours on its
coast; the largest and best of which is called by the people
living in its vicinity 'Taiohae'and by Captain Porter was
denominated Massachusetts Bay. Among the adverse tribes dwelling
about the shores of the other baysand by all voyagersit is
generally known by the name bestowed upon the island
itself--Nukuheva. Its inhabitants have become somewhat
corruptedowing to their recent commerce with Europeansbut so
far as regards their peculiar customs and general mode of life
they retain their original primitive characterremaining very
nearly in the same state of nature in which they were first
beheld by white men. The hostile clansresiding in the more
remote sections of the islandand very seldom holding any
communication with foreignersare in every respect unchanged
from their earliest known condition.

In the bay of Nukuheva was the anchorage we desired to reach. We
had perceived the loom of the mountains about sunset; so that
after running all night with a very light breezewe found
ourselves close in with the island the next morningbut as the
bay we sought lay on its farther sidewe were obliged to sail
some distance along the shorecatchingas we proceededshort
glimpses of blooming valleysdeep glenswaterfallsand waving
groves hidden here and there by projecting and rocky headlands
every moment opening to the view some new and startling scene of

Those who for the first time visit the South Seagenerally are
surprised at the appearance of the islands when beheld from the
sea. From the vague accounts we sometimes have of their beauty
many people are apt to picture to themselves enamelled and softly
swelling plainsshaded over with delicious grovesand watered
by purling brooksand the entire country but little elevated
above the surrounding ocean. The reality is very different; bold
rock-bound coastswith the surf beating high against the lofty
cliffsand broken here and there into deep inletswhich open to
the view thickly-wooded valleysseparated by the spurs of
mountains clothed with tufted grassand sweeping down towards
the sea from an elevated and furrowed interiorform the
principal features of these islands.

Towards noon we drew abreast the entrance go the harbourand at
last we slowly swept by the intervening promontoryand entered
the bay of Nukuheva. No description can do justice to its
beauty; but that beauty was lost to me thenand I saw nothing
but the tri-coloured flag of France trailing over the stern of
six vesselswhose black hulls and bristling broadsides
proclaimed their warlike character. There they werefloating in

that lovely baythe green eminences of the shore looking down so
tranquilly upon themas if rebuking the sternness of their
aspect. To my eye nothing could be more out of keeping than the
presence of these vessels; but we soon learnt what brought them
there. The whole group of islands had just been taken possession
of by Rear-Admiral Du Petit Thouarsin the name of the
invincible French nation.

This item of information was imparted to us by a most
extraordinary individuala genuine South-Sea vagabondwho came
alongside of us in a whale-boat as soon as we entered the bay
andby the aid of some benevolent persons at the gangwaywas
assisted on boardfor our visitor was in that interesting stage
of intoxication when a man is amiable and helpless. Although he
was utterly unable to stand erect or to navigate his body across
the deckhe still magnanimously proffered his services to pilot
the ship to a good and secure anchorage. Our captainhowever
rather distrusted his ability in this respectand refused to
recognize his claim to the character he assumed; but our
gentleman was determined to play his partforby dint of much
scramblinghe succeeded in getting into the weather-quarter
boatwhere he steadied himself by holding on to a shroudand
then commenced issuing his commands with amazing volubility and
very peculiar gestures. Of course no one obeyed his orders; but
as it was impossible to quiet himwe swept by the ships of the
squadron with this strange fellow performing his antics in full
view of all the French officers.

We afterwards learned that our eccentric friend had been a
lieutenant in the English navy; but having disgraced his flag by
some criminal conduct in one of the principal ports on the main
he had deserted his shipand spent many years wandering among
the islands of the Pacificuntil accidentally being at Nukuheva
when the French took possession of the placehe had been
appointed pilot of the harbour by the newly constituted

As we slowly advanced up the baynumerous canoes pushed off from
the surrounding shoresand we were soon in the midst of quite a
flotilla of themtheir savage occupants struggling to get aboard
of usand jostling one another in their ineffectual attempts.
Occasionally the projecting out-riggers of their slight shallops
running foul of one anotherwould become entangled beneath the
waterthreatening to capsize the canoeswhen a scene of
confusion would ensue that baffles description. Such strange
outcries and passionate gesticulations I never certainly heard or
saw before. You would have thought the islanders were on the
point of flying at each other's throatswhereas they were only
amicably engaged in disentangling their boats.

Scattered here and there among the canoes might be seen numbers
of cocoanuts floating closely together in circular groupsand
bobbing up and down with every wave. By some inexplicable means
these cocoanuts were all steadily approaching towards the ship.
As I leaned curiously over the sideendeavouring to solve their
mysterious movementsone mass far in advance of the rest
attracted my attention. In its centre was something I could take
for nothing else than a cocoanutbut which I certainly
considered one of the most extraordinary specimens of the fruit I
had ever seen. It kept twirling and dancing about among the rest
in the most singular mannerand as it drew nearer I thought it
bore a remarkable resemblance to the brown shaven skull of one of
the savages. Presently it betrayed a pair of eyesand soon I
became aware that what I had supposed to have been one of the

fruit was nothing else than the head of an islanderwho had
adopted this singular method of bringing his produce to market.
The cocoanuts were all attached to one another by strips of the
huskpartly torn from the shell and rudely fastened together.
Their proprietor inserting his head into the midst of them
impelled his necklace of cocoanuts through the water by striking
out beneath the surface with his feet.

I was somewhat astonished to perceive that among the number of
natives that surrounded usnot a single female was to be seen.
At that time I was ignorant of the fact that by the operation of
the 'taboo' the use of canoes in all parts of the island is
rigorously prohibited to the entire sexfor whom it is death
even to be seen entering one when hauled on shore; consequently
whenever a Marquesan lady voyages by watershe puts in
requisition the paddles of her own fair body.

We had approached within a mile and a half perhaps of this foot
of the baywhen some of the islanderswho by this time had
managed to scramble aboard of us at the risk of swamping their
canoesdirected our attention to a singular commotion in the
water ahead of the vessel. At first I imagined it to be produced
by a shoal of fish sporting on the surfacebut our savage
friends assured us that it was caused by a shoal of 'whinhenies'
(young girls)who in this manner were coming off from the shore
to welcome is. As they drew nearerand I watched the rising and
sinking of their formsand beheld the uplifted right arm bearing
above the water the girdle of tappaand their long dark hair
trailing beside them as they swamI almost fancied they could be
nothing else than so many mermaids--and very like mermaids they
behaved too.

We were still some distance from the beachand under slow
headwaywhen we sailed right into the midst of these swimming
nymphsand they boarded us at every quarter; many seizing hold
of the chain-plates and springing into the chains; othersat the
peril of being run over by the vessel in her coursecatching at
the bob-staysand wreathing their slender forms about the ropes
hung suspended in the air. All of them at length succeeded in
getting up the ship's sidewhere they clung dripping with the
brine and glowing from the baththeir jet-black tresses
streaming over their shouldersand half enveloping their
otherwise naked forms. There they hungsparkling with savage
vivacitylaughing gaily at one anotherand chattering away with
infinite glee. Nor were they idle the whilefor each one
performed the simple offices of the toilette for the other.
Their luxuriant lockswound up and twisted into the smallest
possible compasswere freed from the briny element; the whole
person carefully driedand from a little round shell that passed
from hand to handanointed with a fragrant oil: their adornments
were completed by passing a few loose folds of white tappain a
modest cincturearound the waist. Thus arrayed they no longer
hesitatedbut flung themselves lightly over the bulwarksand
were quickly frolicking about the decks. Many of them went
forwardperching upon the headrails or running out upon the
bowspritwhile others seated themselves upon the taffrailor
reclined at full length upon the boats. What a sight for us
bachelor sailors! How avoid so dire a temptation? For who could
think of tumbling these artless creatures overboardwhen they
had swum miles to welcome us?

Their appearance perfectly amazed me; their extreme youththe
light clear brown of their complexionstheir delicate features
and inexpressibly graceful figurestheir softly moulded limbs

and free unstudied actionseemed as strange as beautiful.

The Dolly was fairly captured; and never I will say was vessel
carried before by such a dashing and irresistible party of
boarders! The ship takenwe could not do otherwise than yield
ourselves prisonersand for the whole period that she remained
in the baythe Dollyas well as her crewwere completely in
the hands of the mermaids.

In the evening after we had come to an anchor the deck was
illuminated with lanternsand this picturesque band of sylphs
tricked out with flowersand dressed in robes of variegated
tappagot up a ball in great style. These females are
passionately fond of dancingand in the wild grace and spirit of
the style excel everything I have ever seen. The varied dances
of the Marquesan girls are beautiful in the extremebut there is
an abandoned voluptuousness in their character which I dare not
attempt to describe.



IT was in the summer of 1842 that we arrived at the islands; the
French had then held possession of them for several weeks.
During this time they had visited some of the principal places in
the groupand had disembarked at various points about five
hundred troops. These were employed in constructing works of
defenceand otherwise providing against the attacks of the
nativeswho at any moment might be expected to break out in open
hostility. The islanders looked upon the people who made this
cavalier appropriation of their shores with mingled feelings of
fear and detestation. They cordially hated them; but the
impulses of their resentment were neutralized by their dread of
the floating batterieswhich lay with their fatal tubes
ostentatiously pointednot at fortifications and redoubtsbut
at a handful of bamboo shedssheltered in a grove of cocoanuts!
A valiant warrior doubtlessbut a prudent one toowas this same
Rear-Admiral Du Petit Thouars. Four heavydoublebanked frigates
and three corvettes to frighten a parcel of naked heathen into
subjection! Sixty-eight pounders to demolish huts of cocoanut
boughsand Congreve rockets to set on fire a few canoe sheds!

At Nukuhevathere were about one hundred soldiers ashore. They
were encamped in tentsconstructed of the old sails and spare
spars of the squadronwithin the limits of a redoubt mounted
with a few nine-poundersand surrounded with a fosse. Every
other daythese troops were marched out in martial arrayto a
level piece of ground in the vicinityand there for hours went
through all sorts of military evolutionssurrounded by flocks of
the nativeswho looked on with savage admiration at the show
and as savage a hatred of the actors. A regiment of the Old
Guardreviewed on a summer's day in the Champs Elyseescould
not have made a more critically correct appearance. The
officers' regimentalsresplendent with gold lace and embroidery
as if purposely calculated to dazzle the islanderslooked as if
just unpacked from their Parisian cases.

The sensation produced by the presence of the strangers had not
in the least subsided at the period of our arrival at the
islands. The natives still flocked in numbers about the
encampmentand watched with the liveliest curiosity everything
that was going forward. A blacksmith's forgewhich had been set
up in the shelter of a grove near the beachattracted so great a
crowdthat it required the utmost efforts of the sentries posted
around to keep the inquisitive multitude at a sufficient distance
to allow the workmen to ply their vocation. But nothing gained
so large a share of admiration as a horsewhich had been brought
from Valparaiso by the Achilleone of the vessels of the
squadron. The animala remarkably fine onehad been taken
ashoreand stabled in a hut of cocoanut boughs within the
fortified enclosure. Occasionally it was brought outandbeing
gaily caparisonedwas ridden by one of the officers at full
speed over the hard sand beach. This performance was sure to be
hailed with loud plauditsand the 'puarkee nuee' (big hog) was
unanimously pronounced by the islanders to be the most
extraordinary specimen of zoology that had ever come under their

The expedition for the occupation of the Marquesas had sailed
from Brest in the spring of 1842and the secret of its
destination was solely in the possession of its commander. No
wonder that those who contemplated such a signal infraction of
the rights of humanity should have sought to veil the enormity
from the eyes of the world. And yetnotwithstanding their
iniquitous conduct in this and in other mattersthe French have
ever plumed themselves upon being the most humane and polished of
nations. A high degree of refinementhoweverdoes not seem to
subdue our wicked propensities so much after all; and were
civilization itself to be estimated by some of its resultsit
would seem perhaps better for what we call the barbarous part of
the world to remain unchanged.

One example of the shameless subterfuges under which the French
stand prepared to defend whatever cruelties they may hereafter
think fit to commit in bringing the Marquesan natives into
subjection is well worthy of being recorded. On some flimsy
pretext or other Mowannathe king of Nukuhevawhom the invaders
by extravagant presents cajoled over to their interestsand move
about like a mere puppethas been set up as the rightful
sovereign of the entire island--the alleged ruler by prescription
of various clanswho for ages perhaps have treated with each
other as separate nations. To reinstate this much-injured prince
in the assumed dignities of his ancestorsthe disinterested
strangers have come all the way from France: they are determined
that his title shall be acknowledged. If any tribe shall refuse
to recognize the authority of the Frenchby bowing down to the
laced chapeau of Mowannalet them abide the consequences of
their obstinacy. Under cover of a similar pretencehave the
outrages and massacres at Tahiti the beautifulthe queen of the
South Seasbeen perpetrated.

On this buccaneering expeditionRear Admiral Du Petit Thouars
leaving the rest of his squadron at the Marquesas--which had
then been occupied by his forces about five months--set sail for
the doomed island in the Reine Blanche frigate. On his arrival
as an indemnity for alleged insults offered to the flag of his
countryhe demanded some twenty or thirty thousand dollars to be
placed in his hands forthwithand in default of payment
threatened to land and take possession of the place.

The frigateimmediately upon coming to an anchorgot springs on
her cablesand with he guns; cast loose and her men at their
quarterslay in the circular basin of Papeetewith her
broadside bearing upon the devoted town; while her numerous
cuttershauled in order alongsidewere ready to effect a
landingunder cover of her batteries. She maintained this
belligerent attitude for several daysduring which time a series
of informal negotiations were pendingand wide alarm spread over
the island. Many of the Tahitians were at first disposed to
resort to armsand drive the invaders from their shores; but
more pacific and feebler counsels ultimately prevailed. The
unfortunate queen Pomareincapable of averting the impending
calamityterrified at the arrogance of the insolent Frenchman
and driven at last to despairfled by night in a canoe to Emio.

During the continuance of the panic there occurred an instance of
feminine heroism that I cannot omit to record.

In the grounds of the famous missionary consulPritchardthen
absent in Londonthe consular flag of Britain waved as usual
during the dayfrom a lofty staff planted within a few yards of
the beachand in full view of the frigate. One morning an
officerat the head of a party of menpresented himself at the
verandah of Mr Pritchard's houseand inquired in broken English
for the lady his wife. The matron soon made her appearance; and
the polite Frenchmanmaking one of his best bowsand playing
gracefully with the aiguillettes that danced upon his breast
proceeded in courteous accents to deliver his mission. 'The
admiral desired the flag to be hauled down--hoped it would be
perfectly agreeable--and his men stood ready to perform the
duty.' 'Tell the Pirate your master' replied the spirited
Englishwomanpointing to the staff'that if he wishes to strike
these colourshe must come and perform the act himself; I will
suffer no one else to do it.' The lady then bowed haughtily and
withdrew into the house. As the discomfited officer slowly
walked awayhe looked up to the flagand perceived that the
cord by which it was elevated to its placeled from the top of
the staffacross the lawnto an open upper window of the
mansionwhere sat the lady from whom he had just parted
tranquilly engaged in knitting. Was that flag hauled down? Mrs
Pritchard thinks not; and Rear-Admiral Du Petit Thouars is
believed to be of the same opinion.



OUR ship had not been many days in the harbour of Nukuheva before
I came to the determination of leaving her. That my reasons for
resolving to take this step were numerous and weightymay be
inferred from the fact that I chose rather to risk my fortunes
among the savages of the island than to endure another voyage on
board the Dolly. To use the concisepointblank phrase of the
sailors. I had made up my mind to 'run away'. Now as a meaning
is generally attached to these two words no way flattering to the
individual to whom they are appliedit behoves mefor the sake
of my own characterto offer some explanation of my conduct.

When I entered on board the DollyI signed as a matter of course
the ship's articlesthereby voluntarily engaging and legally
binding myself to serve in a certain capacity for the period of
the voyage; andspecial considerations apartI was of course
bound to fulfill the agreement. But in all contractsif one
party fail to perform his share of the compactis not the other
virtually absolved from his liability? Who is there who will not
answer in the affirmative?

Having settled the principlethenlet me apply it to the
particular case in question. In numberless instances had not
only the implied but the specified conditions of the articles
been violated on the part of the ship in which I served. The
usage on board of her was tyrannical; the sick had been inhumanly
neglected; the provisions had been doled out in scanty allowance;
and her cruises were unreasonably protracted. The captain was
the author of the abuses; it was in vain to think that he would
either remedy themor alter his conductwhich was arbitrary and
violent in the extreme. His prompt reply to all complaints and
remonstrances was--the butt-end of a handspikeso convincingly
administered as effectually to silence the aggrieved party.

To whom could we apply for redress? We had left both law and
equity on the other side of the Cape; and unfortunatelywith a
very few exceptionsour crew was composed of a parcel of
dastardly and meanspirited wretchesdivided among themselves
and only united in enduring without resistance the unmitigated
tyranny of the captain. It would have been mere madness for any
two or three of the numberunassisted by the restto attempt
making a stand against his ill usage. They would only have
called down upon themselves the particular vengeance of this
'Lord of the Plank'and subjected their shipmates to additional

Butafter allthese things could have been endured awhilehad
we entertained the hope of being speedily delivered from them by
the due completion of the term of our servitude. But what a
dismal prospect awaited us in this quarter! The longevity of
Cape Horn whaling voyages is proverbialfrequently extending
over a period of four or five years.

Some long-hairedbare-necked youthswhoforced by the united
influences of Captain Marryatt and hard timesembark at
Nantucket for a pleasure excursion to the Pacificand whose
anxious mothers provide themwith bottled milk for the occasion
oftentimes return very respectable middle-aged gentlemen.

The very preparations made for one of these expeditions are
enough to frighten one. As the vessel carries out no cargoher
hold is filled with provisions for her own consumption. The
ownerswho officiate as caterers for the voyagesupply the
larder with an abundance of dainties. Delicate morsels of beef
and porkcut on scientific principles from every part of the
animaland of all conceivable shapes and sizesare carefully
packed in saltand stored away in barrels; affording a
never-ending variety in their different degrees of toughnessand
in the peculiarities of their saline properties. Choice old
water toodecanted into stout six-barrel-casksand two pints of
which is allowed every day to each soul on board; together with
ample store of sea-breadpreviously reduced to a state of
petrifactionwith a view to preserve it either from decay or
consumption in the ordinary modeare likewise provided for the
nourishment and gastronomic enjoyment of the crew.

But not to speak of the quality of these articles of sailors'
farethe abundance in which they are put onboard a whaling
vessel is almost incredible. Oftentimeswhen we had occasion to
break out in the holdand I beheld the successive tiers of casks
and barrelswhose contents were all destined to be consumed in
due course by the ship's companymy heart has sunk within me.

Althoughas a general casea ship unlucky in falling in with
whales continues to cruise after them until she has barely
sufficient provisions remaining to take her hometurning round
then quietly and making the best of her way to her friendsyet
there are instances when even this natural obstacle to the
further prosecution of the voyage is overcome by headstrong
captainswhobartering the fruits of their hard-earned toils
for a new supply of provisions in some of the ports of Chili or
Perubegin the voyage afresh with unabated zeal and
perseverance. It is in vain that the owners write urgent letters
to him to sail for homeand for their sake to bring back the
shipsince it appears he can put nothing in her. Not he. He
has registered a vow: he will fill his vessel with good sperm
oilor failing to do sonever again strike Yankee soundings.

I heard of one whalerwhich after many years' absence was given
up for lost. The last that had been heard of her was a shadowy
report of her having touched at some of those unstable islands in
the far Pacificwhose eccentric wanderings are carefully noted
in each new edition of the South-Sea charts. After a long
intervalhowever'The Perseverance'--for that was her name--was
spoken somewhere in the vicinity of the ends of the earth
cruising along as leisurely as everher sails all bepatched and
be quilted with rope-yarnsher spars fished with old pipe
stavesand her rigging knotted and spliced in every possible
direction. Her crew was composed of some twenty venerable
Greenwich-pensioner-looking old saltswho just managed to hobble
about deck. The ends of all the running ropeswith the
exception of the signal halyards and poop-down-haulwere rove
through snatch-blocksand led to the capstan or windlassso that
not a yard was braced or a sad set without the assistance of

Her hull was encrusted with barnacleswhich completely encased
her. Three pet sharks followed in her wakeand every day came
alongside to regale themselves from the contents of the cook's
bucketwhich were pitched over to them. A vast shoal of bonetas
and albicores always kept her company.

Such was the account I heard of this vessel and the remembrance
of it always haunted me; what eventually became of her I never
learned; at any rate: he never reached homeand I suppose she is
still regularly tacking twice in the twenty-four hours somewhere
off Desolate Islandor the Devil's-Tail Peak.

Having said thus much touching the usual length of these voyages
when I inform the reader that ours had as it were just commenced
we being only fifteen months outand even at that time hailed as
a late arrival and boarded for newshe will readily perceive
that there was little to encourage one in looking forward to the
futureespecially as I had always had a presentiment that we
should make an unfortunate voyageand our experience so far had
justified the expectation.

I may here stateand on my faith as an honest manthat though
more than three years have elapsed since I left this same

identical vesselshe still continues; in the Pacificand but a
few days since I saw her reported in the papers as having touched
at the Sandwich Islands previous to going on the coast of Japan.

But to return to my narrative. Placed in these circumstances
thenwith no prospect of matters mending if I remained aboard
the DollyI at once made up my mind to leave her: to be sure it
was rather an inglorious thing to steal away privily from those
at whose hands I had received wrongs and outrages that I could
not resent; but how was such a course to be avoided when it was
the only alternative left me? Having made up my mindI
proceeded to acquire all the information I could obtain relating
to the island and its inhabitantswith a view of shaping my
plans of escape accordingly. The result of these inquiries I
will now statein order that the ensuing narrative may be the
better understood.

The bay of Nukuheva in which we were then lying is an expanse of
water not unlike in figure the space included within the limits
of a horse-shoe. It isperhapsnine miles in circumference.
You approach it from the sea by a narrow entranceflanked on
each side by two small twin islets which soar conically to the
height of some five hundred feet. From these the shore recedes
on both handsand describes a deep semicircle.

From the verge of the water the land rises uniformly on all
sideswith green and sloping acclivitiesuntil from gently
rolling hill-sides and moderate elevations it insensibly swells
into lofty and majestic heightswhose blue outlinesranged all
aroundclose in the view. The beautiful aspect of the shore is
heightened by deep and romantic glenswhich come down to it at
almost equal distancesall apparently radiating from a common
centreand the upper extremities of which are lost to the eye
beneath the shadow of the mountains. Down each of these little
valleys flows a clear streamhere and there assuming the form of
a slender cascadethen stealing invisibly along until it bursts
upon the sight again in larger and more noisy waterfallsand at
last demurely wanders along to the sea.

The houses of the nativesconstructed of the yellow bamboo
tastefully twisted together in a kind of wicker-workand
thatched with the long tapering leaves of the palmettoare
scattered irregularly along these valleys beneath the shady
branches of the cocoanut trees.

Nothing can exceed the imposing scenery of this bay. Viewed from
our ship as she lay at anchor in the middle of the harbourit
presented the appearance of a vast natural amphitheatre in decay
and overgrown with vinesthe deep glens that furrowed it's sides
appearing like enormous fissures caused by the ravages of time.
Very often when lost in admiration at its beautyI have
experienced a pang of regret that a scene so enchanting should be
hidden from the world in these remote seasand seldom meet the
eyes of devoted lovers of nature.

Besides this bay the shores of the island are indented by several
other extensive inletsinto which descend broad and verdant
valleys. These are inhabited by as many distinct tribes of
savageswhoalthough speaking kindred dialects of a common
languageand having the same religion and lawshave from time
immemorial waged hereditary warfare against each other. The
intervening mountains generally two or three thousand feet above
the level of the sea geographically define the territories of
each of these hostile tribeswho never cross themsave on some

expedition of war or plunder. Immediately adjacent to Nukuheva
and only separated from it by the mountains seen from the
harbourlies the lovely valley of Happarwhose inmates cherish
the most friendly relations with the inhabitants of Nukuheva. On
the other side of Happarand closely adjoining itis the
magnificent valley of the dreaded Typeesthe unappeasable
enemies of both these tribes.

These celebrated warriors appear to inspire the other islanders
with unspeakable terrors. Their very name is a frightful one;
for the word 'Typee' in the Marquesan dialect signifies a lover
of human flesh. It is rather singular that the title should have
been bestowed upon them exclusivelyinasmuch as the natives of
all this group are irreclaimable cannibals. The name may
perhapshave been given to denote the peculiar ferocity of this
clanand to convey a special stigma along with it.

These same Typees enjoy a prodigious notoriety all over the
islands. The natives of Nukuheva would frequently recount in
pantomime to our ship's company their terrible featsand would
show the marks of wounds they had received in desperate
encounters with them. When ashore they would try to frighten us
by pointingto one of their own numberand calling him a Typee
manifesting no little surprise that we did not take to our heels
at so terrible an announcement. It was quite amusingtooto
see with what earnestness they disclaimed all cannibal
propensities on their own partwhile they denounced their
enemies--the Typees--as inveterate gourmandizers of human flesh;
but this is a peculiarity to which I shall hereafter have
occasion to allude.

Although I was convinced that the inhabitants of our bay were as
arrant cannibals as any of the other tribes on the islandstill
I could not but feel a particular and most unqualified repugnance
to the aforesaid Typees. Even before visiting the MarquesasI
had heard from men who had touched at the group on former voyages
some revolting stories in connection with these savages; and
fresh in my remembrance was the adventure of the master of the
Katherinewho only a few months previousimprudently venturing
into this bay in an armed boat for the purpose of barterwas
seized by the nativescarried back a little distance into their
valleyand was only saved from a cruel death by the intervention
of a young girlwho facilitated his escape by night along the
beach to Nukuheva.

I had heard too of an English vessel that many years agoafter a
weary cruisesought to enter the bay of Nukuhevaand arriving
within two or three miles of the landwas met by a large canoe
filled with nativeswho offered to lead the way to the place of
their destination. The captainunacquainted with the localities
of the islandjoyfully acceded to the proposition--the canoe
paddled onthe ship followed. She was soon conducted to a
beautiful inletand dropped her anchor in its waters beneath the
shadows of the lofty shore. That same night the perfidious
Typeeswho had thus inveigled her into their fatal bayflocked
aboard the doomed vessel by hundredsand at a given signal
murdered every soul on board.

I shall never forget the observation of one of our crew as we
were passing slowly by the entrance of the bay in our way to
Nukuheva. As we stood gazing over the side at the verdant
headlandsNedpointing with his hand in the direction of the
treacherous valleyexclaimed'There--there's Typee. Ohthe
bloody cannibalswhat a meal they'd make of us if we were to

take it into our heads to land! but they say they don't like
sailor's fleshit's too salt. I saymatyhow should you like
to be shoved ashore thereeh?' I little thoughtas I shuddered
at the questionthat in the space of a few weeks I should
actually be a captive in that self-same valley.

The Frenchalthough they had gone through the ceremony of
hoisting their colours for a few hours at all the principal
places of the grouphad not as yet visited the bay of Typee
anticipating a fierce resistance on the part of the savages
therewhich for the present at least they wished to avoid.
Perhaps they were not a little influenced in the adoption of this
unusual policy from a recollection of the warlike reception given
by the Typees to the forces of Captain Porterabout the year
1814when that brave and accomplished officer endeavoured to
subjugate the clan merely to gratify the mortal hatred of his
allies the Nukuhevas and Happars.

On that occasion I have been told that a considerable detachment
of sailors and marines from the frigate Essexaccompanied by at
least two thousand warriors of Happar and Nukuhevalanded in
boats and canoes at the head of the bayand after penetrating a
little distance into the valleymet with the stoutest resistance
from its inmates. Valiantlyalthough with much lossthe Typees
disputed every inch of groundand after some hard fighting
obliged their assailants to retreat and abandon their design of

The invaderson their march back to the seaconsoled themselves
for their repulse by setting fire to every house and temple in
their route; and a long line of smoking ruins defaced the
once-smiling bosom of the valleyand proclaimed to its pagan
inhabitants the spirit that reigned in the breasts of Christian
soldiers. Who can wonder at the deadly hatred of the Typees to
all foreigners after such unprovoked atrocities?

Thus it is that they whom we denominate 'savages' are made to
deserve the title. When the inhabitants of some sequestered
island first descry the 'big canoe' of the European rolling
through the blue waters towards their shoresthey rush down to
the beach in crowdsand with open arms stand ready to embrace
the strangers. Fatal embrace! They fold to their bosom the
vipers whose sting is destined to poison all their joys; and the
instinctive feeling of love within their breast is soon converted
into the bitterest hate.

The enormities perpetrated in the South Seas upon some of the
inoffensive islanders will nigh pass belief. These things are
seldom proclaimed at home; they happen at the very ends of the
earth; they are done in a cornerand there are none to reveal
them. But there isneverthelessmany a petty trader that has
navigated the Pacific whose course from island to island might be
traced by a series of cold-blooded robberieskidnappingsand
murdersthe iniquity of which might be considered almost
sufficient to sink her guilty timbers to the bottom of the sea.

Sometimes vague accounts of such thing's reach our firesidesand
we coolly censure them as wrongimpoliticneedlessly severe
and dangerous to the crews of other vessels. How different is
our tone when we read the highly-wrought description of the
massacre of the crew of the Hobomak by the Feejees; how we
sympathize for the unhappy victimsand with what horror do we
regard the diabolical heathenswhoafter allhave but avenged
the unprovoked injuries which they have received. We breathe

nothing but vengeanceand equip armed vessels to traverse
thousands of miles of ocean in order to execute summary
punishment upon the offenders. On arriving at their destination
they burnslaughterand destroyaccording to the tenor of
written instructionsand sailing away from the scene of
devastationcall upon all Christendom to applaud their courage
and their justice.

How often is the term 'savages' incorrectly applied! None really
deserving of it were ever yet discovered by voyagers or by
travellers. They have discovered heathens and barbarians whom by
horrible cruelties they have exasperated into savages. It may be
asserted without fear of contradictions that in all the cases of
outrages committed by PolynesiansEuropeans have at some time or
other been the aggressorsand that the cruel and bloodthirsty
disposition of some of the islanders is mainly to be ascribed to
the influence of such examples.

But to return. Owing to the mutual hostilities of the different
tribes I have mentionedthe mountainous tracts which separate
their respective territories remain altogether uninhabited; the
natives invariably dwelling in the depths of the valleyswith a
view of securing themselves from the predatory incursions of
their enemieswho often lurk along their bordersready to cut
off any imprudent straggleror make a descent upon the inmates
of some sequestered habitation. I several times met with very
aged menwho from this cause had never passed the confines of
their native valesome of them having never even ascended midway
up the mountains in the whole course of their livesand who
accordingly had little idea of the appearance of any other part
of the islandthe whole of which is not perhaps more than sixty
miles in circuit. The little space in which some of these clans
pass away their days would seem almost incredible.

The glen of the Tior will furnish a curious illustration of this.

The inhabited part is not more than four miles in lengthand
varies in breadth from half a mile to less than a quarter. The
rocky vine-clad cliffs on one side tower almost perpendicularly
from their base to the height of at least fifteen hundred feet;
while across the vale--in striking contrast to the scenery
opposite--grass-grown elevations rise one above another in
blooming terraces. Hemmed in by these stupendous barriersthe
valley would be altogether shut out from the rest of the world
were it not that it is accessible from the sea at one endand by
a narrow defile at the other.

The impression produced upon the mindwhen I first visited this
beautiful glenwill never be obliterated.

I had come from Nukuheva by water in the ship's boatand when we
entered the bay of Tior it was high noon. The heat had been
intenseas we had been floating upon the long smooth swell of
the oceanfor there was but little wind. The sun's rays had
expended all their fury upon us; and to add to our discomfortwe
had omitted to supply ourselves with water previous to starting.
What with heat and thirst togetherI became so impatient to get
ashorethat when at last we glided towards itI stood up in the
bow of the boat ready for a spring. As she shot two-thirds of
her length high upon the beachpropelled by three or four strong
strokes of the oarsI leaped among a parcel of juvenile savages
who stood prepared to give us a kind reception; and with them at
my heelsyelling like so many impsI rushed forward across the
open ground in the vicinity of the seaand plungeddiver

fashioninto the recesses of the first grove that offered.

What a delightful sensation did I experience! I felt as if
floating in some new elementwhile all sort of gurgling
tricklingliquid sounds fell upon my ear. People may say what
they will about the refreshing influences of a coldwater bath
but commend me when in a perspiration to the shade baths of Tior
beneath the cocoanut treesand amidst the cool delightful
atmosphere which surrounds them.

How shall I describe the scenery that met my eyeas I looked out
from this verdant recess! The narrow valleywith its steep and
close adjoining sides draperied with vinesand arched overhead
with a fret-work of interlacing boughsnearly hidden from view
by masses of leafy verdureseemed from where I stood like an
immense arbour disclosing its vista to the eyewhilst as I
advanced it insensibly widened into the loveliest vale eye ever

It so happened that the very day I was in Tior the French
admiralattended by all the boats of his squadroncame down in
state from Nukuheva to take formal possession of the place. He
remained in the valley about two hoursduring which time he had
a ceremonious interview with the king. The patriarch-sovereign
of Tior was a man very far advanced in years; but though age had
bowed his form and rendered him almost decrepidhis gigantic
frame retained its original magnitude and grandeur of appearance.

He advanced slowly and with evident painassisting his tottering
steps with the heavy warspear he held in his handand attended
by a group of grey-bearded chiefson one of whom he occasionally
leaned for support. The admiral came forward with head uncovered
and extended handwhile the old king saluted him by a stately
flourish of his weapon. The next moment they stood side by side
these two extremes of the social scale--the polishedsplendid
Frenchmanand the poor tattooed savage. They were both tall and
noble-looking men; but in other respects how strikingly
contrasted! Du Petit Thouars exhibited upon his person all the
paraphernalia of his naval rank. He wore a richly decorated
admiral's frock-coata laced chapeau brasand upon his breast
were a variety of ribbons and orders; while the simple islander
with the exception of a slight cincture about his loinsappeared
in all the nakedness of nature.

At what an immeasurable distancethought Iare these two beings
removed from each other. In the one is shown the result of long
centuries of progressive Civilization and refinementwhich have
gradually converted the mere creature into the semblance of all
that is elevated and grand; while the otherafter the lapse of
the same periodhas not advanced one step in the career of
improvement'Yetafter all' quoth I to myself'insensible as
he is to a thousand wantsand removed from harassing caresmay
not the savage be the happier man of the two?' Such were the
thoughts that arose in my mind as I gazed upon the novel
spectacle before me. In truth it was an impressive oneand
little likely to be effaced. I can recall even now with vivid
distinctiness every feature of the scene. The umbrageous shades
where the interview took place--the glorious tropical vegetation
around--the picturesque grouping of the mingled throng of
soldiery and natives--and even the golden-hued bunch of bananas
that I held in my hand at the timeand of which I occasionally
partook while making the aforesaid philosophical reflections.



HAVING fully resolved to leave the vessel clandestinelyand
having acquired all the knowledge concerning the bay that I could
obtain under the circumstances in which I was placedI now
deliberately turned over in my mind every plan to escape that
suggested itselfbeing determined to act with all possible
prudence in an attempt where failure would be attended with so
many disagreeable consequences. The idea of being taken and
brought back ignominiously to the ship was so inexpressibly
repulsive to methat I was determined by no hasty and imprudent
measures to render such an event probable.

I knew that our worthy captainwho feltsuch a paternal
solicitude for the welfare of his crewwould not willingly
consent that one of his best hands should encounter the perils of
a sojourn among the natives of a barbarous island; and I was
certain that in the event of my disappearancehis fatherly
anxiety would prompt him to offerby way of a rewardyard upon
yard of gaily printed calico for my apprehension. He might even
have appreciated my services at the value of a musketin which
case I felt perfectly certain that the whole population of the
bay would be immediately upon my trackincited by the prospect
of so magnificent a bounty.

Having ascertained the fact before alluded tothat the
islanders--from motives of precautiondwelt altogether in the
depths of the valleysand avoided wandering about the more
elevated portions of the shoreunless bound on some expedition
of war or plunderI concluded that if I could effect unperceived
a passage to the mountainI might easily remain among them
supporting myself by such fruits as came in my way until the
sailing of the shipan event of which I could not fail to be
immediately apprisedas from my lofty position I should command
a view of the entire harbour.

The idea pleased me greatly. It seemed to combine a great deal
of practicability with no inconsiderable enjoyment in a quiet
way; for how delightful it would be to look down upon the
detested old vessel from the height of some thousand feetand
contrast the verdant scenery about me with the recollection of
her narrow decks and gloomy forecastle! Whyit was really
refreshing even to think of it; and so I straightway fell to
picturing myself seated beneath a cocoanut tree on the brow of
the mountainwith a cluster of plantains within easy reach
criticizing her nautical evolutions as she was working her way
out of the harbour.

To be sure there was one rather unpleasant drawback to these
agreeable anticipations--the possibility of falling in with a
foraging party of these same bloody-minded Typeeswhose
appetitesedged perhaps by the air of so elevated a region
might prompt them to devour one. ThisI must confesswas a
most disagreeable view of the matter.

Just to think of a party of these unnatural gourmands taking it
into their heads to make a convivial meal of a poor devilwho
would have no means of escape or defence: howeverthere was no
help for it. I was willing to encounter some risks in order to
accomplish my objectand counted much upon my ability to elude

these prowling cannibals amongst the many coverts which the
mountains afforded. Besidesthe chances were ten to one in my
favour that they would none of them quit their own fastnesses.

I had determined not to communicate my design of withdrawing from
the vessel to any of my shipmatesand least of all to solicit
any one to accompany me in my flight. But it so happened one
nightthat being upon deckrevolving over in my mind various
plans of escapeI perceived one of the ship's company leaning
over the bulwarksapparently plunged in a profound reverie. He
was a young fellow about my own agefor whom I had all along
entertained a great regard; and Tobysuch was the name by which
he went among usfor his real name he would never tell uswas
every way worthy of it. He was activeready and obligingof
dauntless courageand singularly open and fearless in the
expression of his feelings. I had on more than one occasion got
him out of scrapes into which this had led him; and I know not
whether it was from this causeor a certain congeniality of
sentiment between usthat he had always shown a partiality for
my society. We had battled out many a long watch together
beguiling the weary hours with chatsongand storymingled
with a good many imprecations upon the hard destiny it seemed our
common fortune to encounter.

Tobylike myselfhad evidently moved in a different sphere of
lifeand his conversation at times betrayed thisalthough he
was anxious to conceal it. He was one of that class of rovers
you sometimes meet at seawho never reveal their originnever
allude to homeand go rambling over the world as if pursued by
some mysterious fate they cannot possibly elude.

There was much even in the appearance of Toby calculated to draw
me towards himfor while the greater part of the crew were as
coarse in person as in mindToby was endowed with a remarkably
prepossessing exterior. Arrayed in his blue frock and duck
trousershe was as smart a looking sailor as ever stepped upon a
deck; he was singularly small and slightly madewith great
flexibility of limb. His naturally dark complexion had been
deepened by exposure to the tropical sunand a mass of jetty
locks clustered about his templesand threw a darker shade into
his large black eyes. He was a strange wayward beingmoody
fitfuland melancholy--at times almost morose. He had a quick
and fiery temper toowhichwhen thoroughly rousedtransported
him into a state bordering on delirium.

It is strange the power that a mind of deep passion has over
feebler natures. I have seen a brawnyfellowwith no lack of
ordinary couragefairly quail before this slender stripling
when in one of his curious fits. But these paroxysms seldom
occurredand in them my big-hearted shipmate vented the bile
which more calm-tempered individuals get rid of by a continual
pettishness at trivial annoyances.

No one ever saw Toby laugh. I mean in the hearty abandonment of
broad-mouthed mirth. He did smile sometimesit is true; and
there was a good deal of drysarcastic humour about himwhich
told the more from the imperturbable gravity of his tone and

Latterly I had observed that Toby's melancholy had greatly
increasedand I had frequently seen him since our arrival at the
island gazing wistfully upon the shorewhen the remainder of the
crew would be rioting below. I was aware that he entertained a
cordial detestation of the shipand believed thatshould a fair

chance of escape present itselfhe would embrace it willingly.

But the attempt was so perilous in the place where we then lay
that I supposed myself the only individual on board the ship who
was sufficiently reckless to think of it. In thishoweverI
was mistaken.

When I perceived Toby leaningas I have mentionedagainst the
bulwarks and buried in thoughtit struck me at once that the
subject of his meditations might be the same as my own. And if
it be sothought Iis he not the very one of all my shipmates
whom I would choose: for the partner of my adventure? and why
should I not have some comrade with me to divide its dangers and
alleviate its hardships? Perhaps I might be obliged to lie
concealed among the mountains for weeks. In such an event what a
solace would a companion be?

These thoughts passed rapidly through my mindand I wondered why
I had not before considered the matter in this light. But it was
not too late. A tap upon the shoulder served to rouse Toby from
his reverie; I found him ripe for the enterpriseand a very few
words sufficed for a mutual understanding between us. In an
hour's time we had arranged all the preliminariesand decided
upon our plan of action. We then ratified our engagement with an
affectionate wedding of palmsand to elude suspicion repaired
each to his hammockto spend the last night on board the Dolly.

The next day the starboard watchto which we both belongedwas
to be sent ashore on liberty; andavailing ourselves of this
opportunitywe determinedas soon after landing as possibleto
separate ourselves from the rest of the men without exciting
their suspicionsand strike back at once for the mountains.
Seen from the shiptheir summits appeared inaccessiblebut here
and there sloping spurs extended from them almost into the sea
buttressing the lofty elevations with which they were connected
and forming those radiating valleys I have before described. One
of these ridgeswhich appeared more practicable than the rest
we determined to climbconvinced that it would conduct us to the
heights beyond. Accordinglywe carefully observed its bearings
and locality from the shipso that when ashore we should run no
chance of missing it.

In all this the leading object we had in view was to seclude
ourselves from sight until the departure of the vessel; then to
take our chance as to the reception the Nukuheva natives might
give us; and after remaining upon the island as long as we found
our stay agreeableto leave it the first favourable opportunity
that offered.



EARLY the next morning the starboard watch were mustered upon the
quarter-deckand our worthy captainstanding in the cabin
gangwayharangued us as follows:-

'Nowmenas we are just off a six months' cruiseand have got
through most all our work in port hereI suppose you want to go
ashore. WellI mean to give your watch liberty todayso you
may get ready as soon all you pleaseand go; but understand

thisI am going to give you liberty because I suppose you would
growl like so many old quarter gunners if I didn't; at the same
timeif you'll take my adviceevery mother's son of you will
stay aboard and keep out of the way of the bloody cannibals
altogether. Ten to onemenif you go ashoreyou will get into
some infernal rowand that will be the end of you; for if those
tattooed scoundrels get you a little ways back into their
valleysthey'll nab you--that you may be certain of. Plenty of
white men have gone ashore here and never been seen any more.
There was the old Didoshe put in here about two years agoand
sent one watch off on liberty; they never were heard of again for
a week--the natives swore they didn't know where they were--and
only three of them ever got back to the ship againand one with
his face damaged for lifefor the cursed heathens tattooed a
broad patch clean across his figure-head. But it will be no use
talking to youfor go you willthat I see plainly; so all I
have to say isthat you need not blame me if the islanders make
a meal of you. You may stand some chance of escaping them
thoughif you keep close about the French encampment--and are
back to the ship again before sunset. Keep that much in your
mindif you forget all the rest I've been saying to you. There
go forward: bear a hand and rig yourselvesand stand by for a
call. At two bells the boat will be manned to take you offand
the Lord have mercy on you!'

Various were the emotions depicted upon the countenances of the
starboard watch whilst listening to this address; but on its
conclusion there was a general move towards the forecastleand
we soon were all busily engaged in getting ready for the holiday
so auspiciously announced by the skipper. During these
preparations his harangue was commented upon in no very measured
terms; and one of the partyafter denouncing him as a lying old
son of a seacook who begrudged a fellow a few hours' liberty
exclaimed with an oath'But you don't bounce me out of my
libertyold chapfor all your yarns; for I would go ashore if
every pebble on the beach was a live coaland every stick a
gridironand the cannibals stood ready to broil me on landing.'

The spirit of this sentiment was responded to by all handsand
we resolved that in spite of the captain's croakings we would
make a glorious day of it.

But Toby and I had our own game to playand we availed ourselves
of the confusion which always reigns among a ship's company
preparatory to going ashoreto confer together and complete our
arrangements. As our object was to effect as rapid a flight as
possible to the mountainswe determined not to encumber
ourselves with any superfluous apparel; and accordinglywhile
the rest were rigging themselves out with some idea of making a
displaywe were content to put on new stout duck trousers
serviceable pumpsand heavy Havre-frockswhich with a Payta hat
completed our equipment.

When our shipmates wondered at thisToby exclaimed in his odd
grave way that the rest might doas they likedbut that he for
one preserved his go-ashore traps for the Spanish mainwhere the
tie of a sailor's neckerchief might make some difference; but as
for a parcel of unbreeched heathenhe wouldn't go to the bottom
of his chest for any of themand was half disposed to appear
among them in buff himself. The men laughed at what they thought
was one of his strange conceitsand so we escaped suspicion.

It may appear singular that we should have been thus on our guard
with our own shipmates; but there were some among us whohad

they possessed the least inkling of our projectwouldfor a
paltry hope of rewardhave immediately communicated it to the

As soon as two bells were struckthe word was passed for the
liberty-men to get into the boat. I lingered behind in the
forecastle a moment to take a parting glance at its familiar
featuresand just as I was about to ascend to the deck my eye
happened to light on the bread-barge and beef-kidwhich
contained the remnants of our last hasty meal. Although I had
never before thought of providing anything in the way of food for
our expeditionas I fully relied upon the fruits of the island
to sustain us wherever we might wanderyet I could not resist
the inclination I felt to provide luncheon from the relics before
me. Accordingly I took a double handful of those smallbroken
flinty bits of biscuit which generally go by the name of
'midshipmen's nuts'and thrust them into the bosom of my frock
in which same simple receptacle I had previously stowed away
several pounds of tobacco and a few yards of cotton
cloth--articles with which I intended to purchase the good-will
of the nativesas soon as we should appear among them after the
departure of our vessel.

This last addition to my stock caused a considerable protuberance
in frontwhich I abated in a measure by shaking the bits of
bread around my waistand distributing the plugs of tobacco
among the folds of the garment. Hardly had I completed these
arrangements when my name was sung out by a dozen voicesand I
sprung upon the deckwhere I found all the party in the boat
and impatient to shove off. I dropped over the side and seated
myself with the rest of the watch in the stem sheetswhile the
poor larboarders shipped their oarsand commenced pulling us
ashore. This happened to be the rainy season at the islandsand
the heavens had nearly the whole morning betokened one of those
heavy showers which during this period so frequently occur. The
large drops fell bubbling into the water shortly after our
leaving the shipand by the time we had affected a landing it
poured down in torrents. We fled for shelter under cover of an
immense canoe-house which stood hard by the beachand waited for
the first fury of the storm to pass.

It continuedhoweverwithout cessation; and the monotonous
beating of the rain over head began to exert a drowsy influence
upon the menwhothrowing themselves here and there upon the
large war-canoesafter chatting awhileall fell asleep.

This was the opportunity we desiredand Toby and I availed
ourselves of it at once by stealing out of the canoe-house and
plunging into the depths of an extensive grove that was in its
rear. After ten minutes' rapid progress we gained an open space
from which we could just descry the ridge we intended to mount
looming dimly through the mists of the tropical showerand
distant from usas we estimatedsomething more than a mile.
Our direct course towards it lay through a rather populous part
of the bay; but desirous as we were of evading the natives and
securing an unmolested retreat to the mountainswe determined
by taking a circuit through some extensive thicketsto avoid
their vicinity altogether.

The heavy rain that still continued to fall without intermission
favoured our enterpriseas it drove the islanders into their
housesand prevented any casual meeting with them. Our heavy
frocks soon became completely saturated with waterand by their
weightand that of the articles we had concealed beneath them

not a little impeded our progress. But it was no time to pause
when at any moment we might be surprised by a body of the
savagesand forced at the very outset to relinquish our

Since leaving the canoe-house we had scarcely exchanged a single
syllable with one another; but when we entered a second narrow
opening in the woodand again caught sight of the ridge before
usI took Toby by the armand pointing along its sloping
outline to the lofty heights at its extremitysaid in a low
tone'NowTobynot a wordnor a glance backwardtill we
stand on the summit of yonder mountain--so no more lingering but
let us shove ahead while we canand in a few hours' time we may
laugh aloud. You are the lightest and.the nimblestso lead on
and I will follow.'

'All rightbrother' said Toby'quick's our play; only lets
keep close togetherthat's all;' and so saying with a bound like
a young roehe cleared a brook which ran across our pathand
rushed forward with a quick step.

When we arrived within a short distance of the ridgewe were
stopped by a mass of tall yellow reedsgrowing together as
thickly as they could standand as tough and stubborn as so many
rods of steel; and we perceivedto our chagrinthat they
extended midway up the elevation we proposed to ascend.

For a moment we gazed about us in quest of a more practicable
route; it washoweverat once apparent that there was no
resource but to pierce this thicket of canes at all hazards. We
now reversed our order of marchIbeing the heaviesttaking
the leadwith a view of breaking a path through the obstruction
while Toby fell into the rear.

Two or three times I endeavoured to insinuate myself between the
canesand by dint of coaxing and bending them to make some
progress; but a bull-frog might as well have tried to work a
passage through the teeth of a comband I gave up the attempt in

Half wild with meeting an obstacle we had so little anticipated
I threw myself desperately against itcrushing to the ground the
canes with which I came in contactandrising to my feet again
repeated the action with like effect. Twenty minutes of this
violent exercise almost exhausted mebut it carried us some way
into the thicket; when Tobywho had been reaping the benefit of
my labours by following close at my heelsproposed to become
pioneer in turnand accordingly passed ahead with a view of
affording me a respite from my exertions. As however with his
slight frame he made but bad work of itI was soon obliged to
resume my old place again. On we toiledthe perspiration
starting from our bodies in floodsour limbs torn and lacerated
with the splintered fragments of the broken canesuntil we had
proceeded perhaps as far as the middle of the brakewhen
suddenly it ceased rainingand the atmosphere around us became
close and sultry beyond expression. The elasticity of the reeds
quickly recovering from the temporary pressure of our bodies
caused them to spring back to their original position; so that
they closed in upon us as we advancedand prevented the
circulation of little air which might otherwise have reached us.
Besides thistheir great height completely shut us out from the
view of surrounding objectsand we were not certain but that we
might have been going all the time in a wrong direction.

Fatigued with my long-continued effortsand panting for breath
I felt myself completely incapacitated for any further exertion.
I rolled up the sleeve of my frockand squeezed the moisture it
contained into my parched mouth. But the few drops I managed to
obtain gave me little reliefand I sank down for a moment with a
sort of dogged apathyfrom which I was aroused by Tobywho had
devised a plan to free us from the net in which we had become

He was laying about him lustily with his sheath-knivelopping
the canes right and leftlike a reaperand soon made quite a
clearing around us. This sight reanimated me; and seizing my own
knifeI hacked and hewed away without mercy. But alas! the
farther we advanced the thicker and tallerand apparently the
more interminablethe reeds became.

I began to think we were fairly snaredand had almost made up my
mind that without a pair of wings we should never be able to
escape from the toils; when all at once I discerned a peep of
daylight through the canes on my rightandcommunicating the
joyful tidings to Tobywe both fell to with fresh spiritand
speedily opening the passage towards it we found ourselves clear
of perplexitiesand in the near vicinity of the ridge. After
resting for a few moments we began the ascentand after a little
vigorous climbing found ourselves close to its summit. Instead
however of walking along its ridgewhere we should have been in
full view of the natives in the vales beneathand at a point
where they could easily intercept us were they so inclinedwe
cautiously advanced on one sidecrawling on our hands and knees
and screened from observation by the grass through which we
glidedmuch in the fashion of a couple of serpents. After an
hour employed in this unpleasant kind of locomotionwe started
to our feet again and pursued our way boldly along the crest of
the ridge.

This salient spur of the lofty elevations that encompassed the
bay rose with a sharp angle from the valleys at its baseand
presentedwith the exception of a few steep acclivitiesthe
appearance of a vast inclined planesweeping down towards the
sea from the heights in the distance. We had ascended it near
the place of its termination and at its lowest pointand now saw
our route to the mountains distinctly defined along its narrow
crestwhich was covered with a soft carpet of verdureand was
in many parts only a few feet wide.

Elated with the success which had so far attended our enterprise
and invigorated by the refreshing atmosphere we now inhaledToby
and I in high spirits were making our way rapidly along the
ridgewhen suddenly from the valleys below which lay on either
side of us we heard the distant shouts of the nativeswho had
just descried usand to whom our figuresbrought in bold relief
against the skywere plainly revealed.

Glancing our eyes into these valleyswe perceived their savage
inhabitants hurrying to and froseemingly under the influence of
some sudden alarmand appearing to the eye scarcely bigger than
so many pigmies; while their white thatched dwellingsdwarfed by
the distancelooked like baby-houses. As we looked down upon
the islanders from our lofty elevationwe experienced a sense of
security; feeling confident thatshould they undertake a
pursuitit wouldfrom the start we now hadprove entirely
fruitlessunless they followed us into the mountainswhere we
knew they cared not to venture.

Howeverwe thought it as well to make the most of our time; and
accordinglywhere the ground would admit of itwe ran swiftly
along the summit of the ridgeuntil we were brought to a stand
by a steep cliffwhich at first seemed to interpose an effectual
barrier to our farther advance. By dint of much hard scrambling
howeverand at some risk to our neckswe at last surmounted it
and continued our fight with unabated celerity.

We had left the beach early in the morningand after an
uninterruptedthough at times difficult and dangerous ascent
during which we had never once turned our faces to the seawe
found ourselvesabout three hours before sunsetstanding on the
top of what seemed to be the highest land on the islandan
immense overhanging cliff composed of basaltic rockshung round
with parasitical plants. We must have been more than three
thousand feet above the level of the seaand the scenery viewed
from this height was magnificent.

The lonely bay of Nukuhevadotted here and there with the black
hulls of the vessels composing the French squadronlay reposing
at the base of a circular range of elevationswhose verdant
sidesperforated with deep glens or diversified with smiling
valleysformed altogether the loveliest view I ever beheldand
were I to live a hundred yearsI shall never forget the feeling
of admiration which I then experienced.



MY curiosity had been not a little raised with regard to the
description of country we should meet on the other side of the
mountains; and I had supposedwith Tobythat immediately on
gaining the heights we should be enabled to view the large bays
of Happar and Typee reposing at our feet on one sidein the same
way that Nukuheva lay spread out below on the other. But here we
were disappointed. Instead of finding the mountain we had
ascended sweeping down in the opposite direction into broad and
capacious valleysthe land appeared to retain its general
elevationonly broken into a series of ridges and inter-vales
which so far as the eye could reach stretched away from uswith
their precipitous sides covered with the brightest verdureand
waving here and there with the foliage of clumps of woodland;
among whichhoweverwe perceived none of those trees upon whose
fruit we had relied with such certainty.

This was a most unlooked-for discoveryand one that promised to
defeat our plans altogetherfor we could not think of descending
the mountain on the Nukuheva side in quest of food. Should we
for this purpose be induced to retrace our stepswe should run
no small chance of encountering the nativeswho in that caseif
they did nothing worse to uswould be certain to convey us back
to the ship for the sake of the reward in calico and trinkets
which we had no doubt our skipper would hold out to them as an
inducement to our capture.

What was to be done? The Dolly would not sail perhaps for ten
daysand how were we to sustain life during this period? I

bitterly repented our improvidence in not providing ourselvesas
we easily might have donewith a supply of biscuits. With a
rueful visage I now bethought me of the scanty handful of bread I
had stuffed into the bosom of my frockand felt somewhat
desirous to ascertain what part of it had weathered the rather
rough usage it had experienced in ascending the mountain. I
accordingly proposed to Toby that we should enter into a joint
examination of the various articles we had brought from the ship.

With this intent we seated ourselves upon the grass; and a little
curious to see with what kind of judgement my companion had
filled his frock--which I remarked seemed about as well lined as
my own--I requested him to commence operations by spreading out
its contents.

Thrusting his handtheninto the bosom of this capacious
receptaclehe first brought to light about a pound of tobacco
whose component parts still adhered togetherthe whole outside
being covered with soft particles of sea-bread. Wet and
drippingit had the appearance of having been just recovered
from the bottom of the sea. But I paid slight attention to a
substance of so little value to us in our present situationas
soon as I perceived the indications it gave of Toby's foresight
in laying in a supply of food for the expedition.

I eagerly inquired what quantity he had brought with himwhen
rummaging once more beneath his garmenthe produced a small
handful of something so softpulpyand discolouredthat for a
few moments he was as much puzzled as myself to tell by what
possible instrumentality such a villainous compound had become
engendered in his bosom. I can only describe it as a hash of
soaked bread and bits of tobaccobrought to a doughy consistency
by the united agency of perspiration and rain. But repulsive as
it might otherwise have beenI now regarded it as an invaluable
treasureand proceeded with great care to transfer this
paste-like mass to a large leaf which I had plucked from a bush
beside me. Toby informed me that in the morning he had placed
two whole biscuits in his bosomwith a view of munching them
should he feel so inclinedduring our flight. These were now
reduced to the equivocal substance which I had just placed on the

Another dive into the frock brought to view some four or five
yards of calico printwhose tasteful pattern was rather
disfigured by the yellow stains of the tobacco with which it had
been brought in contact. In drawing this calico slowly from his
bosom inch by inchToby reminded me of a juggler performing the
feat of the endless ribbon. The next cast was a small onebeing
a sailor's little 'ditty bag'containing needlesthreadand
other sewing utensilsthen came a razor-casefollowed by two or
three separate plugs of negro-headwhich were fished up from the
bottom of the now empty receptacle. These various mattersbeing
inspectedI produced the few things which I had myself brought.

As might have been anticipated from the state of my companion's
edible suppliesI found my own in a deplorable conditionand
diminished to a quantity that would not have formed half a dozen
mouthfuls for a hungry man who was partial enough to tobacco not
to mind swallowing it. A few morsels of breadwith a fathom or
two of white cotton clothand several pounds of choice pigtail
composed the extent of my possessions.

Our joint stock of miscellaneous articles were now made up into a
compact bundlewhich it was agreed we should carry alternately.

But the sorry remains of the biscuit were not to be disposed of
so summarily: the precarious circumstances in which we were
placed made us regard them as something on which very probably
depended the fate of our adventure. After a brief discussionin
which we both of us expressed our resolution of not descending
into the bay until the ship's departureI suggested to my
companion that little of it as there waswe should divide the
bread into six equal portionseach of which should be a day's
allowance for both of us. This proposition he assented to; so I
took the silk kerchief from my neckand cutting it with my knife
into half a dozen equal piecesproceeded to make an exact

At firstToby with a degree of fastidiousness that seemed to me
ill-timedwas for picking out the minute particles of tobacco
with which the spongy mass was mixed; but against this proceeding
I protestedas by such an operation we must have greatly
diminished its quantity.

When the division was accomplishedwe found that a day's
allowance for the two was not a great deal more than what a
table-spoon might hold. Each separate portion we immediately
rolled up in the bit of silk prepared for itand joining them
all together into a small packageI committed themwith solemn
injunctions of fidelityto the custody of Toby. For the
remainder of that day we resolved to fastas we had been
fortified by a breakfast in the morning; and now starting again
to our feetwe looked about us for a shelter during the night
whichfrom the appearance of the heavenspromised to be a dark
and tempestuous one.

There was no place near us which would in any way answer our
purposeso turning our backs upon Nukuhevawe commenced
exploring the unknown regions which lay upon the other side of
the mountain.

In this directionas far as our vision extendednot a sign of
lifenor anything that denoted even the transient residence of
mancould be seen. The whole landscape seemed one unbroken
solitudethe interior of the island having apparently been
untenanted since the morning of the creation; and as we advanced
through this wildernessour voices sounded strangely in our
earsas though human accents had never before disturbed the
fearful silence of the placeinterrupted only by the low
murmurings of distant waterfalls.

Our disappointmenthoweverin not finding the various fruits
with which we had intended to regale ourselves during our stay in
these wildswas a good deal lessened by the consideration that
from this very circumstance we should be much less exposed to a
casual meeting with the savage tribes about uswho we knew
always dwelt beneath the shadows of those trees which supplied
them with food.

We wandered alongcasting eager glances into every bush we
passeduntil just as we had succeeded in mounting one of the
many ridges that intersected the groundI saw in the grass
before me something like an indistinctly traced footpathwhich
appeared to lead along the top of the ridgeand to descend--with
it into a deep ravine about half a mile in advance of us.

Robinson Crusoe could not have been more startled at the
footprint in the sand than we were at this unwelcome discovery.
My first impulse was to make as rapid a retreat as possibleand

bend our steps in some other direction; but our curiosity to see
whither this path might leadprompted us to pursue it. So on we
wentthe track becoming more and more visible the farther we
proceededuntil it conducted us to the verge of the ravine
where it abruptly terminated.

'And so' said Tobypeering down into the chasm'everyone that
travels this path takes a jump hereeh?'

'Not so' said I'for I think they might manage to descend
without it; what say you--shall we attempt the feat?'

'And whatin the name of caves and coal-holesdo you expect to
find at the bottom of that gulf but a broken neck--why it looks
blacker than our ship's holdand the roar of those waterfalls
down there would batter one's brains to pieces.'

'OhnoToby' I exclaimedlaughing; 'but there's something to
be seen herethat's plainor there would have been no pathand
I am resolved to find out what it is.'

'I will tell you whatmy pleasant fellow' rejoined Toby
quickly'if you are going to pry into everything you meet with
here that excites your curiosityyou will marvellously soon get
knocked on the head; to a dead certainty you will come bang upon
a party of these savages in the midst of your discovery-makings
and I doubt whether such an event would particularly delight you
just take my advice for onceand let us 'bout ship and steer in
some other direction; besidesit's getting late and we ought to
be mooring ourselves for the night.'

'That is just the thing I have been driving at' replied I; 'and
I am thinking that this ravine will exactly answer our purpose
for it is roomysecludedwell wateredand may shelter us from
the weather.'

'Ayeand from sleep tooand by the same token will give us sore
throatsand rheumatisms into the bargain' cried Tobywith
evident dislike at the idea.

'Ohvery well thenmy lad' said I'since you will not
accompany mehere I go alone. You will see me in the morning;'
and advancing to the edge of the cliff upon which we had been
standingI proceeded to lower myself down by the tangled roots
which clustered about all the crevices of the rock. As I had
anticipatedTobyin spite of his previous remonstrances
followed my exampleand dropping himself with the activity of a
squirrel from point to pointhe quickly outstripped me and
effected a landing at the bottom before I had accomplished
two-thirds of the descent.

The sight that now greeted us was one that will ever be vividly
impressed upon my mind. Five foaming streamsrushing through as
many gorgesand swelled and turbid by the recent rainsunited
together in one mad plunge of nearly eighty feetand fell with
wild uproar into a deep black pool scooped out of the gloomy
looking rocks that lay piled aroundand thence in one collected
body dashed down a narrow sloping channel which seemed to
penetrate into the very bowels of the earth. Overheadvast
roots of trees hung down from the sides of the ravine dripping
with moistureand trembling with the concussions produced by the
fall. It was now sunsetand the feeble uncertain light that
found its way into these caverns and woody depths heightened
their strange appearanceand reminded us that in a short time we

should find ourselves in utter darkness.

As soon as I had satisfied my curiosity by gazing at this scene
I fell to wondering how it was that what we had taken for a path
should have conducted so singular a placeand began to
suspect that after all I might have been deceived in supposing it
to have been a trick formed by the islanders. This was rather an
agreeable reflection than otherwisefor it diminished our dread
of accidentally meeting with any of themand I came to the
conclusion that perhaps we could not have selected a more secure
hiding-place than this very spot we had so accidentally hit upon.

Toby agreed with me in this view of the matterand we
immediately began gathering together the limbs of trees which lay
scattered aboutwith the view of constructing a temporary hut
for the night. This we were obliged to build close to the foot
of the cataractfor the current of water extended very nearly to
the sides of the gorge. The few moments of light that remained
we employed in covering our hut with a species of broad-bladed
grass that grew in every fissure of the ravine. Our hutif it
deserved to be called oneconsisted of six or eight of the
straightest branches we could find laid obliquely against the
steep wall of rockwith their lower ends within a foot of the
stream. Into the space thus covered over we managed to crawl
and dispose our wearied bodies as best we could.

Shall I ever forget that horrid night! As for poor TobyI could
scarcely get a word out of him. It would have been some
consolation to have heard his voicebut he lay shivering the
live-long night like a man afflicted with the palsywith his
knees drawn up to his headwhile his back was supported against
the dripping side of the rock. During this wretched night there
seemed nothing wanting to complete the perfect misery of our
condition. The rain descended in such torrents that our poor
shelter proved a mere mockery. In vain did I try to elude the
incessant streams that poured upon me; by protecting one part I
only exposed anotherand the water was continually finding some
new opening through which to drench us.

I have had many a ducking in the course of my lifeand in
general cared little about it; but the accumulated horrors of
that nightthe deathlike coldness of the placethe appalling
darkness and the dismal sense of our forlorn conditionalmost
unmanned me.

It will not be doubted that the next morning we were early
risersand as soon as I could catch the faintest glimpse of
anything like daylight I shook my companion by the armand told
him it was sunrise. Poor Toby lifted up his headand after a
moment's pause saidin a husky voice'Thenshipmatemy
toplights have gone outfor it appears darker now with my eyes
open that it did when they were shut.'

'Nonsense!' exclaimed I; 'You are not awake yet.'

'Awake!' roared Toby in a rage'awake! You mean to insinuate
I've been asleepdo you? It is an insult to a man to suppose he
could sleep in such an infernal place as this.'

By the time I had apologized to my friend for having misconstrued
his silenceit had become somewhat more lightand we crawled
out of our lair. The rain had ceasedbut everything around us
was dripping with moisture. We stripped off our saturated
garmentsand wrung them as dry as we could. We contrived to

make the blood circulate in our benumbed limbs by rubbing them
vigorously with our hands; and after performing our ablutions in
the streamand putting on our still wet clotheswe began to
think it advisable to break our long fastit being now
twenty-four hours since we had tasted food.

Accordingly our day's ration was brought outand seating
ourselves on a detached fragment of rockwe proceeded to discuss
it. First we divided it into two equal portionsand carefully
rolling one of them up for our evening's repastdivided the
remainder again as equally as possibleand then drew lots for
the first choice. I could have placed the morsel that fell to my
share upon the tip of my finger; but notwithstanding this I took
care that it should be full ten minutes before I had swallowed
the last crumb. What a true saying it is that 'appetite
furnishes the best sauce.' There was a flavour and a relish to
this small particle of food that under other circumstances it
would have been impossible for the most delicate viands to have
imparted. A copious draught of the pure water which flowed at
our feet served to complete the mealand after it we rose
sensibly refreshedand prepared for whatever might befall us.

We now carefully examined the chasm in which we had passed the
night. We crossed the streamand gaining the further side of
the pool I have mentioneddiscovered proofs that the spot must
have been visited by some one but a short time previous to our
arrival. Further observation convinced us that it had been
regularly frequentedandas we afterwards conjectured from
particular indicationsfor the purpose of obtaining a certain
rootfrom which the natives obtained a kind of ointment.

These discoveries immediately determined us to abandon a place
which had presented no inducement for us to remainexcept the
promise of security; and as we looked about us for the means of
ascending again into the upper regionswe at last found a
practicable part of the rockand half an hour's toil carried us
to the summit of the same cliff from which the preceding evening
we had descended.

I now proposed to Toby that instead of rambling about the island
exposing ourselves to discovery at every turnwe should select
some place as our fixed abode for as long a period as our food
should hold outbuild ourselves a comfortable hutand be as
prudent and circumspect as possible. To all this my companion
assentedand we at once set about carrying the plan into

With this viewafter exploring without success a little glen
near uswe crossed several of the ridges of which I have before
spoken; and about noon found ourselves ascending a long and
gradually rising slopebut still without having discovered any
place adapted to our purpose. Low and heavy clouds betokened an
approaching stormand we hurried on to gain a covert in a clump
of thick busheswhich appeared to terminate the long ascent. We
threw ourselves under the lee of these bushesand pulling up the
long grass that grew aroundcovered ourselves completely with
itand awaited the shower.

But it did not come as soon as we had expectedand before many
minutes my companion was fast asleepand I was rapidly falling
into the same state of happy forgetfulness. Just at this
juncturehoweverdown came the rain with the violence that put
all thoughts of slumber to flight. Although in some measure
shelteredour clothes soon became as wet as ever; thisafter

all the trouble we had taken to dry themwas provoking enough:
but there was no help for it; and I recommend all adventurous
youths who abandon vessels in romantic islands during the rainy
season to provide themselves with umbrellas.

After an hour or so the shower passed away. My companion slept
through it allor at least appeared so to do; and now that it
was over I had not the heart to awaken him. As I lay on my back
completely shrouded with verdurethe leafy branches drooping
over memy limbs buried in grassI could not avoid comparing
our situation with that of the interesting babes in the wood.
Poor little sufferers!--no wonder their constitutions broke down
under the hardships to which they were exposed.

During the hour or two spent under the shelter of these bushesI
began to feel symptoms which I at once attributed to the exposure
of the preceding night. Cold shiverings and a burning fever
succeeded one another at intervalswhile one of my legs was
swelled to such a degreeand pained me so acutelythat I half
suspected I had been bitten by some venomous reptilethe
congenial inhabitant of the chasm from which we had lately
emerged. I may here remark by the way--what I subsequently
gleamed--that all the islands of Polynesia enjoy the reputation
in common with the Hibernian isleof being free from the
presence of any vipers; though whether Saint Patrick ever visited
themis a question I shall not attempt to decide.

As the feverish sensation increased upon me I tossed aboutstill
unwilling to disturb my slumbering companionfrom whose side I
removed two or three yards. I chanced to push aside a branch
and by so doing suddenly disclosed to my view a scene which even
now I can recall with all the vividness of the first impression.
Had a glimpse of the gardens of Paradise been revealed to meI
could scarcely have been more ravished with the sight.

From the spot where I lay transfixed with surprise and delightI
looked straight down into the bosom of a valleywhich swept away
in long wavy undulations to the blue waters in the distance.
Midway towards the seaand peering here and there amidst the
foliagemight be seen the palmetto-thatched houses of its
inhabitants glistening in the sun that had bleached them to a
dazzling whiteness. The vale was more than three leagues in
lengthand about a mile across at its greatest width.

On either side it appeared hemmed in by steep and green
acclivitieswhichuniting near the spot where I layformed an
abrupt and semicircular termination of grassy cliffs and
precipices hundreds of feet in heightover which flowed
numberless small cascades. But the crowning beauty of the
prospect was its universal verdure; and in this indeed consists
I believethe peculiar charm of every Polynesian landscape.
Everywhere below mefrom the base of the precipice upon whose
very verge I had been unconsciously reposingthe surface of the
vale presented a mass of foliagespread with such rich profusion
that it was impossible to determine of what description of trees
it consisted.

But perhaps there was nothing about the scenery I beheld more
impressive than those silent cascadeswhose slender threads of
waterafter leaping down the steep cliffswere lost amidst the
rich herbage of the valley.

Over all the landscape there reigned the most hushed repose
which I almost feared to breaklestlike the enchanted gardens

in the fairy talea single syllable might dissolve the spell.
For a long timeforgetful alike of my own situationand the
vicinity of my still slumbering companionI remained gazing
around mehardly able to comprehend by what means I had thus
suddenly been made a spectator of such a scene.



RECOVERING from my astonishment at the beautiful scene before me
I quickly awakened Tobyand informed him of the discovery I had
made. Together we now repaired to the border of the precipice
and my companion's admiration was equal to my own. A little
reflectionhoweverabated our surprise at coming so
unexpectedly upon this valleysince the large vales of Happar
and Typeelying upon this side of Nukuhevaand extending a
considerable distance from the sea towards the interiormust
necessarily terminate somewhere about this point.

The question now was as to which of those two places we were
looking down upon. Toby insisted that it was the abode of the
Happarand I that it was tenanted by their enemies the ferocious
Typees. To be sure I was not entirely convinced by my own
argumentsbut Toby's proposition to descend at once into the
valleyand partake of the hospitality of its inmatesseemed to
me to be risking so much upon the strength of a mere supposition
that I resolved to oppose it until we had more evidence to
proceed upon.

The point was one of vital importanceas the natives of Happar
were not only at peace with Nukuhevabut cultivated with its
inhabitants the most friendly relationsand enjoyed besides a
reputation for gentleness and humanity which led us to expect
from themif not a cordial receptionat least a shelter during
the short period we should remain in their territory.

On the other handthe very name of Typee struck a panic into my
heart which I did not attempt to disguise. The thought of
voluntarily throwing ourselves into the hands of these cruel
savagesseemed to me an act of mere madness; and almost equally
so the idea of venturing into the valleyuncertain by which of
these two tribes it was inhabited. That the vale at our feet was
tenanted by one of themwas a point that appeared to us past all
doubtsince we knew that they resided in this quarteralthough
our information did not enlighten us further.

My companionhoweverincapable of resisting the tempting
prospect which the place held out of an abundant supply of food
and other means of enjoymentstill clung to his own
inconsiderate view of the subjectnor could all my reasoning
shake it. When I reminded him that it was impossible for either
of us to know anything with certaintyand when I dwelt upon the
horrible fate we should encounter were we rashly to descend into
the valleyand discover too late the error we had committedhe
replied by detailing all the evils of our present conditionand
the sufferings we must undergo should we continue to remain where
we then were.

Anxious to draw him away from the subjectif possible--for I saw

that it would be in vain to attempt changing his mind--I directed
his attention to a long bright unwooded tract of land which
sweeping down from the elevations in the interiordescended into
the valley before us. I then suggested to him that beyond this
ridge might lie a capacious and untenanted valleyabounding with
all manner of delicious fruits; for I had heard that there were
several such upon the islandand proposed that we should
endeavour to reach itand if we found our expectations realized
we should at once take refuge in it and remain there as long as
we pleased.

He acquiesced in the suggestion; and we immediatelytherefore
began surveying the country lying before uswith a view of
determining upon the best route for us to pursue; but it
presented little choicethe whole interval being broken into
steep ridgesdivided by dark ravinesextending in parallel
lines at right angles to our direct course. All these we would
be obliged to cross before we could hope to arrive at our

A weary journey! But we decided to undertake itthoughfor my
own partI felt little prepared to encounter its fatigues
shivering and burning by turns with the ague and fever; for I
know not how else to describe the alternate sensations I
experiencedand suffering not a little from the lameness which
afflicted me. Added to this was the faintness consequent on our
meagre diet--a calamity in which Toby participated to the same
extent as myself.

These circumstanceshoweveronly augmented my anxiety to reach
a place which promised us plenty and reposebefore I should be
reduced to a state which would render me altogether unable to
perform the journey. Accordingly we now commenced it by
descending the almost perpendicular side of a steep and narrow
gorgebristling with a thick growth of reeds. Here there was
but one mode for us to adopt. We seated ourselves upon the
groundand guided our descent by catching at the canes in our
path. This velocity with which we thus slid down the side of the
ravine soon brought us to a point where we could use our feet
and in a short time we arrived at the edge of the torrentwhich
rolled impetuously along the bed of the chasm.

After taking a refreshing draught from the water of the stream
we addressed ourselves to a much more difficult undertaking than
the last. Every foot of our late descent had to be regained in
ascending the opposite side of the gorge--an operation rendered
the less agreeable from the consideration that in these
perpendicular episodes we did not progress a hundred yards on our
journey. Butungrateful as the task waswe set about it with
exemplary patienceand after a snail-like progress of an hour or
morehad scaled perhaps one half of the distancewhen the fever
which had left me for a while returned with such violenceand
accompanied by so raging a thirstthat it required all the
entreaties of Toby to prevent me from losing all the fruits of my
late exertionby precipitating myself madly down the cliffs we
had just climbedin quest of the water which flowed so
temptingly at their base. At the moment all my hopes and fears
appeared to be merged in this one desirecareless of the
consequences that might result from its gratification. I am
aware of no feelingeither of pleasure or of painthat so
completely deprives one of an power to resist its impulsesas
this same raging thirst.

Toby earnestly conjured me to continue the ascentassuring me

that a little more exertion would bring us to the summitand
that then in less than five minutes we should find ourselves at
the brink of the streamwhich must necessarily flow on the other
side of the ridge.

'Do not' he exclaimed'turn backnow that we have proceeded
thus far; for I tell you that neither of us will have the courage
to repeat the attemptif once more we find ourselves looking up
to where we now are from the bottom of these rocks!'

I was not yet so perfectly beside myself as to be heedless of
these representationsand therefore toiled onineffectually
endeavouring to appease the thirst which consumed meby thinking
that in a short time I should be able to gratify it to my heart's

At last we gained the top of the second elevationthe loftiest
of those I have described as. extending in parallel lines
between us and the valley we desired to reach. It commanded a
view of the whole intervening distance; anddiscouraged as I was
by other circumstancesthis prospect plunged me into the very
depths of despair. Nothing but dark and fearful chasms
separated by sharp-crested and perpendicular ridges as far as the
eye could reach. Could we have stepped from summit to summit of
these steep but narrow elevations we could easily have
accomplished the distance; but we must penetrate to the bottom of
every yawning gulfand scale in succession every one of the
eminences before us. Even Tobyalthough not suffering as I did
was not proof against the disheartening influences of the sight.

But we did not long stand to contemplate itimpatient as I was
to reach the waters of the torrent which flowed beneath us. With
an insensibility to danger which I cannot call to mind without
shudderingwe threw ourselves down the depths of the ravine
startling its savage solitudes with the echoes produced by the
falling fragments of rock we every moment dislodged from their
placescareless of the insecurity of our footingand reckless
whether the slight roots and twigs we clutched at sustained us
for the whileor treacherously yielded to our grasp. For my own
partI scarcely knew whether I was helplessly falling from the
heights aboveor whether the fearful rapidity with which I
descended was an act of my own volition.

In a few minutes we reached the foot of the gorgeand kneeling
upon a small ledge of dripping rocksI bent over to the stream.
What a delicious sensation was I now to experience! I paused for
a second to concentrate all my capabilities of enjoymentand
then immerged my lips in the clear element before me. Had the
apples of Sodom turned to ashes in my mouthI could not have
felt a more startling revulsion. A single drop of the cold fluid
seemed to freeze every drop of blood in my body; the fever that
had been burning in my veins gave place on the instant to
death-like chillswhich shook me one after another like so many
shocks of electricitywhile the perspiration produced by my late
violent exertions congealed in icy beads upon my forehead. My
thirst was goneand I fairly loathed the water. Starting to my
feetthe sight of those dank rocksoozing forth moisture at
every creviceand the dark stream shooting along its dismal
channelsent fresh chills through my shivering frameand I felt
as uncontrollable a desire to climb up towards the genial
sunlight as I before had to descend the ravine.

After two hours' perilous exertions we stood upon the summit of
another ridgeand it was with difficulty I could bring myself to

believe that we had ever penetrated the black and yawning chasm
which then gaped at our feet. Again we gazed upon the prospect
which the height commandedbut it was just as depressing as the
one which had before met our eyes. I now felt that in our
present situation it was in vain for us to think of ever
overcoming the obstacles in our wayand I gave up all thoughts
of reaching the vale which lay beyond this series of impediments;
while at the same time I could not devise any scheme to extricate
ourselves from the difficulties in which we were involved.

The remotest idea of returning to Nukuhevaunless assured of our
vessel's departurenever once entered my mindand indeed it was
questionable whether we could have succeeded in reaching it
divided as we were from the bay by a distance we could not
computeand perplexed too in our remembrance of localities by
our recent wanderings. Besidesit was unendurable the thought
of retracing our steps and rendering all our painful exertions of
no avail.

There is scarcely anything when a man is in difficulties that he
is more disposed to look upon with abhorrence than a rightabout
retrograde movement--a systematic going over of the already
trodden ground: and especially if he has a love of adventure
such a course appears indescribably repulsiveso long as there
remains the least hope to be derived from braving untried

It was this feeling that prompted us to descend the opposite side
of the elevation we had just scaledalthough with what definite
object in view it would have been impossible for either of us to

Without exchanging a syllable upon the subjectToby and myself
simultaneously renounced the design which had lured us thus
far--perceiving in each other's countenances that desponding
expression which speaks more eloquently than words.

Together we stood towards the close of this weary day in the
cavity of the third gorge we had enteredwholly incapacitated
for any further exertionuntil restored to some degree of
strength by food and repose.

We seated ourselves upon the least uncomfortable spot we could
selectand Toby produced from the bosom of his frock the sacred
package. In silence we partook of the small morsel of
refreshment that had been left from the morning's repastand
without once proposing to violate the sanctity of our engagement
with respect to the remainderwe rose to our feetand proceeded
to construct some sort of shelter under which we might obtain the
sleep we so greatly needed.

Fortunately the spot was better adapted to our purpose than the
one in which we had passed the last wretched night. We cleared
away the tall reeds from the small but almost level bit of
groundand twisted them into a low basket-like hutwhich we
covered with a profusion of long thick leavesgathered from a
tree near at hand. We disposed them thickly all around
reserving only a slight opening that barely permitted us to crawl
under the shelter we had thus obtained.

These deep recessesthough protected from the winds that assail
the summits of their lofty sidesare damp and chill to a degree
that one would hardly anticipate in such a climate; and being
unprovided with anything but our woollen frocks and thin duck

trousers to resist the cold of the placewe were the more
solicitous to render our habitation for the night as comfortable
as we could. Accordinglyin addition to what we had already
donewe plucked down all the leaves within our reach and threw
them in a heap over our little hutinto which we now crept
raking after us a reserved supply to form our couch.

That night nothing but the pain I suffered prevented me from
sleeping most refreshingly. As it wasI caught two or three
napswhile Toby slept away at my side as soundly as though he
had been sandwiched between two Holland sheets. Luckily it did
not rainand we were preserved from the misery which a heavy
shower would have occasioned us. In the morning I was awakened
by the sonorous voice of my companion ringing in my ears and
bidding me rise. I crawled out from our heap of leavesand was
astonished at the change which a good night's rest had wrought in
his appearance. He was as blithe and joyous as a young birdand
was staying the keenness of his morning's appetite by chewing the
soft bark of a delicate branch he held in his handand he
recommended the like to me as an admirable antidote against the
gnawings of hunger.

For my own partthough feeling materially better than I had done
the preceding eveningI could not look at the limb that had
pained me so violently at intervals during the last twenty-four
hourswithout experiencing a sense of alarm that I strove in
vain to shake off. Unwilling to disturb the flow of my comrade's
spiritsI managed to stifle the complaints to which I might
otherwise have given ventand calling upon him good-humouredly
to speed our banquetI prepared myself for it by washing in the
stream. This operation concludedwe swallowedor rather
absorbedby a peculiar kind of slow sucking processour
respective morsels of nourishmentand then entered into a
discussion as to the steps is was necessary for us to pursue.

'What's to be done now?' inquired Irather dolefully.

'Descend into that same valley we descried yesterday.' rejoined
Tobywith a rapidity and loudness of utterance that almost led
me to suspect he had been slyly devouring the broadside of an ox
in some of the adjoining thickets. 'What else' he continued
'remains for us to do but thatto be sure? Whywe shall both
starve to a certainty if we remain here; and as to your fears of
those Typees--depend upon itit is all nonsense.'

'It is impossible that the inhabitants of such a lovely place as
we saw can be anything else but good fellows; and if you choose
rather to perish with hunger in one of these soppy cavernsI for
one prefer to chance a bold descent into the valleyand risk the

'And who is to pilot us thither' I asked'even if we should
decide upon the measure you propose? Are we to go again up and
down those precipices that we crossed yesterdayuntil we reach
the place we started fromand then take a flying leap from the
cliffs to the valley?'

'FaithI didn't think of that' said Toby; 'sure enoughboth
sides of the valley appeared to be hemmed in by precipices
didn't they?'

'Yes' answered I'as steep as the sides of a line-of-battle
shipand about a hundred times as high.' My companion sank his
head upon his breastand remained for a while in deep thought.

Suddenly he sprang to his feetwhile his eyes lighted up with
that gleam of intelligence that marks the presence of some bright

'Yesyes' he exclaimed; 'the streams all run in the same
directionand must necessarily flow into the valley before they
reach the sea; all we have to do is just to follow this stream
and sooner or later it will lead us into the vale.'

'You are rightToby' I exclaimed'you are right; it must
conduct us thitherand quickly too; forsee with what a steep
inclination the water descends.'

'It doesindeed' burst forth my companionoverjoyed at my
verification of his theory'it does indeed; whyit is as plain
as a pike-staff. Let us proceed at once; comethrow away all
those stupid ideas about the Typeesand hurrah for the lovely
valley of the Happars.'

'You will have it to be HapparI seemy dear fellow; pray
Heaven you may not find yourself deceived' observed Iwith a
shake of my head.

'Amen to all thatand much more' shouted Tobyrushing forward;
'but Happar it isfor nothing else than Happar can it be. So
glorious a valley--such forests of bread-fruit trees--such groves
of cocoanut--such wilderness of guava-bushes! Ah! shipmate!
don't linger behind: in the name of all delightful fruitsI am
dying to be at them. Come oncome on; shove aheadthere's a
lively lad; never mind the rocks; kick them out of the wayas I
do; and tomorrowold fellowtake my word for itwe shall be in
clover. Come on;' and so sayinghe dashed along the ravine like
a madmanforgetting my inability to keep up with him. In a few
minuteshoweverthe exuberance of his spirits abatedand
pausing for a whilehe permitted me to overtake him.



The fearless confidence of Toby was contagiousand I began to
adopt the Happar side of the question. I could nothowever
overcome a certain feeling of trepidation as we made our way
along these gloomy solitudes. Our progressat first
comparatively easybecame more and more difficult. The bed of
the watercourse was covered with fragments of broken rockswhich
had fallen from aboveoffering so many obstructions to the
course of the rapid streamwhich vexed and fretted about
them--forming at intervals small waterfallspouring over into
deep basinsor splashing wildly upon heaps of stones.

From the narrowness of the gorgeand the steepness of its sides
there was no mode of advancing but by wading through the water;
stumbling every moment over the impediments which lay hidden
under its surfaceor tripping against the huge roots of trees.
But the most annoying hindrance we encountered was from a
multitude of crooked boughswhichshooting out almost
horizontally from the sides of the chasmtwisted themselves
together in fantastic masses almost to the surface of the stream
affording us no passage except under the low arches which they
formed. Under these we were obliged to crawl on our hands and
feetsliding along the oozy surface of the rocksor slipping

into the deep poolsand with scarce light enough to guide us.
Occasionally we would strike our heads against some projecting
limb of a tree; and while imprudently engaged in rubbing the
injured partwould fall sprawling amongst filthy fragments
cutting and bruising ourselveswhilst the unpitying waters
flowed over our prostrate bodies. Belzoniworming himself
through the subterranean passages of the Egyptian catacombs
could not have met with great impediments than those we here
encountered. But we struggled against them manfullywell
knowing our only hope lay in advancing.

Towards sunset we halted at a spot where we made preparations for
passing the night. Here we constructed a hutin much the same
way as beforeand crawling into itendeavoured to forget our
sufferings. My companionI believeslept pretty soundly; but
at day breakwhen we rolled out of our dwellingI felt nearly
disqualified for any further efforts. Toby prescribed as a
remedy for my illness the contents of one of our little silk
packagesto be taken at once in a single dose. To this species
of medical treatmenthoweverI would by no means accedemuch
as he insisted upon it; and so we partook of our usual morsel
and silently resumed our journey. It was now the fourth day
since we left Nukuhevaand the gnawings of hunger became
painfully acute. We were fain to pacify them by chewing the
tender bark of roots and twigswhichif they did not afford us
nourishmentwere at least sweet and pleasant to the taste.

Our progress along the steep watercourse was necessarily slow
and by noon we had not advanced more than a mile. It was
somewhere near this part of the day that the noise of falling
waterswhich we had faintly caught in the early morningbecame
more distinct; and it was not long before we were arrested by a
rocky precipice of nearly a hundred feet in depththat extended
all across the channeland over which the wild stream poured in
an unbroken leap. On each hand the walls of the ravine presented
their overhanging sides both above and below the fallaffording
no means whatever of avoiding the cataract by taking a circuit
round it.

'What's to be done nowToby?' said I.

'Why' rejoined he'as we cannot retreatI suppose we must keep
shoving along.'

'Very truemy dear Toby; but how do you purpose accomplishing
that desirable object?'

'By jumping from the top of the fallif there be no other way'
unhesitatingly replied my companion: 'it will be much the
quickest way of descent; but as you are not quite as active as I
amwe will try some other way.'

Andso sayinghe crept cautiously along and peered over into
the abysswhile I remained wondering by what possible means we
could overcome this apparently insuperable obstruction. As soon
as my companion had completed his surveyI eagerly inquired the

'The result of my observations you wish to knowdo you?' began
Tobydeliberatelywith one of his odd looks: 'wellmy ladthe
result of my observations is very quickly imparted. It is at
present uncertain which of our two necks will have the honour to
be broken first; but about a hundred to one would be a fair bet
in favour of the man who takes the first jump.'

'Then it is an impossible thingis it?' inquired I gloomily.

'Noshipmate; on the contraryit is the easiest thing in life:
the only awkward point is the sort of usage which our unhappy
limbs may receive when we arrive at the bottomand what sort of
travelling trim we shall be in afterwards. But follow me now
and I will show you the only chance we have.' With this he
conducted me to the verge of the cataractand pointed along the
side of the ravine to a number of curious looking rootssome
three or four inches in thicknessand several feet longwhich
after twisting among the fissures of the rockshot
perpendicularly from it and ran tapering to a point in the air
hanging over the gulf like so many dark icicles. They covered
nearly the entire surface of one side of the gorgethe lowest of
them reaching even to the water. Many were moss grown and
decayedwith their extremities snapped short offand those in
the immediate vicinity of the fall were slippery with moisture.

Toby's schemeand it was a desperate onewas to entrust
ourselves to these treacherous-looking rootsand by slipping
down from one to another to gain the bottom.

'Are you ready to venture it?' asked Tobylooking at me
earnestly but without saying a word as to the practicability of
the plan.

'I am' was my reply; for I saw it was our only resource if we
wished to advanceand as for retreatingall thoughts of that
sort had been long abandoned.

After I had signified my assentTobywithout uttering a a
single wordcrawled along the dripping ledge until he gained a
point from whence he could just reach one of the largest of the
pendant roots; he shook it--it quivered in his graspand when he
let it go it twanged in the air like a strongwire sharply
struck. Satisfied by his scrutinymy light limbed companion
swung himself nimbly upon itand twisting his legs round it in
sailor fashionslipped down eight or ten feetwhere his weight
gave it a motion not un-like that of a pendulum. He could not
venture to descend any further; so holding on with one handhe
with the other shook one by one all the slender roots around him
and at lastfinding one which he thought trustworthyshifted
him self to it and continued his downward progress.

So far so well; but I could not avoid comparing my heavier frame
and disabled condition with his light figure and remarkable
activity; but there was no help for itand in less than a
minute's time I was swinging directly over his head. As soon as
his upturned eyes caught a glimpse of mehe exclaimed in his
usual dry tonefor the danger did not seem to daunt him in the
least'Matedo me the kindness not to fall until I get out of
your way;' and then swinging himself more on one sidehe
continued his descent. In the mean time I cautiously transferred
myself from the limb down which I had been slipping to a couple
of others that were near itdeeming two strings to my bow better
than oneand taking care to test their strength before I trusted
my weight to them.

On arriving towards the end of the second stage in this vertical
journeyand shaking the long roots which were round meto my
consternation they snapped off one after another like so many
pipe stemsand fell in fragments against the side of the gulf
splashing at last into the waters beneath.

As one after another the treacherous roots yielded to my grasp
and fell into the torrentmy heart sunk within me. The branches
on which I was suspended over the yawning chasm swang to and fro
in the airand I expected them every moment to snap in twain.
Appalled at the dreadful fate that menaced meI clutched
frantically at the only large root which remained near mebut in
vain; I could not reach itthough my fingers were within a few
inches of it. Again and again I tried to reach ituntil at
lengthmaddened with the thought of my situationI swayed
myself violently by striking my foot against the side of the
rockand at the instant that I approached the large root caught
desperately at itand transferred myself to it. It vibrated
violently under the sudden weightbut fortunately did not give

My brain grew dizzy with the idea of the frightful risk I had
just runand I involuntarily closed my eyes to shut out the view
of the depth beneath me. For the instant I was safeand I
uttered a devout ejaculation of thanksgiving for my escape.

'Pretty well done' shouted Toby underneath me; 'you are nimbler
than I thought you to be--hopping about up there from root to
root like any young squirrel. As soon as you have diverted
yourself sufficientlyI would advise you to proceed.'

'AyeayeTobyall in good time: two or three more such famous
roots as thisand I shall be with you.'

The residue of my downward progress was comparatively easy; the
roots were in greater abundanceand in one or two places jutting
out points of rock assisted me greatly. In a few moments I was
standing by the side of my companion.

Substituting a stout stick for the one I had thrown aside at the
top of the precipicewe now continued our course along the bed
of the ravine. Soon we were saluted by a sound in advancethat
grew by degrees louder and louderas the noise of the cataract
we were leaving behind gradually died on our ears.

'Another precipice for usToby.'

'Very good; we can descend themyou know--come on.'

Nothing indeed appeared to depress or intimidate this intrepid
fellow. Typees or Niagarashe was as ready to engage one as the
otherand I could not avoid a thousand times congratulating
myself upon having such a companion in an enterprise like the

After an hour's painful progresswe reached the verge of another
fallstill loftier than the preceding and flanked both above and
below with the same steep masses of rockpresentinghowever
here and there narrow irregular ledgessupporting a shallow
soilon which grew a variety of bushes and treeswhose bright
verdure contrasted beautifully with the foamy waters that flowed
between them.

Tobywho invariably acted as pioneernow proceeded to
reconnoitre. On his returnhe reported that the shelves of rock
on our right would enable us to gain with little risk the bottom
of the cataract. Accordinglyleaving the bed of the stream at
the very point where it thundered downwe began crawling along
one of those sloping ledges until it carried us to within a few

feet of another that inclined downwards at a still sharper angle
and upon whichby assisting each other we managed to alight in
safety. We warily crept along thissteadying ourselves by the
naked roots of the shrubs that clung to every fissure. As we
proceededthe narrow path became still more contracted
rendering it difficult for us to maintain our footinguntil
suddenlyas we reached an angle of the wall of rock where we had
expected it to widenwe perceived to our consternation that a
yard or two further on it abruptly terminated at a place we could
not possibly hope to pass.

Toby as usual led the vanand in silence I waited to learn from
him how he proposed to extricate us from this new difficulty.

'Wellmy boy' I exclaimedafter the expiration of several
minutesduring which time my companion had not uttered a word
'what's to be done now?'

He replied in a tranquil tonethat probably the best thing we
could do in our present strait was to get out of it as soon as

'Yesmy dear Tobybut tell me how we are to get out of it.'

'Something in this sort of style' he repliedand at the same
moment to my horror he slipped sideways off the rocks andas I
then thoughtby good fortune merelyalighted among the
spreading branches of a species of palm treethat shooting its
hardy roots along a ledge belowcurved its trunk upwards into
the airand presented a thick mass of foliage about twenty feet
below the spot where we had thus suddenly been brought to a
standstill. I involuntarily held my breathexpecting to see the
form of my companionafter being sustained for a moment by the
branches of the treesink through their frail supportand fall
headlong to the bottom. To my surprise and joyhoweverhe
recovered himselfand disentangling his limbs from the fractured
brancheshe peered out from his leafy bedand shouted lustily
'Come onmy hearty there is no other alternative!' and with this
he ducked beneath the foliageand slipping down the trunkstood
in a moment at least fifty feet beneath meupon the broad shelf
of rock from which sprung the tree he had descended.

What would I not have given at that moment to have been by his
side. The feat he had just accomplished seemed little less than
miraculousand I could hardly credit the evidence of my senses
when I saw the wide distance that a single daring act had so
suddenly placed between us.

Toby's animating 'come on' again sounded in my earsand dreading
to lose all confidence in myself if I remained meditating upon
the stepI once more gazed down to assure myself of the relative
bearing of the tree and my own positionand then closing my eyes
and uttering one comprehensive ejaculation of prayerI inclined
myself over towards the abyssand after one breathless instant
fell with a crash into the treethe branches snapping and
cracking with my weightas I sunk lower and lower among them
until I was stopped by coming in contact with a sturdy limb.

In a few moments I was standing at the foot of the tree
manipulating myself all over with a view of ascertaining the
extent of the injuries I had received. To my surprise the only
effects of my feat were a few slight contusions too trifling to
care about. The rest of our descent was easily accomplishedand
in half an hour after regaining the ravine we had partaken of our

evening morselbuilt our hut as usualand crawled under its

The next morningin spite of our debility and the agony of
hunger under which we were now sufferingthough neither of us
confessed to the factwe struggled along our dismal and still
difficult and dangerous pathcheered by the hope of soon
catching a glimpse of the valley before usand towards evening
the voice of a cataract which had for some time sounded like a
low deep bass to the music of the smaller waterfallsbroke upon
our ears in still louder tonesand assured us that we were
approaching its vicinity.

That evening we stood on the brink of a precipiceover which the
dark stream bounded in one final leap of full 300 feet. The
sheer descent terminated in the region we so long had sought. On
each side of the falltwo lofty and perpendicular bluffs
buttressed the sides of the enormous cliffand projected into
the sea of verdure with which the valley wavedand a range of
similar projecting eminences stood disposed in a half circle
about the head if the vale. A thick canopy of trees hung over
the very verge of the fallleaving an arched aperture for the
passage of the waterswhich imparted a strange picturesqueness
to the scene.

The valley was now before us; but instead of being conducted into
its smiling bosom by the gradual descent of the deep watercourse
we had thus far pursuedall our labours now appeared to have
been rendered futile by its abrupt termination. Butbitterly
disappointedwe did not entirely despair.

As it was now near sunset we determined to pass the night where
we wereand on the morrowrefreshed by sleepand by eating at
one meal all our stock of foodto accomplish a descent into the
valleyor perish in the attempt.

We laid ourselves down that night on a spotthe recollection of
which still makes me shudder. A small table of rock which
projected over the precipice on one side of the streamand was
drenched by the spray of the fallsustained a huge trunk of a
tree which must have been deposited there by some heavy freshet.
It lay obliquelywith one end resting on the rock and the other
supported by the side of the ravine. against it we placed in a
sloping direction a number of the half decayed boughs that were
strewn aboutand covering the whole with twigs and leaves
awaited the morning's light beneath such shelter as it afforded.

During the whole of this night the continual roaring of the
cataract--the dismal moaning of the gale through the trees--the
pattering of the rainand the profound darknessaffected my
spirits to a degree which nothing had ever before produced. Wet
half famishedand chilled to the heart with the dampness of the
placeand nearly wild with the pain I enduredI fairly cowered
down to the earth under this multiplication of hardshipsand
abandoned myself to frightful anticipations of evil; and my
companionwhose spirit at last was a good deal brokenscarcely
uttered a word during the whole night.

At length the day dawned upon usand rising from our miserable
palletwe stretched our stiffened jointsand after eating all
that remained of our breadprepared for the last stage of our
journey. I will not recount every hair-breadth escapeand
every fearful difficulty that occurred before we succeeded in

reaching the bosom of the valley. As I have already described
similar scenesit will be sufficient to say that at length
after great toil and great dangerswe both stood with no limbs
broken at the head of that magnificent vale which five days
before had so suddenly burst upon my sightand almost beneath
the shadow of those very cliffs from whose summits we had gazed
upon the prospect.



HOW to obtain the fruit which we felt convinced must grow near at
hand was our first thought.

Typee or Happar? A frightful death at the hands of the fiercest
of cannibalsor a kindly reception from a gentler race of
savages? Which? But it was too late now to discuss a question
which would so soon be answered.

The part of the valley in which we found ourselves appeared to be
altogether uninhabited. An almost impenetrable thicket extended
from side to sidewithout presenting a single plant affording
the nourishment we had confidently calculated upon; and with this
objectwe followed the course of the streamcasting quick
glances as we proceeded into the thick jungles on each hand. My
companion--to whose solicitations I had yielded in descending
into the valley--now that the step was takenbegan to manifest a
degree of caution I had little expected from him. He proposed
that in the event of our finding an adequate supply of fruitwe
should remain in this unfrequented portion of the country--where
we should run little chance of being surprised by its occupants
whoever they might be--until sufficiently recruited to resume our
journey; when laying a store of food equal to our wantswe might
easily regain the bay of Nukuhevaafter the lapse of a
sufficient interval to ensure the departure of our vessel.

I objected strongly to this propositionplausible as it wasas
the difficulties of the route would be almost insurmountable
unacquainted as we were with the general bearings of the country
and I reminded my companion of the hardships which we had already
encountered in our uncertain wanderings; in a wordI said that
since we had deemed it advisable to enter the valleywe ought
manfully to face the consequenceswhatever they might be; the
more especially as I was convinced there was no alternative left
us but to fall in with the natives at onceand boldly risk the
reception they might give us; and that as to myselfI felt the
necessity of rest and shelterand that until I had obtained
themI should be wholly unable to encounter such sufferings as
we had lately passed through. To the justice of these
observations Toby somewhat reluctantly assented.

We were surprised thatafter moving as far as we had along the
valleywe should still meet with the same impervious thickets;
and thinkingthat although the borders of the stream might be
lined for some distance with themyet beyond there might be more
open groundI requested Toby to keep a bright look-out upon one
sidewhile I did the same on the otherin order to discover

some opening in the bushesand especially to watch for the
slightest appearance of a path or anything else that might
indicate the vicinity of the islanders.

What furtive and anxious glances we cast into those dim-looking
shadows! With what apprehensions we proceededignorant at what
moment we might be greeted by the javelin of some ambushed
savage. At last my companion pausedand directed my attention
to a narrow opening in the foliage. We struck into itand it
soon brought us by an indistinctly traced path to a comparatively
clear spaceat the further end of which we descried a number of
the treesthe native name of which is 'annuee'and which bear a
most delicious fruit. W hat a race! I hobbling over the ground
like some decrepid wretchand Toby leaping forward like a
greyhound. He quickly cleared one of the trees on which there
were two or three of the fruitbut to our chagrin they proved to
be much decayed; the rinds partly opened by the birdsand their
hearts half devoured. Howeverwe quickly despatched themand
no ambrosia could have been more delicious.

We looked about us uncertain whither to direct our stepssince
the path we had so far followed appeared to be lost in the open
space around us. At last we resolved to enter a grove near at
handand had advanced a few rodswhenjust upon its skirtsI
picked up a slender bread-fruit shoot perfectly greenand with
the tender. bark freshly stripped from it. It was still
slippery with moistureand appeared as if it had been but that
moment thrown aside. I said nothingbut merely held it up to
Tobywho started at this undeniable evidence of the vicinity of
the savages.

The plot was now thickening.--A short distance further lay a
little faggot of the same shoots bound together with a strip of
bark. Could it have been thrown down by some solitary native
whoalarmed at seeing ushad hurried forward to carry the
tidings of our approach to his countrymen?--Typee or Happar?--But
it was too late to recedeso we moved on slowlymy companion in
advance casting eager glances under the trees on each sideuntil
all at once I saw him recoil as if stung by an adder. Sinking on
his kneehe waved me off with one handwhile with the other he
held aside some intervening leavesand gazed intently at some

Disregarding his injunctionI quickly approached him and caught
a glimpse of two figures partly hidden by the dense foliage; they
were standing close togetherand were perfectly motionless.
They must have previously perceived usand withdrawn into the
depths of the wood to elude our observation.

My mind was at once made up. Dropping my staffand tearing open
the package of things we had brought from the shipI unrolled
the cotton clothand holding it in one hand picked with the
other a twig from the bushes beside meand telling Toby to
follow my exampleI broke through the covert and advanced
waving the branch in token of peace towards the shrinking forms
before me. They were a boy and a girlslender and gracefuland
completely nakedwith the exception of a slight girdle of bark
from which depended at opposite points two of the russet leaves
of the bread-fruit tree. An arm of the boyhalf screened from
sight by her wild tresseswas thrown about the neck of the girl
while with the other he held one of her hands in his; and thus
they stood togethertheir heads inclined forwardcatching the
faint noise we made in our progressand with one foot in
advanceas if half inclined to fly from our presence.

As we drew neartheir alarm evidently increased. Apprehensive
that they might fly from us altogetherI stopped short and
motioned them to advance and receive the gift I extended towards
thembut they would not; I then uttered a few words of their
language with which I was acquaintedscarcely expected that they
would understand mebut to show that we had not dropped from the
clouds upon them. This appeared to give them a little
confidenceso I approached nearerpresenting the cloth with one
handand holding the bough with the otherwhile they slowly
retreated. At last they suffered us to approach so near to them
that we were enabled to throw the cotton cloth across their
shouldersgiving them to understand that it was theirsand by a
variety of gestures endeavouring to make them understand that we
entertained the highest possible regard for them.

The frightened pair now stood stillwhilst we endeavoured to
make them comprehend the nature of our wants. In doing this Toby
went through with a complete series of pantomimic
illustrations--opening his mouth from ear to earand thrusting
his fingers down his throatgnashing his teeth and rolling his
eyes abouttill I verily believe the poor creatures took us for
a couple of white cannibals who were about to make a meal of
them. Whenhoweverthey understood usthey showed no
inclination to relieve our wants. At this juncture it began to
rain violentlyand we motioned them to lead us to some place of
shelter. With this request they appeared willing to complybut
nothing could evince more strongly the apprehension with which
they regarded usthan the way in whichwhilst walking before
usthey kept their eyes constantly turned back to watch every
movement we madeand even our very looks.

'Typee or HapparToby?' asked I as we walked after them.

'Of course Happar' he repliedwith a show of confidence which
was intended to disguise his doubts.

'We shall soon know' I exclaimed; and at the same moment I
stepped forward towards our guidesand pronouncing the two names
interrogatively and pointing to the lowest part of the valley
endeavoured to come to the point at once. They repeated the
words after me again and againbut without giving any peculiar
emphasis to eitherso that I was completely at a loss to
understand them; for a couple of wilier young things than we
afterwards found them to have been on this particular occasion
never probably fell in any traveller's way.

More and more curious to ascertain our fateI now threw together
in the form of a question the words 'Happar' and 'Motarkee'the
latter being equivalent to the word 'good'. The two natives
interchanged glances of peculiar meaning with one another at
thisand manifested no little surprise; but on the repetition of
the question after some consultation togetherto the great joy
of Tobythey answered in the affirmative. Toby was now in
ecstasiesespecially as the young savages continued to reiterate
their answer with great energyas though desirous of impressing
us with the idea that being among the Happarswe ought to
consider ourselves perfectly secure.

Although I had some lingering doubtsI feigned great delight
with Toby at this announcementwhile my companion broke out into
a pantomimic abhorrence of Typeeand immeasurable love for the
particular valley in which we were; our guides all the while
gazing uneasily at one another as if at a loss to account for our


They hurried onand we followed them; until suddenly they set up
a strange halloowhich was answered from beyond the grove
through which we were passingand the next moment we entered
upon some open groundat the extremity of which we descried a
longlow hutand in front of it were several young girls. As
soon as they perceived us they fled with wild screams into the
adjoining thicketslike so many startled fawns. A few moments
after the whole valley resounded with savage outcriesand the
natives came running towards us from every direction.

Had an army of invaders made an irruption into their territory
they could not have evinced greater excitement. We were soon
completely encircled by a dense throngand in their eager desire
to behold us they almost arrested our progress; an equal number
surrounded our youthful guideswho with amazing volubility
appeared to be detailing the circumstances which had attended
their meeting with us. Every item of intelligence appeared to
redouble the astonishment of the islandersand they gazed at us
with inquiring looks.

At last we reached a large and handsome building of bamboosand
were by signs told to enter itthe natives opening a lane for us
through which to pass; on entering without ceremonywe threw our
exhausted frames upon the mats that covered the floor. In a
moment the slight tenement was completely full of peoplewhilst
those who were unable to obtain admittance gazed at us through
its open cane-work.

It was now eveningand by the dim light we could just discern
the savage countenances around usgleaming with wild curiosity
and wonder; the naked forms and tattooed limbs of brawny
warriorswith here and there the slighter figures of young
girlsall engaged in a perfect storm of conversationof which
we were of course the one only themewhilst our recent guides
were fully occupied in answering the innumerable questions which
every one put to them. Nothing can exceed the fierce
gesticulation of these people when animated in conversationand
on this occasion they gave loose to all their natural vivacity
shouting and dancing about in a manner that well nigh intimidated

Close to where we laysquatting upon their hauncheswere some
eight or ten noble-looking chiefs--for such they subsequently
proved to be--whomore reserved than the restregarded us with
a fixed and stern attentionwhich not a little discomposed our
equanimity. One of them in particularwho appeared to be the
highest in rankplaced himself directly facing melooking at me
with a rigidity of aspect under which I absolutely quailed. He
never once opened his lipsbut maintained his severe expression
of countenancewithout turning his face aside for a single
moment. Never before had I been subjected to so strange and
steady a glance; it revealed nothing of the mind of the savage
but it appeared to be reading my own.

After undergoing this scrutiny till I grew absolutely nervous
with a view of diverting it if possibleand conciliating the
good opinion of the warriorI took some tobacco from the bosom
of my frock and offered it to him. He quietly rejected the
proffered giftandwithout speakingmotioned me to return it
to its place.

In my previous intercourse with the natives of Nukuheva and Tior

I had found that the present of a small piece of tobacco would
have rendered any of them devoted to my service. Was this act of
the chief a token of his enmity? Typee or Happar? I asked
within myself. I startedfor at the same moment this identical
question was asked by the strange being before me. I turned to
Tobythe flickering light of a native taper showed me his
countenance pale with trepidation at this fatal question. I
paused for a secondand I know not by what impulse it was that I
answered 'Typee'. The piece of dusky statuary nodded in
approvaland then murmured 'Motarkee!' 'Motarkee' said I
without further hesitation 'Typee motarkee.'

What a transition! The dark figures around us leaped to their
feetclapped their hands in transportand shouted again and
again the talismanic syllablesthe utterance of which appeared
to have settled everything.

When this commotion had a little subsidedthe principal chief
squatted once more before meand throwing himself into a sudden
ragepoured forth a string of philippicswhich I was at no loss
to understandfrom the frequent recurrence of the word Happar
as being directed against the natives of the adjoining valley.
In all these denunciations my companion and I acquiescedwhile
we extolled the character of the warlike Typees. To be sure our
panegyrics were somewhat laconicconsisting in the repetition of
that nameunited with the potent adjective 'motarkee'. But this
was sufficientand served to conciliate the good will of the
nativeswith whom our congeniality of sentiment on this point
did more towards inspiring a friendly feeling than anything else
that could have happened.

At last the wrath of the chief evaporatedand in a few moments
he was as placid as ever. Laying his hand upon his breasthe
gave me to understand that his name was 'Mehevi'and thatin
returnhe wished me to communicate my appellation. I hesitated
for an instantthinking that it might be difficult for him to
pronounce my real nameand then with the most praiseworthy
intentions intimated that I was known as 'Tom'. But I could not
have made a worse selection; the chief could not master it.
'Tommo' 'Tomma''Tommee'everything but plain 'Tom'. As he
persisted in garnishing theword with an additional syllableI
compromised the matter with him at the word 'Tommo'; and by that
name I went during the entire period of my stay in the valley.
The same proceeding was gone through with Tobywhose mellifluous
appellation was more easily caught.

An exchange of names is equivalent to a ratification of good will
and amity among these simple people; and as we were aware of this
factwe were delighted that it had taken place on the present

Reclining upon our matswe now held a kind of leveegiving
audience to successive troops of the nativeswho introduced
themselves to us by pronouncing their respective namesand
retired in high good humour on receiving ours in return. During
this ceremony the greatest merriment prevailed nearly every
announcement on the part of the islanders being followed by a
fresh sally of gaietywhich induced me to believe that some of
them at least were innocently diverting the company at our
expenseby bestowing upon themselves a string of absurd titles
of the humour of which we were of course entirely ignorant.

All this occupied about an hourwhen the throng having a little
diminishedI turned to Mehevi and gave him to understand that we

were in need of food and sleep. Immediately the attentive chief
addressed a few words to one of the crowdwho disappearedand
returned in a few moments with a calabash of 'poee-poee'and two
or three young cocoanuts stripped of their husksand with their
shells partly broken. We both of us forthwith placed one of
these natural goblets to our lipsand drained it in a moment of
the refreshing draught it contained. The poee-poee was then
placed before usand even famished as I wasI paused to
consider in what manner to convey it to my mouth.

This staple article of food among the Marquese islanders is
manufactured from the produce of the bread-fruit tree. It
somewhat resembles in its plastic nature our bookbinders' paste
is of a yellow colourand somewhat tart to the taste.

Such was the dishthe merits of which I was now eager to
discuss. I eyed it wistfully for a momentand thenunable any
longer to stand on ceremonyplunged my hand into the yielding
massand to the boisterous mirth of the natives drew it forth
laden with the poee-poeewhich adhered in lengthy strings to
every finger. So stubborn was its consistencythat in conveying
my heavily-weighted hand to my mouththe connecting links almost
raised the calabash from the mats on which it had been placed.
This display of awkwardness--in whichby-the-byeToby kept me
company--convulsed the bystanders with uncontrollable laughter.

As soon as their merriment had somewhat subsidedMehevi
motioning us to be attentivedipped the forefinger of his right
hand in the dishand giving it a rapid and scientific twirl
drew it out coated smoothly with the preparation. With a second
peculiar flourish he prevented the poee-poee from dropping to the
ground as he raised it to his mouthinto which the finger was
inserted and drawn forth perfectly free from any adhesive matter.

This performance was evidently intended for our instruction; so I
again essayed the feat on the principles inculcatedbut with
very ill success.

A starving manhoweverlittle heeds conventional proprieties
especially on a South-Sea Islandand accordingly Toby and I
partook of the dish after our own clumsy fashionbeplastering
our faces all over with the glutinous compoundand daubing our
hands nearly to the wrist. This kind of food is by no means
disagreeable to the palate of a Europeanthough at first the
mode of eating it may be. For my own partafter the lapse of a
few days I became accustomed to its singular flavourand grew
remarkably fond of it.

So much for the first course; several other dishes followed it
some of which were positively delicious. We concluded our
banquet by tossing off the contents of two more young cocoanuts
after which we regaled ourselves with the soothing fumes of
tobaccoinhaled from a quaintly carved pipe which passed round
the circle.

During the repastthe natives eyed us with intense curiosity
observing our minutest motionsand appearing to discover
abundant matter for comment in the most trifling occurrence.
Their surprise mounted the highestwhen we began to remove our
uncomfortable garmentswhich were saturated with rain. They
scanned the whiteness of our limbsand seemed utterly unable to
account for the contrast they presented to the swarthy hue of our
faces embrowned from a six months' exposure to the scorching sun
of the Line. They felt our skinmuch in the same way that a

silk mercer would handle a remarkably fine piece of satin; and
some of them went so far in their investigation as to apply the
olfactory organ.

Their singular behaviour almost led me to imagine that they never
before had beheld a white man; but a few moments' reflection
convinced me that this could not have been the case; and a more
satisfactory reason for their conduct has since suggested itself
to my mind.

Deterred by the frightful stories related of its inhabitants
ships never enter this baywhile their hostile relations with
the tribes in the adjoining valleys prevent the Typees from
visiting that section of the island where vessels occasionally
lie. At long intervalshoweversome intrepid captain will
touch on the skirts of the baywith two or three armed boats'
crews and accompanied by interpreters. The natives who live near
the sea descry the strangers long before they reach their waters
and aware of the purpose for which they comeproclaim loudly the
news of their approach. By a species of vocal telegraph the
intelligence reaches the inmost recesses of the vale in an
inconceivably short space of timedrawing nearly its whole
population down to the beach laden with every variety of fruit.
The interpreterwho is invariably a 'tabooed Kanaka'*leaps
ashore with the goods intended for barterwhile the boatswith
their oars slopedand every man on his thwartlie just outside
the surfheading off the shorein readiness at the first
untoward event to escape to the open sea. As soon as the traffic
is concludedone of the boats pulls in under cover of the
muskets of the othersthe fruit is quickly thrown into herand
the transient visitors precipitately retire from what they justly
consider so dangerous a vicinity.

* The word 'Kanaka' is at the present day universally used in the
South Seas by Europeans to designate the Islanders. In the
various dialects of the principal groups it is simply a sexual
designation applied to the males; but it is now used by the
natives in their intercourse with foreigners in the same sense in
which the latter employ it.
A 'Tabooed Kanaka' is an islander whose person has been made to a
certain extent sacred by the operation of a singular custom
hereafter to be explained.

The intercourse occurring with Europeans being so restrictedno
wonder that the inhabitants of the valley manifested so much
curiosity with regard to usappearing as we did among them under
such singular circumstances. I have no doubt that we were the
first white men who ever penetrated thus far back into their
territoriesor at least the first who had ever descended from
the head of the vale. What had brought us thither must have
appeared a complete mystery to themand from our ignorance of
the language it was impossible for us to enlighten them. In
answer to inquiries which the eloquence of their gestures enabled
us to comprehendall that we could reply wasthat we had come
from Nukuhevaa placebe it rememberedwith which they were at
open war. This intelligence appeared to affect them with the
most lively emotions. 'Nukuheva motarkee?' they asked. Of
course we replied most energetically in the negative.

Then they plied us with a thousand questionsof which we could
understand nothing more than that they had reference to the

recent movements of the Frenchagainst whom they seemed to
cherish the most fierce hatred. So eager were they to obtain
information on this pointthat they still continued to propound
their queries long after we had shown that we were utterly unable
to answer them. Occasionally we caught some indistinct idea of
their meaningwhen we would endeavour by every method in our
power to communicate the desired intelligence. At such times
their gratification was boundlessand they would redouble their
efforts to make us comprehend them more perfectly. But all in
vain; and in the end they looked at us despairinglyas if we
were the receptacles of invaluable information; but how to come
at it they knew not.

After a while the group around us gradually dispersedand we
were left about midnight (as we conjectured) with those who
appeared to be permanent residents of the house. These
individuals now provided us with fresh mats to lie uponcovered
us with several folds of tappaand then extinguishing the tapers
that had been burningthrew themselves down beside usand after
a little desultory conversation were soon sound asleep.



VARIOUS and conflicting were the thoughts which oppressed me
during the silent hours that followed the events related in the
preceding chapter. Tobywearied with the fatigues of the day
slumbered heavily by my side; but the pain under which I was
suffering effectually prevented my sleepingand I remained
distressingly alive to all the fearful circumstances of our
present situation. Was it possible thatafter all our
vicissitudeswe were really in the terrible valley of Typeeand
at the mercy of its inmatesa fierce and unrelenting tribe of
savages? Typee or Happar? I shuddered when I reflected that
there was no longer any room for doubt; and thatbeyond all hope
of escapewe were now placed in those very circumstances from
the bare thought of which I had recoiled with such abhorrence but
a few days before. What might not be our fearful destiny? To be
sureas yet we had been treated with no violence; nayhad been
even kindly and hospitably entertained. But what dependence
could be placed upon the fickle passions which sway the bosom of
a savage? His inconstancy and treachery are proverbial. Might
it not be that beneath these fair appearances the islanders
covered some perfidious designand that their friendly reception
of us might only precede some horrible catastrophe? How strongly
did these forebodings spring up in my mind as I lay restlessly
upon a couch of mats surrounded by the dimly revealed forms of
those whom I so greatly dreaded!

From the excitement of these fearful thoughts I sank towards
morning into an uneasy slumber; and on awakingwith a startin
the midst of an appalling dreamlooked up into the eager
countenance of a number of the nativeswho were bending over me.

It was broad day; and the house was nearly filled with young
femalesfancifully decorated with flowerswho gazed upon me as
I rose with faces in which childish delight and curiosity were
vividly portrayed. After waking Tobythey seated themselves
round us on the matsand gave full play to that prying

inquisitiveness which time out of mind has been attributed to the
adorable sex.

As these unsophisticated young creatures were attended by no
jealous duennastheir proceedings were altogether informaland
void of artificial restraint. Long and minute was the
investigation with which they honoured usand so uproarious
their mirththat I felt infinitely sheepish; and Toby was
immeasurably outraged at their familiarity.

These lively young ladies were at the same time wonderfully
polite and humane; fanning aside the insects that occasionally
lighted on our brows; presenting us with food; and
compassionately regarding me in the midst of my afflictions. But
in spite of all their blandishmentsmy feelings of propriety
were exceedingly shockedfor I could but consider them as having
overstepped the due limits of female decorum.

Having diverted themselves to their hearts' contentour young
visitants now withdrewand gave place to successive troops of
the other sexwho continued flocking towards the house until
near noon; by which time I have no doubt that the greater part of
the inhabitants of the valley had bathed themselves in the light
of our benignant countenances.

At lastwhen their numbers began to diminisha superb-looking
warrior stooped the towering plumes of his head-dress beneath
the low portaland entered the house. I saw at once that he was
some distinguished personagethe natives regarding him with the
utmost deferenceand making room for him as he approached. His
aspect was imposing. The splendid long drooping tail-feathers of
the tropical birdthickly interspersed with the gaudy plumage of
the cockwere disposed in an immense upright semicircle upon his
headtheir lower extremities being fixed in a crescent of
guinea-heads which spanned the forehead. Around his neck were
several enormous necklaces of boar's tuskspolished like ivory
and disposed in such a manner as that the longest and largest
were upon his capacious chest. Thrust forward through the large
apertures in his ears were two small and finely-shaped sperm
whale teethpresenting their cavities in frontstuffed with
freshly-plucked leavesand curiously wrought at the other end
into strange little images and devices. These barbaric trinkets
garnished in this manner at their open extremitiesand tapering
and curving round to a point behind the earresembled not a
little a pair of cornucopias.

The loins of the warrior were girt about with heavy folds of a
dark-coloured tappahanging before and behind in clusters of
braided tasselswhile anklets and bracelets of curling human
hair completed his unique costume. In his right hand he grasped
a beautifully carved paddle-spearnearly fifteen feet in length
made of the bright koar-woodone end sharply pointedand the
other flattened like an oar-blade. Hanging obliquely from his
girdle by a loop of sinnate was a richly decorated pipe; the
slender reed forming its stem was coloured with a red pigment
and round itas well as the idol-bowlfluttered little
streamers of the thinnest tappa.

But that which was most remarkable in the appearance of this
splendid islander was the elaborate tattooing displayed on every
noble limb. All imaginable lines and curves and figures were
delineated over his whole bodyand in their grotesque variety
and infinite profusion I could only compare them to the crowded
groupings of quaint patterns we sometimes see in costly pieces of

lacework. The most simple and remarkable of all these ornaments
was that which decorated the countenance of the chief. Two broad
stripes of tattooingdiverging from the centre of his shaven
crownobliquely crossed both eyes--staining the lids--to a
little below each earwhere they united with another stripe
which swept in a straight line along the lips and formed the base
of the triangle. The warriorfrom the excellence of his
physical proportionsmight certainly have been regarded as one
of Nature's noblemenand the lines drawn upon his face may
possibly have denoted his exalted rank.

This warlike personageupon entering the houseseated himself
at some distance from the spot where Toby and myself reposed
while the rest of the savages looked alternately from us to him
as if in expectation of something they were disappointed in not
perceiving. Regarding the chief attentivelyI thought his
lineaments appeared familiar to me. As soon as his full face was
turned upon meand I again beheld its extraordinary
embellishmentand met the strange gaze to which I had been
subjected the preceding nightI immediatelyin spite of the
alteration in his appearancerecognized the noble Mehevi. On
addressing himhe advanced at once in the most cordial manner
and greeting me warmlyseemed to enjoy not a little the effect
his barbaric costume had produced upon me.

I forthwith determined to secureif possiblethe good-will of
this individualas I easily perceived he was a man of great
authority in his tribeand one who might exert a powerful
influence upon our subsequent fate. In the endeavour I was not
repulsed; for nothing could surpass the friendliness he
manifested towards both my companion and myself. He extended his
sturdy limbs by our sideand endeavoured to make us comprehend
the full extent of the kindly feelings by which he was actuated.
The almost insuperable difficulty in communicating to one another
our ideas affected the chief with no little mortification. He
evinced a great desire to be enlightened with regard to the
customs and peculiarities of the far-off country we had left
behind usand to which under the name of Maneeka he frequently

But that which more than any other subject engaged his attention
was the late proceedings of the 'Frannee' as he called the
Frenchin the neighbouring bay of Nukuheva. This seemed a
never-ending theme with himand one concerning which he was
never weary of interrogating us. All the information we
succeeded in imparting to him on this subject was little more
than that we had seen six men-of-war lying in the hostile bay at
the time we had left it. When he received this intelligence
Meheviby the aid of his fingerswent through a long numerical
calculationas if estimating the number of Frenchmen the
squadron might contain.

It was just after employing his faculties in this way that he
happened to notice the swelling in my limb. He immediately
examined it with the utmost attentionand after doing so
despatched a boy who happened to be standing by with some

After the lapse of a few moments the stripling re-entered the
house with an aged islanderwho might have been taken for old
Hippocrates himself. His head was as bald as the polished
surface of a cocoanut shellwhich article it precisely resembled
in smoothness and colourwhile a long silvery beard swept almost
to his girdle of bark. Encircling his temples was a bandeau of

the twisted leaves of the Omoo treepressed closely over the
brows to shield his feeble vision from the glare of the sun. His
tottering steps were supported by a long slim staffresembling
the wand with which a theatrical magician appears on the stage
and in one hand he carried a freshly plaited fan of the green
leaflets of the cocoanut tree. A flowing robe of tappaknotted
over the shoulderhung loosely round his stooping formand
heightened the venerableness of his aspect.

Mehevisaluting this old gentlemanmotioned him to a seat
between usand then uncovering my limbdesired him to examine
it. The leech gazed intently from me to Tobyand then proceeded
to business. After diligently observing the ailing memberhe
commenced manipulating it; and on the supposition probably that
the complaint had deprived the leg of all sensationbegan to
pinch and hammer it in such a manner that I absolutely roared
with pain. Thinking that I was as capable of making an
application of thumps and pinches to the part as any one elseI
endeavoured to resist this species of medical treatment. But it
was not so easy a matter to get out of the clutches of the old
wizard; he fastened on the unfortunate limb as if it were
something for which he had been long seekingand muttering some
kind of incantation continued his disciplinepounding it after a
fashion that set me well nigh crazy; while Meheviupon the same
principle which prompts an affectionate mother to hold a
struggling child in a dentist's chairrestrained me in his
powerful graspand actually encouraged the wretch in this
infliction of torture.

Almost frantic with rage and painI yelled like a bedlamite;
while Tobythrowing himself into all the attitudes of a
posture-mastervainly endeavoured to expostulate with the
natives by signs and gestures. To have looked at my companion
assympathizing with my sufferingshe strove to put an end to
themone would have thought that he was the deaf and dumb
alphabet incarnated. Whether my tormentor yielded to Toby's
entreatiesor paused from sheer exhaustionI do not know; but
all at once he ceased his operationsand at the same time the
chief relinquishing his hold upon meI fell backfaint and
breathless with the agony I had endured.

My unfortunate limb was now left much in the same condition as a
rump-steak after undergoing the castigating process which
precedes cooking. My physicianhaving recovered from the
fatigues of his exertionsas if anxious to make amends for the
pain to which he had subjected menow took some herbs out of a
little wallet that was suspended from his waistand moistening
them in waterapplied them to the inflamed partstooping over
it at the same timeand either whispering a spellor having a
little confidential chat with some imaginary demon located in the
calf of my leg. My limb was now swathed in leafy bandagesand
grateful to Providence for the cessation of hostilitiesI was
suffered to rest.

Mehevi shortly after rose to depart; but before he went he spoke
authoritatively to one of the natives whom he addressed as
Kory-Kory; and from the little I could understand of what took
placepointed him out to me as a man whose peculiar business
thenceforth would be to attend upon my person. I am not certain
that I comprehended as much as this at the timebut the
subsequent conduct of my trusty body-servant fully assured me
that such must have been the case.

I could not but be amused at the manner in which the chief

addressed me upon this occasiontalking to me for at least
fifteen or twenty minutes as calmly as if I could understand
every word that he said. I remarked this peculiarity very often
afterwards in many other of the islanders.

Mehevi having now departedand the family physician having
likewise made his exitwe were left about sunset with ten or
twelve nativeswho by this time I had ascertained composed the
household of which Toby and I were members. As the dwelling to
which we had been first introduced was the place of my permanent
abode while I remained in the valleyand as I was necessarily
placed upon the most intimate footing with its occupantsI may
as well here enter into a little description of it and its
inhabitants. This description will apply also to nearly all the
other dwelling-places in the valeand will furnish some idea of
the generality of the natives.

Near one side of the valleyand about midway up the ascent of a
rather abrupt rise of ground waving with the richest verdurea
number of large stones were laid in successive coursesto the
height of nearly eight feetand disposed in such a manner that
their level surface corresponded in shape with the habitation
which was perched upon it. A narrow spacehoweverwas reserved
in front of the dwellingupon the summit of this pile of stones
(called by the natives a 'pi-pi')which being enclosed by a
little picket of canesgave it somewhat the appearance of a
verandah. The frame of the house was constructed of large
bamboos planted uprightlyand secured together at intervals by
transverse stalks of the light wood of the habiscuslashed with
thongs of bark. The rear of the tenement--built up with
successive ranges of cocoanut boughs bound one upon anotherwith
their leaflets cunningly woven together--inclined a little from
the verticaland extended from the extreme edge of the 'pi-pi'
to about twenty feet from its surface; whence the shelving
roof--thatched with the long tapering leaves of the
palmetto--sloped steeply off to within about five feet of the
floor; leaving the eaves drooping with tassel-like appendages
over the front of the habitation. This was constructed of light
and elegant canes in a kind of open screenworktastefully
adorned with bindings of variegated sinnatewhich served to hold
together its various parts. The sides of the house were
similarly built; thus presenting three quarters for the
circulation of the airwhile the whole was impervious to the

In length this picturesque building was perhaps twelve yards
while in breadth it could not have exceeded as many feet. So
much for the exterior; whichwith its wire-like reed-twisted
sidesnot a little reminded me of an immense aviary.

Stooping a littleyou passed. through a narrow aperture in its
front; and facing youon enteringlay two longperfectly
straightand well-polished trunks of the cocoanut tree
extending the full length of the dwelling; one of them placed
closely against the rearand the other lying parallel with it
some two yards distantthe interval between them being spread
with a multitude of gaily-worked matsnearly all of a different
pattern. This space formed the common couch and lounging place
of the nativesanswering the purpose of a divan in Oriental
countries. Here would they slumber through the hours of the
nightand recline luxuriously during the greater part of the
day. The remainder of the floor presented only the cool shining
surfaces of the large stones of which the 'pi-pi' was composed.

From the ridge-pole of the house hung suspended a number of large
packages enveloped in coarse tappa; some of which contained
festival dressesand various other matters of the wardrobeheld
in high estimation. These were easily accessible by means of a
linewhichpassing over the ridge-polehad one end attached to
a bundlewhile with the otherwhich led to the side of the
dwelling and was there securedthe package could be lowered or
elevated at pleasure.

Against the farther wall of the house were arranged in tasteful
figures a variety of spears and javelinsand other implements of
savage warfare. Outside of the habitationand built upon the
piazza-like area in its frontwas a little shed used as a sort
of larder or pantryand in which were stored various articles of
domestic use and convenience. A few yards from the pi-pi was a
large shed built of cocoanut boughswhere the process of
preparing the 'poee-poee' was carried onand all culinary
operations attended to.

Thus much for the houseand its appurtenances; and it will be
readily acknowledged that a more commodious and appropriate
dwelling for the climate and the people could not possibly be
devised. It was coolfree to admit the airscrupulously clean
and elevated above the dampness and impurities of the ground.

But now to sketch the inmates; and here I claim for my tried
servitor and faithful valet Kory-Kory the precedence of a first
description. As his character will be gradually unfolded in the
course of my narrativeI shall for the present content myself
with delineating his personal appearance. Kory-Korythough the
most devoted and best natured serving-man in the worldwas
alas! a hideous object to look upon. He was some twenty-five
years of ageand about six feet in heightrobust and well made
and of the most extraordinary aspect. His head was carefully
shaven with the exception of two circular spotsabout the size
of a dollarnear thetop of the craniumwhere the hair
permitted to grow of an amazing lengthwas twisted up in two
prominent knotsthat gave him the appearance of being decorated
with a pair of horns. His beardplucked out by the root from
every other part of his facewas suffered to droop in hairy
pendantstwo of which garnished his under lipand an equal
number hung from the extremity of his chin.

Kory-Korywith a view of improving the handiwork of natureand
perhaps prompted by a desire to add to the engaging expression of
his countenancehad seen fit to embellish his face with three
broad longitudinal stripes of tattooingwhichlike those
country roads that go straight forward in defiance of all
obstaclescrossed his nasal organdescended into the hollow of
his eyesand even skirted the borders of his mouth. Each
completely spanned his physiognomy; one extending in a line with
his eyesanother crossing the face in the vicinity of the nose
and the third sweeping along his lips from ear to ear. His
countenance thus triply hoopedas it werewith tattooing
always reminded me of those unhappy wretches whom I have
sometimes observed gazing out sentimentally from behind the
grated bars of a prison window; whilst the entire body of my
savage valetcovered all over with representations of birds and
fishesand a variety of most unaccountable-looking creatures
suggested to me the idea of a pictorial museum of natural
historyor an illustrated copy of 'Goldsmith's Animated Nature.'

But it seems really heartless in me to write thus of the poor
islanderwhen I owe perhaps to his unremitting attentions the

very existence I now enjoy. Kory-KoryI mean thee no harm in
what I say in regard to thy outward adornings; but they were a
little curious to my unaccustomed sightand therefore I dilate
upon them. But to underrate or forget thy faithful services is
something I could never be guilty ofeven in the giddiest moment
of my life.

The father of my attached follower was a native of gigantic
frameand had once possessed prodigious physical powers; but the
lofty form was now yielding to the inroads of timethough the
hand of disease seemed never to have been laid upon the aged
warrior. Marheyo--for such was his name--appeared to have
retired from all active participation in the affairs of the
valleyseldom or never accompanying the natives in their various
expeditions; and employing the greater part of his time in
throwing up a little shed just outside the houseupon which he
was engaged to my certain knowledge for four monthswithout
appearing to make any sensible advance. I suppose the old
gentleman was in his dotagefor he manifested in various ways
the characteristics which mark this particular stage of life.

I remember in particular his having a choice pair of
ear-ornamentsfabricated from the teeth of some sea-monster.
These he would alternately wear and take off at least fifty times
in the course of the daygoing and coming from his little hut on
each occasion with all the tranquillity imaginable. Sometimes
slipping them through the slits in his earshe would seize his
spear--which in length and slightness resembled a
fishing-pole--and go stalking beneath the shadows of the
neighbouring grovesas if about to give a hostile meeting to
some cannibal knight. But he would soon return againand hiding
his weapon under the projecting eaves of the houseand rolling
his clumsy trinkets carefully in a piece of tappawould resume
his more pacific operations as quietly as if he had never
interrupted them.

But despite his eccentricitiesMarheyo was a most paternal and
warm-hearted old fellowand in this particular not a little
resembled his son Kory-Kory. The mother of the latter was the
mistress of the familyand a notable housewifeand a most
industrious old lady she was. If she did not understand the art
of making jelliesjamscustardtea-cakesand such like trashy
affairsshe was profoundly skilled in the mysteries of preparing
'amar''poee-poee'and 'kokoo'with other substantial matters.

She was a genuine busy-body; bustling about the house like a
country landlady at an unexpected arrival; for ever giving the
young girls tasks to performwhich the little hussies as often
neglected; poking into every cornerand rummaging over bundles
of old tappaor making a prodigious clatter among the
calabashes. Sometimes she might have been seen squatting upon
her haunches in front of a huge wooden basinand kneading
poee-poee with terrific vehemencedashing the stone pestle about
as if she would shiver the vessel into fragments; on other
occasionsgalloping about the valley in search of a particular
kind of leafused in some of her recondite operationsand
returning hometoiling and sweatingwith a bundle of itunder
which most women would have sunk.

To tell the truthKory-Kory's mother was the only industrious
person in all the valley of Typee; and she could not have
employed herself more actively had she been left an exceedingly
muscular and destitute widowwith an inordinate ate supply of
young childrenin the bleakest part of the civilized world.

There was not the slightest necessity for the greater portion of
the labour performed by the old lady: but she seemed to work from
some irresistible impulse; her limbs continually swaying to and
froas if there were some indefatigable engine concealed within
her body which kept her in perpetual motion.

Never suppose that she was a termagant or a shrew for all this;
she had the kindliest heart in the worldand acted towards me in
particular in a truly maternal manneroccasionally putting some
little morsel of choice foodinto my handsome outlandish kind
of savage sweetmeat or pastrylike a doting mother petting a
sickly urchin with tarts and sugar plums. Warm indeed are my
remembrances of the deargoodaffectionate old Tinor!

Besides the individuals I have mentionedthere belonged to the
household three young mendissipatedgood-for-nothing
roystering blades of savageswho were either employed in
prosecuting love affairs with the maidens of the tribeor grew
boozy on 'arva' and tobacco in the company of congenial spirits
the scapegraces of the valley.

Among the permanent inmates of the house were likewise several
lovely damselswho instead of thrumming pianos and reading
hovelslike more enlightened young ladiessubstituted for these
employments the manufacture of a fine species of tappa; but for
the greater portion of the time were skipping from house to
housegadding and gossiping with their acquaintances.

From the rest of thesehoweverI must except the beauteous
nymph Fayawaywho was my peculiar favourite. Her free pliant
figure was the very perfection of female grace and beauty. Her
complexion was a rich and mantling oliveand when watching the
glow upon her cheeks I could almost swear that beneath the
transparent medium there lurked the blushes of a faint vermilion.

The face of this girl was a rounded ovaland each feature as
perfectly formed as the heart or imagination of man could desire.

Her full lipswhen parted with a smiledisclosed teeth of
dazzling whiteness and when her rosy mouth opened with a burst of
merrimentthey looked like the milk-white seeds of the 'arta' a
fruit of the valleywhichwhen cleft in twainshows them
reposing in rows on each sideimbedded in the red and juicy
pulp. Her hair of the deepest brownparted irregularly in the
middleflowed in natural ringlets over her shouldersand
whenever she chanced to stoopfell over and hid from view her
lovely bosom. Gazing into the depths of her strange blue eyes
when she was in a contemplative moodthey seemed most placid yet
unfathomable; but when illuminated by some lively emotionthey
beamed upon the beholder like stars. The hands of Fayaway were
as soft and delicate as those of any countess; for an entire
exemption from rude labour marks the girlhood and even prime of a
Typee woman's life. Her feetthough wholly exposedwere as
diminutive and fairly shaped as those which peep from beneath the
skirts of a Lima lady's dress. The skin of this young creature
from continual ablutions and the use of mollifying ointmentswas
inconceivably smooth and soft.

I may succeedperhapsin particularizing some of the individual
features of Fayaway's beautybut that general loveliness of
appearance which they all contributed to produce I will not
attempt to describe. The easy unstudied graces of a child of
nature like thisbreathing from infancy an atmosphere of
perpetual summerand nurtured by the simple fruits of the earth;

enjoying a perfect freedom from care and anxietyand removed
effectually from all injurious tendenciesstrike the eye in a
manner which cannot be pourtrayed. This picture is no fancy
sketch; it is drawn from the most vivid recollections of the
person delineated.

Were I asked if the beauteous form of Fayaway was altogether free
from the hideous blemish of tattooingI should be constrained to
answer that it was not. But the practitioners of the barbarous
artso remorseless in their inflictions upon the brawny limbs of
the warriors of the tribeseem to be conscious that it needs not
the resources of their profession to augment the charms of the
maidens of the vale.

The females are very little embellished in this wayand Fayaway
and all the other young girls of her agewere even less so than
those of their sex more advanced in years. The reason of this
peculiarity will be alluded to hereafter. All the tattooing that
the nymph in question exhibited upon her person may be easily
described. Three minute dotsno bigger than pin-heads
decorated each lipand at a little distance were not at all
discernible. Just upon the fall of the shoulder were drawn two
parallel lines half an inch apartand perhaps three inches in
lengththe interval being filled with delicately executed
figures. These narrow bands of tattooingthus placedalways
reminded me of those stripes of gold lace worn by officers in
undressand which are in lieu of epaulettes to denote their

Thus much was Fayaway tattooed. The audacious hand which had
gone so far in its desecrating work stopping shortapparently
wanting the heart to proceed.

But I have omitted to describe the dress worn by this nymph of
the valley.

Fayaway--I must avow the fact--for the most part clung to the
primitive and summer garb of Eden. But how becoming the costume!

It showed her fine figure to the best possible advantage; and
nothing could have been better adapted to her peculiar style of
beauty. On ordinary occasions she was habited precisely as I
have described the two youthful savages whom we had met on first
entering the valley. At other timeswhen rambling among the
grovesor visiting at the houses of her acquaintancesshe wore
a tunic of white tappareaching from her waist to a little below
the knees; and when exposed for any length of time to the sun
she invariably protected herself from its rays by a floating
mantle of--the same materialloosely gathered about the person.
Her gala dress will be described hereafter.

As the beauties of our own land delight in bedecking themselves
with fanciful articles of jewellerysuspending them from their
earshanging them about their necksand clasping them around
their wrists; so Fayaway and her companions were in the habit of
ornamenting themselves with similar appendages.

Flora was their jeweller. Sometimes they wore necklaces of small
carnation flowersstrung like rubies upon a fibre of tappaor
displayed in their ears a single white budthe stem thrust
backward through the apertureand showing in front the delicate
petals folded together in a beautiful sphereand looking like a
drop of the purest pearl. Chaplets tooresembling in their
arrangement the strawberry coronal worn by an English peeress

and composed of intertwined leaves and blossomsoften crowned
their temples; and bracelets and anklets of the same tasteful
pattern were frequently to be seen. Indeedthe maidens of the
island were passionately fond of flowersand never wearied of
decorating their persons with them; a lovely trait in their
characterand one that ere long will be more fully alluded to.

Though in my eyesat leastFayaway was indisputably the
loveliest female I saw in Typeeyet the description I have given
of her will in some measure apply to nearly all the youthful
portion of her sex in the valley. Judge ye thenreaderwhat
beautiful creatures they must have been.



WHEN Mehevi had departed from the houseas related in the
preceding chapterKory-Kory commenced the functions of the post
assigned him. He brought outvarious kinds of food; andas if
I were an infantinsisted upon feeding me with his own hands.
To this procedure Iof coursemost earnestly objectedbut in
vain; and having laid a calabash of kokoo before mehe washed
his fingers in a vessel of waterand then putting his hands into
the dish and rolling the food into little ballsput them one
after another into my mouth. All my remonstrances against this
measure only provoked so great a clamour on his partthat I was
obliged to acquiesce; and the operation of feeding being thus
facilitatedthe meal was quickly despatched. As for Tobyhe
was allowed to help himself after his own fashion.

The repast overmy attendant arranged the mats for reposeand
bidding me lie downcovered me with a large robe of tappaat
the same time looking approvingly upon meand exclaiming 'Ki-Ki
nuee nueeah! moee moee motarkee' (eat plentyah! sleep very
good). The philosophy of this sentiment I did not pretend to
question; for deprived of sleep for several preceding nightsand
the pain of my limb having much abatedI now felt inclined to
avail myself of the opportunity afforded me.

The next morningon wakingI found Kory-Kory stretched out on
one side of mewhile my companion lay upon the other. I felt
sensibly refreshed after a night of sound reposeand immediately
agreed to the proposition of my valet that I should repair to the
water and washalthough dreading the suffering that the exertion
might produce. From this apprehensionhoweverI was quickly
relieved; for Kory-Koryleaping from the pi-piand then backing
himself up against itlike a porter in readiness to shoulder a
trunkwith loud vociferations and a superabundance of gestures
gave me to understand that I was to mount upon his back and be
thus transported to the streamwhich flowed perhaps two hundred
yards from the house.

Our appearance upon the verandah in front of the habitation drew
together quite a crowdwho stood looking on and conversing with
one another in the most animated manner. They reminded one of a

group of idlers gathered about the door of a village tavern when
the equipage of some distinguished traveller is brought round
previously to his departure. As soon as I clasped my arms about
the neck of the devoted fellowand he jogged off with methe
crowd--composed chiefly of young girls and boys--followed after
shouting and capering with infinite gleeand accompanied us to
the banks of the stream.

On gaining itKory-Korywading up to his hips in the water
carried me half way acrossand deposited me on a smooth black
stone which rose a few inches above the surface. The amphibious
rabble at our heels plunged in after usand climbing to the
summit of the grass-grown rocks with which the bed of the brook
was here and there brokenwaited curiously to witness our
morning ablutions.

Somewhat embarrassed by the presence of the female portion of the
companyand feeling my cheeks burning with bashful timidityI
formed a primitive basin by joining my hands togetherand cooled
my blushes in the water it contained; then removing my frock
bent over and washed myself down to my waist in the stream. As
soon as Kory-Kory comprehended from my motions that this was to
be the extent of my performancehe appeared perfectly aghast
with astonishmentand rushing towards mepoured out a torrent
of words in eager deprecation of so limited an operation
enjoining me by unmistakeable signs to immerse my whole body. To
this I was forced to consent; and the honest fellow regarding me
as a frowardinexperienced childwhom it was his duty to serve
at the risk of offendinglifted me from the rocksand tenderly
bathed my limbs. This overand resuming my seatI could not
avoid bursting into admiration of the scene around me.

From the verdant surfaces of the large stones that lay scattered
aboutthe natives were now sliding off into the waterdiving
and ducking beneath the surface in all directions--the young
girls springing buoyantly into the airand revealing their naked
forms to the waistwith their long tresses dancing about their
shoulderstheir eyes sparkling like drops of dew in the sunand
their gay laughter pealing forth at every frolicsome incident.
On the afternoon of the day that I took my first bath in the
valleywe received another visit from Mehevi. The noble savage
seemed to be in the same pleasant moodand was quite as cordial
in his manner as before. After remaining about an hourhe rose
from the matsand motioning to leave the houseinvited Toby and
myself to accompany him. I pointed to my leg; but Mehevi in his
turn pointed to Kory-Koryand removed that objection; so
mounting upon the faithful fellow's shoulders again--like the old
man of the sea astride of Sindbad--I followed after the chief.

The nature of the route we now pursued struck me more forcibly
than anything I had yet seenas illustrating the indolent
disposition of the islanders. The path was obviously the most
beaten one in the valleyseveral others leading from each side
into itand perhaps for successive generations it had formed the
principal avenue of the place. And yetuntil I grew more
familiar with its impedimentsit seemed as difficult to travel
as the recesses of a wilderness. Part of it swept around an
abrupt rise. of groundthe surface of which was broken by
frequent inequalitiesand thickly strewn with projecting masses
of rockswhose summits were often hidden from view by the
drooping foliage of the luxurious vegetation. Sometimes directly
oversometimes evading these obstacles with a wide circuitthe
path wound along;--one moment climbing over a sudden eminence
smooth with continued wearthen descending on the other side

into a steep glenand crossing the flinty channel of a brook.
Here it pursued the depths of a gladeoccasionally obliging you
to stoop beneath vast horizontal branches; and now you stepped
over huge trunks and boughs that lay rotting across the track.

Such was the grand thoroughfare of Typee. After proceeding a
little distance along it--Kory-Kory panting and blowing with the
weight of his burden--I dismounted from his backand grasping
the long spear of Mehevi in my handassisted my steps over the
numerous obstacles of the road; preferring this mode of advance
to one whichfrom the difficulties of the waywas equally
painful to myself and my wearied servitor.

Our journey was soon at an end; forscaling a sudden heightwe
came abruptly upon the place of our destination. I wish that it
were possible to sketch in words this spot as vividly as I
recollect it.

Here were situated the Taboo groves of the valley--the scene of
many a prolonged feastof many a horrid rite. Beneath the dark
shadows of the consecrated bread-fruit trees there reigned a
solemn twilight--a cathedral-like gloom. The frightful genius of
pagan worship seemed to brood in silence over the place
breathing its spell upon every object around. Here and therein
the depths of these awful shadeshalf screened from sight by
masses of overhanging foliagerose the idolatrous altars of the
savagesbuilt of enormous blocks of black and polished stone
placed one upon anotherwithout cementto the height of twelve
or fifteen feetand surmounted by a rustic open templeenclosed
with a low picket of caneswithin which might be seenin
various stages of decayofferings of bread-fruit and cocoanuts
and the putrefying relics of some recent sacrifice.

In the midst of the wood was the hallowed 'Hoolah Hoolah'
ground--set apart for the celebration of the fantastical
religious ritual of these people--comprising an extensive oblong
pi-piterminating at either end in a lofty terraced altar
guarded by ranks of hideous wooden idolsand with the two
remaining sides flanked by ranges of bamboo shedsopening
towards the interior of the quadrangle thus formed. Vast trees
standing in the middle of this spaceand throwing over it an
umbrageous shadehad their massive trunks built round with
slight stageselevated a few feet above the groundand railed
in with canesforming so many rustic pulpitsfrom which the
priests harangued their devotees.

This holiest of spots was defended from profanation by the
strictest edicts of the all-pervading 'taboo'which condemned to
instant death the sacrilegious female who should enter or touch
its sacred precinctsor even so much as press with her feet the
ground made holy by the shadows that it cast.

Access was had to the enclosure through an embowered entranceon
one sidefacing a number of towering cocoanut treesplanted at
intervals along a level area of a hundred yards. At the further
extremity of this space was to be seen a building of considerable
sizereserved for the habitation of the priests and religious
attendants of the groves.

In its vicinity was another remarkable edificebuilt as usual
upon the summit of a pi-piand at least two hundred feet in
lengththough not more than twenty in breadth. The whole front
of this latter structure was completely openand from one end to
the other ran a narrow verandahfenced in on the edge of the

pi-pi with a picket of canes. Its interior presented the
appearance of an immense lounging placethe entire floor being
strewn with successive layers of matslying between parallel
trunks of cocoanut treesselected for the purpose from the
straightest and most symmetrical the vale afforded.

To this buildingdenominated in the language of the natives the
'Ti'Mehevi now conducted us. Thus far we had been accompanied
by a troop of the natives of both sexes; but as soon as we
approached its vicinitythe females gradually separated
themselves from the crowdand standing aloofpermitted us to
pass on. The merciless prohibitions of the taboo extended
likewise to this edificeand were enforced by the same dreadful
penalty that secured the Hoolah-Hoolah ground from the imaginary
pollution of a woman's presence.

On entering the houseI was surprised to see six muskets ranged
against the bamboo on one sidefrom the barrels of which
depended as many small canvas pouchespartly filled with powder.

Disposed about these musketslike the cutlasses that decorate
the bulkhead of a man-of-war's cabinwere a great variety of
rude spears and paddlesjavelinsand war-clubs. This then
said I to Tobymust be the armoury of the tribe.

As we advanced further along the buildingwe were struck with
the aspect of four or five hideous old wretcheson whose
decrepit forms time and tattooing seemedto have obliterated
every trace of humanity. Owing to the continued operation of
this latter processwhich only terminates among the warriors of
the island after all the figures stretched upon their limbs in
youth have been blended together--an effecthoweverproduced
only in cases of extreme longevity--the bodies Of these men were
of a uniform dull green colour--the hue which the tattooing
gradually assumes as the individual advances in age. Their skin
had a frightful scaly appearancewhichunited with its singular
colourmade their limbs not a little resemble dusty specimens of
verde-antique. Their fleshin partshung upon them in huge
foldslike the overlapping plaits on the flank of a rhinoceros.
Their heads were completely baldwhilst their faces were
puckered into a thousand wrinklesand they presented no vestige
of a beard. But the most remarkable peculiarity about them was
the appearance of their feet; the toeslike the radiating lines
of the mariner's compasspointed to every quarter of the
horizon. This was doubtless attributable to the factthat
during nearly a hundred years of existence the said toes never
had been subjected to any artificial confinementand in their
old agebeing averse to close neighbourhoodbid one another
keep open order.

These repulsive-looking creatures appeared to have lost the use
of their lower limbs altogether; sitting upon the floor
cross-legged in a state of torpor. They never heeded us in the
leastscarcely looking conscious of our presencewhile Mehevi
seated us upon the matsand Kory-Kory gave utterance to some
unintelligible gibberish

In a few moments a boy entered with a wooden trencher of
poee-poee; and in regaling myself with its contents I was obliged
again to submit to the officious intervention of my indefatigable
servitor. Various other dishes followedthe chief manifesting
the most hospitable importunity in pressing us to partakeand to
remove all bashfulness on our partset us no despicable example
in his own person.

The repast concludeda pipe was lightedwhich passed from mouth
to mouthand yielding to its soporific influencethe quiet of
the placeand the deepening shadows of approaching nightmy
companion and I sank into a kind of drowsy reposewhile the
chief and Kory-Kory seemed to be slumbering beside us.

I awoke from an uneasy napabout midnightas I supposed; and
raising myself partly from the matbecame sensible that we were
enveloped in utter darkness. Toby lay still asleepbut our late
companions had disappeared. The only sound that interrupted the
silence of the place was the asthmatic breathing of the old men I
have mentionedwho reposed at a little distance from us.
Besides themas well as I could judgethere was no one else in
the house.

Apprehensive of some evilI roused my comradeand we were
engaged in a whispered conference concerning the unexpected
withdrawal of the natives when all at oncefrom the depths of
the grovein full view of us where we layshoots of flame were
seen to riseand in a few moments illuminated the surrounding
treescastingby contrastinto still deeper gloom the darkness
around us.

While we continued gazing at this sightdark figures appeared
moving to and fro before the flames; while othersdancing and
capering aboutlooked like so many demons.

Regarding this new phenomenon with no small degree of
trepidationI said to my companion'What can all this mean

'Ohnothing' replied he; 'getting the fire readyI suppose.'

'Fire!' exclaimed Iwhile my heart took to beating like a triphammer
'what fire?'

'Whythe fire to cook usto be surewhat else would the
cannibals be kicking up such a row about if it were not for

'OhToby! have done with your jokes; this is no time for them;
something is about to happenI feel confident.'

'Jokesindeed?' exclaimed Toby indignantly. 'Did you ever hear
me joke? Whyfor what do you suppose the devils have been
feeding us up in this kind of style during the last three days
unless it were for something that you are too much frightened at
to talk about? Look at that Kory-Kory there!--has he not been
stuffing you with his confounded mushesjust in the way they
treat swine before they kill them? Depend upon itwe will be
eaten this blessed nightand there is the fire we shall be
roasted by.'

This view of the matter was not at all calculated to allay my
apprehensionsand I shuddered when I reflected that we were
indeed at the mercy of a tribe of cannibalsand that the
dreadful contingency to which Toby had alluded was by no means
removed beyond the bounds of possibility.

'There! I told you so! they are coming for us!' exclaimed my
companion the next momentas the forms of four of the islanders
were seen in bold relief against the illuminated back-ground
mounting the pi-pi and approaching towards us.

They came on noiselesslynay stealthilyand glided along
through the gloom that surrounded us as if about to spring upon
some object they were fearful of disturbing before they should
make sure of it.--Gracious heaven! the horrible reflections
which crowded upon me that moment.--A cold sweat stood upon my
browand spell-bound with terror I awaited my fate!

Suddenly the silence was broken by the well-remembered tones of
Meheviand at the kindly accents of his voice my fears were
immediately dissipated. 'TommoTobyki ki!' (eat). He had
waited to address usuntil he had assured himself that we were
both awakeat which he seemed somewhat surprised.

'Ki ki! is it?' said Toby in his gruff tones; 'Wellcook us
firstwill you--but what's this?' he addedas another savage
appearedbearing before him a large trencher of wood containing
some kind of steaming meatas appeared from the odours it
diffusedand which he deposited at the feet of Mehevi. 'A baked
babyI dare say I but I will have none of itnever mind what it
is.--A pretty fool I should make of myselfindeedwaked up here
in the middle of the nightstuffing and guzzlingand all to
make a fat meal for a parcel of booby-minded cannibals one of
these mornings!--NoI see what they are at very plainlyso I am
resolved to starve myself into a bunch of bones and gristleand
thenif they serve me upthey are welcome! But I sayTommo
you are not going to eat any of that mess therein the darkare
you? Whyhow can you tell what it is?'

'By tasting itto be sure' said Imasticating a morsel that
Kory-Kory had just put in my mouth'and excellently good it is
toovery much like veal.'

'A baked babyby the soul of Captain Cook!' burst forth Toby
with amazing vehemence; 'Veal? why there never was a calf on the
island till you landed. I tell you you are bolting down
mouthfuls from a dead Happar's carcassas sure as you liveand
no mistake!'

Emetics and lukewarm water! What a sensation in the abdominal
region! Sure enoughwhere could the fiends incarnate have
obtained meat? But I resolved to satisfy myself at all hazards;
and turning to MeheviI soon made the ready chief understand
that I wished a light to be brought. When the taper cameI
gazed eagerly into the vesseland recognized the mutilated
remains of a juvenile porker! 'Puarkee!' exclaimed Kory-Kory
looking complacently at the dish; and from that day to this I
have never forgotten that such is the designation of a pig in the
Typee lingo.

The next morningafter being again abundantly feasted by the
hospitable MeheviToby and myself arose to depart. But the
chief requested us to postpone our intention. 'Aboabo' (Wait
wait)he said and accordingly we resumed our seatswhile
assisted by the zealous Kory-Koryhe appeared to be engaged in
giving directions to a number of the natives outsidewho were
busily employed in making arrangementsthe nature of which we
could not comprehend. But we were not left long in our
ignorancefor a few moments only had elapsedwhen the chief
beckoned us to approachand we perceived that he had been
marshalling a kind of guard of honour to escort us on our return
to the house of Marheyo.

The procession was led off by two venerable-looking savageseach

provided with a spearfrom the end of which streamed a pennon of
milk-white tappa. After them went several youthsbearing aloft
calabashes of poee-poeeand followed in their turn by four
stalwart fellowssustaining long bamboosfrom the tops of which
hung suspendedat least twenty feet from the groundlarge
baskets of green bread-fruits. Then came a troop of boys
carrying bunches of ripe bananasand baskets made of the woven
leaflets of cocoanut boughsfilled with the young fruit of the
treethe naked shells stripped of their husks peeping forth from
the verdant wicker-work that surrounded them. Last of all came a
burly islanderholding over his head a wooden trencherin which
lay disposed the remnants of our midnight feasthidden from
viewhoweverby a covering of bread-fruit leaves.

Astonished as I was at this exhibitionI could not avoid smiling
at its grotesque appearanceand the associations it naturally
called up. Meheviit seemedwas bent on replenishing old
Marheyo's larderfearful perhaps that without this precaution
his guests might not fare as well as they could desire.

As soon as I descended from the pi-pithe procession formed
anewenclosing us in its centre; where I remained part of the
timecarried by Kory-Koryand occasionally relieving him from
his burden by limping along with spear. When we moved off in
this orderthe natives struck up a musical recitativewhich
with various alternationsthey continued until we arrived at the
place of our destination.

As we proceeded on our waybands of young girlsdarting from
the surrounding groveshung upon our skirtsand accompanied us
with shouts of merriment and delightwhich almost drowned the
deep notes of the recitative. On approaching old Marheyo's
domicileits inmates rushed out to receive us; and while the
gifts of Mehevi were being disposed ofthe superannuated warrior
did the honours of his mansion with all the warmth of hospitality
evinced by an English squire when he regales his friends at some
fine old patrimonial mansion.



AMIDST these novel scenes a week passed away almost
imperceptibly. The nativesactuated by some mysterious impulse
day after day redoubled their attentions to us. Their manner
towards us was unaccountable. Surelythought Ithey would not
act thus if they meant us any harm. But why this excess of
deferential kindnessor what equivalent can they imagine us
capable of rendering them for it?

We were fairly puzzled. But despite the apprehensions I could
not dispelthe horrible character imputed to these Typees
appeared to be wholly undeserved.

'Whythey are cannibals!' said Toby on one occasion when I
eulogized the tribe. 'Granted' I replied'but a more humane
gentlemanly and amiable set of epicures do not probably exist in
the Pacific.'

Butnotwithstanding the kind treatment we receivedI was too
familiar with the fickle disposition of savages not to feel

anxious to withdraw from the valleyand put myself beyond the
reach of that fearful death whichunder all these smiling
appearancesmight yet menace us. But here there was an obstacle
in the way of doing so. It was idle for me to think of moving
from the place until I should have recovered from the severe
lameness that afflicted me; indeed my malady began seriously to
alarm me; fordespite the herbal remedies of the nativesit
continued to grow worse and worse. Their mild applications
though they soothed the paindid not remove the disorderand I
felt convinced that without better aid I might anticipate long
and acute suffering.

But how was this aid to be procured? From the surgeons of the
French fleetwhich probably still lay in the bay of Nukuhevait
might easily have been obtainedcould I have made my case known
to them. But how could that be effected?

At lastin the exigency to which I was reducedI proposed to
Toby that he should endeavour to go round to Nukuhevaand if he
could not succeed in returning to the valley by waterin one of
the boats of the squadronand taking me offhe might at least
procure me some proper medicinesand effect his return overland.

My companion listened to me in silenceand at first did not
appear to relish the idea. The truth washe felt impatient to
escape from the placeand wished to avail himself of our present
high favour with the natives to make good our retreatbefore we
should experience some sudden alteration in their behaviour. As
he could not think of leaving me in my helpless conditionhe
implored me to be of good cheer; assured me that I should soon be
betterand enabled in a few days to return with him to Nukuheva.

Added to thishe could not bear the idea of again returning to
this dangerous place; and as for the expectation of persuading
the Frenchmen to detach a boat's crew for the purpose of rescuing
me from the Typeeshe looked upon it as idle; and with arguments
that I could not answerurged the improbability of their
provoking the hostilities of the clan by any such measure;
especiallyas for the purpose of quieting its apprehensions
they had as yet refrained from making any visit to the bay. 'And
even should they consent' said Toby'they would only produce a
commotion in the valleyin which we might both be sacrificed by
these ferocious islanders.' This was unanswerable; but still I
clung to the belief that he might succeed in accomplishing the
other part of my plan; and at last I overcame his scruplesand
he agreed to make the attempt.

As soon as we succeeded in making the natives understand our
intentionthey broke out into the most vehement opposition to
the measureand for a while I almost despaired of obtaining
their consent. At the bare thought of one of us leaving them
they manifested the most lively concern. The grief and
consternation of Kory-Koryin particularwas unbounded; he
threw himself into a perfect paroxysm of gestures which were
intended to convey to us not only his abhorrence of Nukuheva and
its uncivilized inhabitantsbut also his astonishment that after
becoming acquainted with the enlightened Typeeswe should evince
the least desire to withdraweven for a timefrom their
agreeable society.

HoweverI overbore his objections by appealing to my lameness;
from which I assured the natives I should speedily recover if
Toby were permitted to obtain the supplies I needed.

It was agreed that on the following morning my companion should
departaccompanied by some one or two of the householdwho
should point out to him an easy routeby which the bay might be
reached before sunset.

At early dawn of the next dayour habitation was astir. One of
the young men mounted into an adjoining cocoanut treeand threw
down a number of the young fruitwhich old Marheyo quickly
stripped of the green husksand strung together upon a short
pole. These were intended to refresh Toby on his route.

The preparations being completedwith no little emotion I bade
my companion adieu. He promised to return in three days at
farthest; andbidding me keep up my spirits in the interval
turned round the corner of the pi-piandunder the guidance of
the venerable Marheyowas soon out of sight. His departure
oppressed me with melancholyandre-entering the dwellingI
threw myself almost in despair upon the matting of the floor.

In two hours' time the old warrior returnedand gave me to
understand that after accompanying my companion a little
distanceand showing him the routehe had left him journeying
on his way.

It was about noon of this same daya season which these people
are wont to pass in sleepthat I lay in the housesurrounded by
its slumbering inmatesand painfully affected by the strange
silence which prevailed. All at once I thought I heard a faint
shoutas if proceeding from some persons in the depth of the
grove which extended in front of our habitation.

The sounds grew louder and nearerand gradually the whole valley
rang with wild outcries. The sleepers around me started to their
feet in alarmand hurried outside to discover the cause of the
commotion. Kory-Korywho had been the first to spring upsoon
returned almost breathlessand nearly frantic with the
excitement under which he seemed to be labouring. All that I
could understand from him was that some accident had happened to
Toby. Apprehensive of some dreadful calamityI rushed out of
the houseand caught sight of a tumultuous crowdwhowith
shrieks and lamentationswere just emerging from the grove
bearing in their arms some objectthe sight of which produced
all this transport of sorrow. As they drew nearthe men
redoubled their crieswhile the girlstossing their bare arms
in the airexclaimed plaintively'Awha! awha! Toby mukee
moee!'--Alas! alas! Toby is killed!

In a moment the crowd openedand disclosed the apparently
lifeless body of my companion home between two menthe head
hanging heavily against the breast of the foremost. The whole
faceneckbackand bosom were covered with bloodwhich still
trickled slowly from a wound behind the temple. In the midst of
the greatest uproar and confusion the body was carried into the
house and laid on a mat. Waving the natives off to give room and
airI bent eagerly over Tobyandlaying my hand upon the
breastascertained that the heart still beat. Overjoyed at
thisI seized a calabash of waterand dashed its contents upon
his facethen wiping away the bloodanxiously examined the
wound. It was about three inches longand on removing the
clotted hair from about itshowed the skull laid completely
bare. Immediately with my knife I cut away the heavy locksand
bathed the part repeatedly in water.

In a few moments Toby revivedand opening his eyes for a

second--closed them again without speaking. Kory-Korywho had
been kneeling beside menow chafed his limbs gently with the
palms of his handswhile a young girl at his head kept fanning
himand I still continued to moisten his lips and brow. Soon my
poor comrade showed signs of animationand I succeeded in making
him swallow from a cocoanut shell a few mouthfuls of water.

Old Tinor now appearedholding in her hand some simples she had
gatheredthe juice of which she by signs besought me to squeeze
into the wound. Having done soI thought it best to leave Toby
undisturbed until he should have had time to rally his faculties.
Several times he opened his lipsbut fearful for his safety I
enjoined silence. In the course of two or three hourshowever
he sat upand was sufficiently recovered to tell me what had

'After leaving the house with Marheyo' said Toby'we struck
across the valleyand ascended the opposite heights. Just
beyond themmy guide informed melay the valley of Happar
while along their summitsand skirting the head of the valewas
my route to Nukuheva. After mounting a little way up the
elevation my guide pausedand gave me to understand that he
could not accompany me any fartherand by various signs
intimated that he was afraid to approach any nearer the
territories of the enemies of his tribe. He however pointed out
my pathwhich now lay clearly before meand bidding me
farewellhastily descended the mountain.

'Quite elated at being so near the HapparsI pushed up the
acclivityand soon gained its summit. It tapered to a sharp
ridgefrom whence I beheld both the hostile valleys. Here I sat
down and rested for a momentrefreshing myself with my
cocoanuts. I was soon again pursuing my way along the height
when suddenly I saw three of the islanderswho must have just
come out of Happar valleystanding in the path ahead of me.
They were each armed with a heavy spearand one from his
appearance I took to be a chief. They sung out somethingI
could not understand whatand beckoned me to come on.

'Without the least hesitation I advanced towards themand had
approached within about a yard of the foremostwhenpointing
angrily into the Typee valleyand uttering some savage
exclamationhe wheeled round his weapon like lightningand
struck me in a moment to the ground. The blow inflicted this
woundand took away my senses. As soon as I came to myselfI
perceived the three islanders standing a little distance offand
apparently engaged in some violent altercation respecting me.

'My first impulse was to run for it; butin endeavouring to
riseI fell backand rolled down a little grassy precipice.
The shock seemed to rally my faculties; sostarting to my feet
I fled down the path I had just ascended. I had no need to look
behind meforfrom the yells I heardI knew that my enemies
were in full pursuit. Urged on by their fearful outcriesand
heedless of the injury I had received--though the blood flowing
from the wound trickled over into my eyes and almost blinded
me--I rushed down the mountain side with the speed of the wind.
In a short time I had descended nearly a third of the distance
and the savages had ceased their crieswhen suddenly a terrific
howl burst upon my earand at the same moment a heavy javelin
darted past me as I fledand stuck quivering in a tree close to
me. Another yell followedand a second spear and a third shot
through the air within a few feet of my bodyboth of them
piercing the ground obliquely in advance of me. The fellows gave

a roar of rage and disappointment; but they were afraidI
supposeof coming down further into the Typee valleyand so
abandoned the chase. I saw them recover their weapons and turn
back; and I continued my descent as fast as I could.

'What could have caused this ferocious attack on the part of
these Happars I could not imagineunless it were that they had
seen me ascending the mountain with Marheyoand that the mere
fact of coming from the Typee valley was sufficient to provoke

'As long as I was in danger I scarcely felt the wound I had
received; but when the chase was over I began to suffer from it.
I had lost my hat in the flightand the run scorched my bare
head. I felt faint and giddy; butfearful of falling to the
ground beyond the reach of assistanceI staggered on as well as
I couldand at last gained the level of the valleyand then
down I sank; and I knew nothing more until I found myself lying
upon these matsand you stooping over me with the calabash of

Such was Toby's account of this sad affair. I afterwards learned
thatfortunatelyhe had fallen close to a spot where the
natives go for fuel. A party of them caught sight of him as he
felland sounding the alarmhad lifted him up; and after
ineffectually endeavouring to restore him at the brookhad
hurried forward with him to the house.

This incident threw a dark cloud over our prospects. It reminded
us that we were hemmed in by hostile tribeswhose territories we
could not hope to passon our route to Nukuhevawithout
encountering the effects of their savage resentment. There
appeared to be no avenue opened to our escape but the seawhich
washed the lower extremities of the vale.

Our Typee friends availed themselves of the recent disaster of
Toby to exhort us to a due appreciation of the blessings we
enjoyed among themcontrasting their own generous reception of
us with the animosity of their neighbours. They likewise dwelt
upon the cannibal propensities of the Happarsa subject which
they were perfectly aware could not fail to alarm us; while at
the same time they earnestly disclaimed all participation in so
horrid a custom. Nor did they omit to call upon us to admire the
natural loveliness of their own abodeand the lavish abundance
with which it produced all manner of luxuriant fruits; exalting
it in this particular above any of the surrounding valleys.

Kory-Kory seemed to experience so heartfelt a desire to infuse
into our minds proper views on these subjectsthatassisted in
his endeavours by the little knowledge of the language we had
acquiredhe actually made us comprehend a considerable part of
what he said. To facilitate our correct apprehension of his
meaninghe at first condensed his ideas into the smallest
possible compass.

'Happar keekeeno nuee' he exclaimed'nueenueeki ki
kannaka!--ah! owle motarkee!' which signifies'Terrible fellows
those Happars!--devour an amazing quantity of men!--ahshocking
bad!' Thus far he explained himself by a variety of gestures
during the performance of which he would dart out of the house
and point abhorrently towards the Happar valley; running in to us
again with a rapidity that showed he was fearful he would lose
one part of his meaning before he could complete the other; and
continuing his illustrations by seizing the fleshy part of my arm

in his teethintimating by the operation that the people who
lived over in that direction would like nothing better than to
treat me in that manner.

Having assured himself that we were fully enlightened on this
pointhe proceeded to another branch of his subject. 'Ah!
Typee mortakee!--nueenuee mioree--nueenuee wai--nueenuee
poee-poee--nueenuee kokoo--ah! nueenuee kiki--ah! nuee
nueenuee!' Which literally interpreted as beforewould imply
'AhTypee! isn't it a fine place though!--no danger of starving
hereI tell you!--plenty of bread-fruit--plenty of water--plenty
of pudding--ah! plenty of everything! ah! heapsheaps heaps!'
All this was accompanied by a running commentary of signs and
gestures which it was impossible not to comprehend.

As he continued his haranguehoweverKory-Koryin emulation of
our more polished oratorsbegan to launch out rather diffusely
into other branches of his subjectenlarging probably upon the
moral reflections it suggested; and proceeded in such a strain of
unintelligible and stunning gibberishthat he actually gave me
the headache for the rest of the day.



IN the course of a few days Toby had recovered from the effects
of his adventure with the Happar warriors; the wound on his head
rapidly healing under the vegetable treatment of the good Tinor.
Less fortunate than my companion howeverI still continued to
languish under a complaintthe origin and nature of which were
still a mystery. Cut off as I was from all intercourse with the
civilized worldand feeling the inefficacy of anything the
natives could do to relieve me; knowingtoothat so long as I
remained in my present conditionit would be impossible for me
to leave the valleywhatever opportunity might present itself;
and apprehensive that ere long we might be exposed to some
caprice on the part of the islandersI now gave up all hopes of
recoveryand became a prey to the most gloomy thoughts. A deep
dejection fell upon mewhich neither the friendly remonstrances
of my companionthe devoted attentions of Kory-Kory nor all the
soothing influences of Fayaway could remove.

One morning as I lay on the mats in the houseplunged in
melancholy reverieand regardless of everything around meToby
who had left me about an hourreturned in hasteand with great
glee told me to cheer up and be of good heart; for he believed
from what was going on among the nativesthat there were boats
approaching the bay.

These tidings operated upon me like magic. The hour of our
deliverance was at handand starting upI was soon convinced
that something unusual was about to occur. The word 'botee!
botee!' was vociferated in all directions; and shouts were heard
in the distanceat first feebly and faintly; but growing louder
and nearer at each successive repetitionuntil they were caught
up by a fellow in a cocoanut tree a few yards offwho sounding
them in turnthey were reiterated from a neighbouring groveand

so died away gradually from point to pointas the intelligence
penetrated into the farthest recess of the valley. This was the
vocal telegraph of the islanders; by means of which condensed
items of information could be carried in a very few minutes from
the sea to their remotest habitationa distance of at least
eight or nine miles. On the present occasion it was in active
operation; one piece of information following another with
inconceivable rapidity.

The greatest commotion now appeared to prevail. At every fresh
item of intelligence the natives betrayed the liveliest interest
and redoubled the energy with which they employed themselves in
collecting fruit to sell to the expected visitors. Some were
tearing off the husks from cocoanuts; some perched in the trees
were throwing down bread-fruit to their companionswho gathered
them into heaps as they fell; while others were plying their
fingers rapidly in weaving leafen baskets in which to carry the

There were other matters too going on at the same time. Here you
would see a stout warrior polishing his spear with a bit of old
tappaor adjusting the folds of the girdle about his waist; and
there you might descry a young damsel decorating herself with
flowersas if having in her eye some maidenly conquest; while
as in all cases of hurry and confusion in every part of the
worlda number of individuals kept hurrying to and frowith
amazing vigour and perseverancedoing nothing themselvesand
hindering others.

Never before had we seen the islanders in such a state of bustle
and excitement; and the scene furnished abundant evidence of the
fact--that it was only at long intervals any such events occur.

When I thought of the length of time that might intervene before
a similar chance of escape would be presentedI bitterly
lamented that I had not the power of availing myself effectually
of the present opportunity.

From all that we could gatherit appeared that the natives were
fearful of arriving too late upon the beachunless they made
extraordinary exertions. Sick and lame as I wasI would have
started with Toby at oncehad not Kory-Kory not only refused to
carry mebut manifested the most invincible repugnance to our
leaving the neighbourhood of the house. The rest of the savages
were equally opposed to our wishesand seemed grieved and
astonished at the earnestness of my solicitations. I clearly
perceived that while my attendant avoided all appearance of
constraining my movementshe was nevertheless determined to
thwart my wishes. He seemed to me on this particular occasion
as well as often afterwardsto be executing the orders of some
other person with regard to methough at the same time feeling
towards me the most lively affection.

Tobywho had made up his mind to accompany the islanders if
possibleas soon as they were in readiness to departand who
for that reason had refrained from showing the same anxiety that
I had donenow represented to me that it was idle for me to
entertain the hope of reaching the beach in time to profit by any
opportunity that might then be presented.

'Do you not see' said he'the savages themselves are fearful of
being too lateand I should hurry forward myself at once did I
not think that if I showed too much eagerness I should destroy
all our hopes of reaping any benefit from this fortunate event.

If you will only endeavour to appear tranquil or unconcernedyou
will quiet their suspicionsand I have no doubt they will then
let me go with them to the beachsupposing that I merely go out
of curiosity. Should I succeed in getting down to the boatsI
will make known the condition in which I have left youand
measures may then be taken to secure our escape.'

In the expediency of this I could not but acquiesce; and as the
natives had now completed their preparationsI watched with the
liveliest interest the reception that Toby's application might
meet with. As soon as they understood from my companion that I
intended to remainthey appeared to make no objection to his
propositionand even hailed it with pleasure. Their singular
conduct on this occasion not a little puzzled me at the timeand
imparted to subsequent events an additional mystery.

The islanders were now to be seen hurrying along the path which
led to the sea. I shook Toby warmly by the handand gave him my
Payta hat to shield his wounded head from the sunas he had lost
his own. He cordially returned the pressure of my handand
solemnly promising to return as soon as the boats should leave
the shoresprang from my sideand the next minute disappeared
in a turn of the grove.

In spite of the unpleasant reflections that crowded upon my mind
I could not but be entertained by the novel and animated sight
which by now met my view. One after another the natives crowded
along the narrow pathladen with every variety of fruit. Here
you might have seen onewhoafter ineffectually endeavouring to
persuade a surly porker to be conducted in leading stringswas
obliged at last to seize the perverse animal in his armsand
carry him struggling against his naked breastand squealing
without intermission. There went twowho at a little distance
might have been taken for the Hebrew spieson their return to
Moses with the goodly bunch of grape. One trotted before the
other at a distance of a couple of yardswhile between them
from a pole resting on the shoulderswas suspended a huge
cluster of bananaswhich swayed to and fro with the rocking gait
at which they proceeded. Here ran anotherperspiring with his
exertionsand bearing before him a quantity of cocoanutswho
fearful of being too lateheeded not the fruit that dropped from
his basketand appeared solely intent upon reaching his
destinationcareless how many of his cocoanuts kept company with

In a short time the last straggler was seen hurrying on his way
and the faint shouts of those in advance died insensibly upon the
ear. Our part of the valley now appeared nearly deserted by its
inhabitantsKory-Koryhis aged fatherand a few decrepit old
peoplebeing all that were left.

Towards sunset the islanders in small parties began to return
from the beachand among themas they drew near to the houseI
sought to descry the form of my companion. But one after another
they passed the dwellingand I caught no glimpse of him.
Supposinghoweverthat he would soon appear with some of the
members of the householdI quieted my apprehensionsand waited
patiently to see him advancing in company with the beautiful
Fayaway. At lastI perceived Tinor coming forwardfollowed by
the girls and young men who usually resided in the house of
Marheyo; but with them came not my comradeandfilled with a
thousand alarmsI eagerly sought to discover the cause of his

My earnest questions appeared to embarrass the natives greatly.
All their accounts were contradictory: one giving me to
understand that Toby would be with me in a very short time;
another that he did not know where he was; while a third
violently inveighingagainst himassured me that he had stolen
awayand would never come back. It appeared to meat the time
that in making these various statements they endeavoured to
conceal from me some terrible disasterlest the knowledge of it
should overpower me.

Fearful lest some fatal calamity had overtaken himI sought out
young Fayawayand endeavoured to learn from herif possible
the truth.

This gentle being had early attracted my regardnot only from
her extraordinary beautybut from the attractive cast of her
countenancesingularly expressive of intelligence and humanity.
Of all the natives she alone seemed to appreciate the effect
which the peculiarity of the circumstances in which we were
placed had produced upon the minds of my companion and myself.
In addressing me--especially when I lay reclining upon the mats
suffering from pain--there was a tenderness in her manner which
it was impossible to misunderstand or resist. Whenever she
entered the housethe expression of her face indicated the
liveliest sympathy for me; and moving towards the place where I
laywith one arm slightly elevated in a gesture of pityand her
large glistening eyes gazing intently into mineshe would murmur
plaintively'Awha! awha! Tommo' and seat herself mournfully
beside me.

Her manner convinced me that she deeply compassionated my
situationas being removed from my country and friendsand
placed beyond the reach of all relief. Indeedat times I was
almost led to believe that her mind was swayed by gentle impulses
hardly to be anticipated from one in her condition; that she
appeared to be conscious there were ties rudely severedwhich
had once bound us to our homes; that there were sisters and
brothers anxiously looking forward to our returnwho were
perhapsnever more to behold us.

In this amiable light did Fayaway appear m my eyes; and reposing
full confidence in her candour and intelligenceI now had
recourse to herin the midst of my alarmwith regard to my

My questions evidently distressed her. She looked round from one
to another of the bystandersas if hardly knowing what answer to
give me. At lastyielding to my importunitiesshe overcame her
scruplesand gave me to understand that Toby had gone away with
the boats which had visited the baybut had promised to return
at the expiration of three days. At first I accused him of
perfidiously deserting me; but as I grew more composedI
upbraided myself for imputing so cowardly an action to himand
tranquillized myself with the belief that he had availed himself
of the opportunity to go round to Nukuhevain order to make some
arrangement by which I could be removed from the valley. At any
ratethought Ihe will return with the medicines I requireand
thenas soon as I recoverthere will be no difficulty in the
way of our departure.

Consoling myself with these reflectionsI lay down that night in
a happier frame of mind than I had done for some time. The next
day passed without any allusion to Toby on the part of the
nativeswho seemed desirous of avoiding all reference to the

subject. This raised some apprehensions in my breast; but when
night cameI congratulated myself that the second day had now
gone byand that on the morrow Toby would again be with me. But
the morrow came and wentand my companion did not appear. Ah!
thought Ihe reckons three days from the morning of his
departure--tomorrow he will arrive. But that weary day also
closed upon mewithout his return. Even yet I would not
despair; I thought that something detained him--that he was
waiting for the sailing of a boatat Nukuhevaand that in a day
or two at farthest I should see him again. But day after day of
renewed disappointment passed by; at last hope deserted meand I
fell a victim to despair.

Yes; thought Igloomilyhe has secured his own escapeand
cares not what calamity may befall his unfortunate comrade. Fool
that I wasto suppose that any one would willingly encounter the
perils of this valleyafter having once got beyond its limits!
He has goneand has left me to combat alone all the dangers by
which I am surrounded. Thus would I sometimes seek to derive a
desperate consolation from dwelling upon the perfidity of Toby:
whilst at other times I sunk under the bitter remorse which I
felt as having by my own imprudence brought upon myself the fate
which I was sure awaited me.

At other times I thought that perhaps after all these treacherous
savages had made away with himand thence the confusion into
which they were thrown by my questionsand their contradictory
answersor he might be a captive in some other part of the
valleyormore dreadful stillmight have met with that fate at
which my very soul shuddered. But all these speculations were
vain; no tidings of Toby ever reached me; he had gone never to

The conduct of the islanders appeared inexplicable. All
reference to my lost comrade was carefully evadedand if at any
time they were forced to make some reply to my frequent inquiries
on the subjectthey would uniformly denounce him as an
ungrateful runawaywho had deserted his friendand taken
himself off to that vile and detestable place Nukuheva.

But whatever might have been his fatenow that he was gone the
natives multiplied their acts of kindness and attention towards
myselftreating me with a degree of deference which could hardly
have been surpassed had I been some celestial visitant.
Kory-Kory never for one moment left my sideunless it were to
execute my wishes. The faithful fellowtwice every dayin the
cool of the morning and in the eveninginsisted upon carrying me
to the streamand bathing me in its refreshing water.

Frequently in the afternoon he would carry me to a particular
part of the streamwhere the beauty of the scene produced a
soothing influence upon my mind. At this place the waters flowed
between grassy banksplanted with enormous bread-fruit trees
whose vast branches interlacing overheadformed a leafy canopy;
near the stream were several smooth black rocks. One of these
projecting several feet above the surface of thewaterhad upon
its summit a shallow cavitywhichfilled with freshly-gathered
leavesformed a delightful couch.

Here I often lay for hourscovered with a gauze-like veil of
tappawhile Fayawayseated beside meand holding in her hand a
fan woven from the leaflets of a young cocoanut boughbrushed
aside the insects that occasionally lighted on my faceand
Kory-Kory. with a view of chasing away my melancholyperformed

a thousand antics in the water before us.

As my eye wandered along this romantic streamit would fall upon
the half-immersed figure of a beautiful girlstanding in the
transparent waterand catching in a little net a species of
diminutive shell-fishof which these people are extraordinarily
fond. Sometimes a chattering group would be seated upon the edge
of a low rock in the midst of the brookbusily engaged in
thinning and polishing the shells of cocoanutsby rubbing them
briskly with a small stone in the wateran operation which soon
converts them into a light and elegant drinking vesselsomewhat
resembling goblets made of tortoise shell.

But the tranquillizing influence of beautiful sceneryand the
exhibition of human life under so novel and charming an aspect
were not my only sources of consolation.

Every evening the girls of the house gathered about me on the
matsand after chasing away Kory-Kory from my side--who
neverthelessretired only to a little distance and watched their
proceedings with the most jealous attention--would anoint my
whole body with a fragrant oilsqueezed from a yellow root
previously pounded between a couple of stonesand which in their
language is denominated 'aka'. And most refreshing and agreeable
are the juices of the 'aka'when applied to oneslimbs by the
soft palms of sweet nymphswhose bright eyes are beaming upon
you with kindness; and I used to hail with delight the daily
recurrence of this luxurious operationin which I forgot all my
troublesand buried for the time every feeling of sorrow.

Sometimes in the cool of the evening my devoted servitor would
lead me out upon the pi-pi in front of the houseand seating me
near its edgeprotect my body from the annoyance of the insects
which occasionally hovered in the airby wrapping me round with
a large roll of tappa. He then bustled aboutand employed
himself at least twenty minutes in adjusting everything to secure
my personal comfort.

Having perfected his arrangementshe would get my pipeand
lighting itwould hand it to me. Often he was obliged to strike
a light for the occasionand as the mode he adopted was entirely
different from what I had ever seen or heard of before I will
describe it.

A straightdryand partly decayed stick of the Hibiscusabout
six feet in lengthand half as many inches in diameterwith a
smallbit of wood not more than a foot longand scarcely an
inch wideis as invariably to be met with in every house in
Typee as a box of lucifer matches in the corner of a kitchen
cupboard at home.

The islanderplacing the larger stick obliquely against some
objectwith one end elevated at an angle of forty-five degrees
mounts astride of it like an urchin about to gallop off upon a
caneand then grasping the smaller one firmly in both handshe
rubs its pointed end slowly up and down the extent of a few
inches on the principal suckuntil at last he makes a narrow
groove in the woodwith an abrupt termination at the point
furthest from himwhere all the dusty particles which the
friction creates are accumulated in a little heap.

At first Kory-Kory goes to work quite leisurelybut gradually
quickens his paceand waxing warm in the employmentdrives the
stick furiously along the smoking channelplying his hands to

and fro with amazing rapiditythe perspiration starting from
every pore. As he approaches the climax of his efforthe pants
and gasps for breathand his eyes almost start from their
sockets with the violence of his exertions. This is the critical
stage of the operation; all his previous labours are vain if he
cannot sustain the rapidity of the movement until the reluctant
spark is produced. Suddenly he stopsbecoming perfectly
motionless. His hands still retain their hold of the smaller
stickwhich is pressed convulsively against the further end of
the channel among the fine powder there accumulatedas if he had
just pierced through and through some little viper that was
wriggling and struggling to escape from his clutches. The next
moment a delicate wreath of smoke curls spirally into the air
the heap of dusty particles glows with fireand Kory-Kory
almost breathlessdismounts from his steed.

This operation appeared to me to be the most laborious species of
work performed in Typee; and had I possessed a sufficient
intimacy with the language to have conveyed my ideas upon the
subjectI should certainly have suggested to the most
influential of the natives the expediency of establishing a
college of vestals to be centrally located in the valleyfor the
purpose of keeping alive the indispensable article of fire; so as
to supersede the necessity of such a vast outlay of strength and
good temperas were usually squandered on these occasions.
There mighthoweverbe special difficulties in carrying this
plan into execution.

What a striking evidence does this operation furnish of the wide
difference between the extreme of savage and civilized life. A
gentleman of Typee can bring up a numerous family of children and
give them all a highly respectable cannibal educationwith
infinitely less toil and anxiety than he expends in the simple
process of striking a light; whilst a poor European artisanwho
through the instrumentality of a lucifer performs the same
operation in one secondis put to his wit's end to provide for
his starving offspring that food which the children of a
Polynesian fatherwithout troubling their parentspluck from
the branches of every tree around them.



ALL the inhabitants of the valley treated me with great kindness;
but as to the household of Marheyowith whom I was now
permanently domicilednothing could surpass their efforts to
minister to my comfort. To the gratification of my palate they
paid the most unwearied attention. They continually invited me
to partake of foodand when after eating heartily I declined the
viands they continued to offer methey seemed to think that my
appetite stood in need of some piquant stimulant to excite its

In pursuance of this ideaold Marheyo himself would hie him away
to the sea-shore by the break of dayfor the purpose of
collecting various species of rare sea-weed; some of which among
these people are considered a great luxury. After a whole day
spent in this employmenthe would return about nightfall with
several cocoanut shells filled with different descriptions of

kelp. In preparing these for use he manifested all the
ostentation of a professed cookalthough the chief mystery of
the affair appeared to consist in pouring water in judicious
quantities upon the slimy contents of his cocoanut shells.

The first time he submitted one of these saline salads to my
critical attention I naturally thought that anything collected at
such pains must possess peculiar merits; but one mouthful was a
complete dose; and great was the consternation of the old warrior
at the rapidity with which I ejected his Epicurean treat.

How true it isthat the rarity of any particular article
enhances its value amazingly. In some part of the valley--I know
not wherebut probably in the neighbourhood of the sea--the
girls were sometimes in the habit of procuring small quantities
of salta thimble-full or so being the result of the united
labours of a party of five or six employed for the greater part
of the day. This precious commodity they brought to the house
enveloped in multitudinous folds of leaves; and as a special mark
of the esteem in which they held mewould spread an immense leaf
on the groundand dropping one by one a few minute particles of
the salt upon itinvite me to taste them.

From the extravagant value placed upon the articleI verily
believethat with a bushel of common Liverpool salt all the real
estate in Typee might have been purchased. With a small pinch of
it in one handand a quarter section of a bread-fruit in the
otherthe greatest chief in the valley would have laughed at all
luxuries of a Parisian table.

The celebrity of the bread-fruit treeand the conspicuous place
it occupies in a Typee bill of fareinduces me to give at some
length a general description of the treeand the various modes
in which the fruit is prepared.

The bread-fruit treein its glorious primeis a grand and
towering objectforming the same feature in a Marquesan
landscape that the patriarchal elm does in New England scenery.
The latter tree it not a little resembles in heightin the wide
spread of its stalwart branchesand in its venerable and
imposing aspect.

The leaves of the bread-fruit are of great sizeand their edges
are cut and scolloped as fantastically as those of a lady's lace
collar. As they annually tend towards decaythey almost rival
in brilliant variety of their gradually changing hues the
fleeting shades of the expiring dolphin. The autumnal tints of
our American forestsglorious as they aresink into nothing in
comparison with this tree.

The leafin one particular stagewhen nearly all the prismatic
colours are blended on its surfaceis often converted by the
natives into a superb and striking bead-dress. The principal
fibre traversing its length being split open a convenient
distanceand the elastic sides of the aperture pressed apart
the head is inserted between themthe leaf drooping on one side
with its forward half turned jauntily up on the browsand the
remaining part spreading laterally behind the ears.

The fruit somewhat resembles in magnitude and general appearance
one of our citron melons of ordinary size; butunlike the
citronit has no sectional lines drawn along the outside. Its
surface is dotted all over with little conical prominences
looking not unlike the knobson an antiquated church door. The

rind is perhaps an eighth of an inch in thickness; and denuded of
this at the time when it is in the greatest perfectionthe fruit
presents a beautiful globe of white pulpthe whole of which may
be eatenwith the exception of a slender corewhich is easily

The bread-fruithoweveris never usedand is indeed altogether
unfit to be eatenuntil submitted in one form or other to the
action of fire.

The most simple manner in which this operation is performedand
I thinkthe bestconsists in placing any number of the freshly
plucked fruitwhen in a particular state of greennessamong the
embers of a firein the same way that you would roast a potato.
After the lapse of ten or fifteen minutesthe green rind
embrowns and. cracksshowing through the fissures in its sides
the milk-white interior. As soon as it cools the rind drops off
and you then have the soft round pulp in its purest and most
delicious state. Thus eatenit has a mild and pleasing flavour.

Sometimes after having been roasted in the firethe natives
snatch it briskly from the embersand permitting it to slip out
of the yielding rind into a vessel of cold waterstir up the
mixturewhich they call 'bo-a-sho'. I never could endure this
compoundand indeed the preparation is not greatly in vogue
among the more polite Typees.

There is one formhoweverin which the fruit is occasionally
servedthat renders it a dish fit for a king. As soon as it is
taken from the fire the exterior is removedthe core extracted
and the remaining part is placed in a sort of shallow stone
mortarand briskly worked with a pestle of the same substance.
While one person is performing this operationanother takes a
ripe cocoanutand breaking it in halveswhich they also do very
cleverlyproceeds to grate the juicy meat into fine particles.
This is done by means of a piece of mother-of-pearl shelllashed
firmly to the extreme end of a heavy stickwith its straight
side accurately notched like a saw. The stick is sometimes a
grotesquely-formed limb of a treewith three or four branches
twisting from its body like so many shapeless legsand
sustaining it two or three feet from the ground.

The nativefirst placing a calabash beneath the noseas it
wereof his curious-looking log-steedfor the purpose of
receiving the grated fragments as they fallmounts astride of it
as if it were a hobby-horseand twirling the inside of his
hemispheres of cocoanut around the sharp teeth of the
mother-of-pearl shellthe pure white meat falls in snowy showers
into the receptacle provided. Having obtained a quantity for his
purposehe places it in a bag made of the net-like fibrous
substance attached to all cocoanut treesand compressing it over
the bread-fruitwhich being now sufficiently poundedis put
into a wooden bowl--extracts a thick creamy milk. The delicious
liquid soon bubbles round the fruitand leaves it at last just
peeping above its surface.

This preparation is called 'kokoo'and a most luscious
preparation it is. The hobby-horse and the pestle and mortar
were in great requisition during the time I remained in the house
of Marheyoand Kory-Kory had frequent occasion to show his skill
in their use.

But the great staple articles of food into which the bread-fruit
is converted by these natives are known respectively by the names

of Amar and Poee-Poee.

At a certain season of the yearwhen the fruit of the hundred
groves of the valley has reached its maturityand hangs in
golden spheres from every branchthe islanders assemble in
harvest groupsand garner in the abundance which surrounds them.

The trees are stripped of their nodding burdenswhicheasily
freed from the rind and coreare gathered together in capacious
wooden vesselswhere the pulpy fruit is soon worked by a stone
pestlevigorously appliedinto a blended mass of a doughy
consistencycalled by the natives 'Tutao'. This is then divided
into separate parcelswhichafter being made up into stout
packagesenveloped in successive folds of leavesand bound
round with thongs of barkare stored away in large receptacles
hollowed in the earthfrom whence they are drawn as occasion may
require. In this condition the Tutao sometimes remains for
yearsand even is thought to improve by age. Before it is fit
to be eatenhoweverit has to undergo an additional process. A
primitive oven is scooped in the groundand its bottom being
loosely covered with stonesa large fire is kindled within it.
As soon as the requisite degree of heat is attainedthe embers
are removedand the surface of the stones being covered with
thick layers of leavesone of the large packages of Tutao is
deposited upon them and overspread with another layer of leaves.
The whole is then quickly heaped up with earthand forms a
sloping mound.

The Tutao thus baked is called 'Amar'; the action of the oven
having converted it into an amber-coloured caky substancea
little tartbut not at all disagreeable to the taste.

By another and final process the 'Amar' is changed into
'Poee-Poee'. This transition is rapidly effected. The Amar is
placed in a vesseland mixed with water until it gains a proper
pudding-like consistencywhenwithout further preparationt is
in readiness for use. This is the form in which the 'Tutao' is
generally consumed. The singular mode of eating it I have
already described.

Were it not that the bread-fruit is thus capable of being
preserved for a length of timethe natives might be reduced to a
state of starvation; for owing to some unknown cause the trees
sometimes fail to bear fruit; and on such occasions the islanders
chiefly depend upon the supplies they have been enabled to store

This stately treewhich is rarely met with upon the Sandwich
Islandsand then only of a very inferior qualityand at Tahiti
does not abound to a degree that renders its fruit the principal
article of foodattains its greatest excellence in the genial
climate of the Marquesan groupwhere it grows to an enormous
magnitudeand flourishes in the utmost abundance.



IN looking back to this periodand calling to remembrance the
numberless proofs of kindness and respect which I received from
the natives of the valleyI can scarcely understand how it was

thatin the midst of so many consolatory circumstancesmy mind
should still have been consumed by the most dismal forebodings
and have remained a prey to the profoundest melancholy. It is
true that the suspicious circumstances which had attended the
disappearance of Toby were enough of themselves to excite
distrust with regard to the savagesin whose power I felt myself
to be entirely placedespecially when it was combined with the
knowledge that these very menkind and respectful as they were
to mewereafter allnothing better than a set of cannibals.

But my chief source of anxietyand that which poisoned every
temporary enjoymentwas the mysterious disease in my legwhich
still remained unabated. All the herbal applications of Tinor
united with the severer discipline of the old leechand the
affectionate nursing of Kory-Koryhad failed to relieve me. I
was almost a crippleand the pain I endured at intervals was
agonizing. The unaccountable malady showed no signs of
amendment: on the contraryits violence increased day by day
and threatened the most fatal resultsunless some powerful means
were employed to counteract it. It seemed as if I were destined
to sink under this grievous afflictionor at least that it would
hinder me from availing myself of any opportunity of escaping
from the valley.

An incident which occurred as nearly as I can estimate about
three weeks after the disappearance of Tobyconvinced me that
the nativesfrom some reason or otherwould interpose every
possible obstacle to my leaving them.

One morning there was no little excitement evinced by the people
near my abodeand which I soon discovered proceeded from a vague
report that boatshad been seen at a great distance approaching
the bay. Immediately all was bustle and animation. It so
happened that day that the pain I suffered having somewhat
abatedand feeling in much better spirits than usualI had
complied with Kory-Kory's invitation to visit the chief Mehevi at
the place called the 'Ti'which I have before described as being
situated within the precincts of the Taboo Groves. These sacred
recesses were at no great distance from Marheyo's habitationand
lay between it and the sea; the path that conducted to the beach
passing directly in front of the Tiand thence skirting along
the border of the groves.

I was reposing upon the matswithin the sacred buildingin
company with Mehevi and several other chiefswhen the
announcement was first made. It sent a thrill of joy through my
whole frame;--perhaps Toby was about to return. I rose at once
to my feetand my instinctive impulse was to hurry down to the
beachequally regardless of the distance that separated me from
itand of my disabled condition. As soon as Mehevi noticed the
effect the intelligence had produced upon meand the impatience
I betrayed to reach the seahis countenance assumed that
inflexible rigidity of expression which had so awed me on the
afternoon of our arrival at the house of Marheyo. As I was
proceeding to leave the Tihe laid his hand upon my shoulder
and said gravely'aboabo' (waitwait). Solely intent upon
the one thought that occupied my mindand heedless of his
requestI was brushing past himwhen suddenly he assumed a tone
of authorityand told me to 'moee' (sit down). Though struck by
the alteration in his demeanourthe excitement under which I
laboured was too strong to permit me to obey the unexpected
commandand I was still limping towards the edge of the pi-pi
with Kory-Kory clinging to one arm in his efforts to restrain me
when the natives around started to their feetranged themselves

along the open front of the buildingwhile Mehevi looked at me
scowlinglyand reiterated his commands still more sternly.

It was at this momentwhen fifty savage countenances were
glaring upon methat I first truly experienced I was indeed a
captive in the valley. The conviction rushed upon me with
staggering forceand I was overwhelmed by this confirmation of
my worst fears. I saw at once that it was useless for me to
resistand sick at heartI reseated myself upon the matsand
for the moment abandoned myself to despair.

I now perceived the natives one after the other hurrying past the
Ti and pursuing the route that conducted to the sea. These
savagesthought Iwill soon be holding communication with some
of my own countrymen perhapswho with ease could restore me to
liberty did they know of the situation I was in. No language can
describe the wretchedness which I felt; and in the bitterness of
my soul I imprecated a thousand curses on the perfidious Toby
who had thus abandoned me to destruction. It was in vain that
Kory-Kory tempted me with foodor lighted my pipeor sought to
attract my attention by performing the uncouth antics that had
sometimes diverted me. I was fairly knocked down by this last
misfortunewhichmuch as I had feared itI had never before
had the courage calmly to contemplate.

Regardless of everything but my own sorrowI remained in the Ti
for several hoursuntil shouts proceeding at intervals from the
groves beyond the house proclaimed the return of the natives from
the beach.

Whether any boats visited the bay that morning or notI never
could ascertain. The savages assured me that there had not--but
I was inclined to believe that by deceiving me in this particular
they sought to allay the violence of my grief. However that
might bethis incident showed plainly that the Typees intended
to hold me a prisoner. As they still treated me with the same
sedulous attention as beforeI was utterly at a loss how to
account for their singular conduct. Had I been in a situation to
instruct them in any of the rudiments of the mechanic artsor
had I manifested a disposition to render myself in any way useful
among themtheir conduct might have been attributed to some
adequate motivebut as it wasthe matter seemed to me

During my whole stay on the island there occurred but two or
three instances where the natives applied to me with the view of
availing themselves of my superior information; and these now
appear so ludicrous that I cannot forbear relating them.

The few things we had brought from Nukuheva had been done up into
a small bundle which we had carried with us in our descent to the
valley. This bundlethe first night of our arrivalI had used
as a pillowbut on the succeeding morningopening it for the
inspection of the nativesthey gazed upon the miscellaneous
contents as though I had just revealed to them a casket of
diamondsand they insisted that so precious a treasure should be
properly secured. A line was accordingly attached to itand the
other end being passed over the ridge-pole of the houseit was
hoisted up to the apex of the roofwhere it hung suspended
directly over the mats where I usually reclined. When I desired
anything from it I merely raised my finger to a bamboo beside me
and taking hold of the string which was there fastenedlowered
the package. This was exceedingly handyand I took care to let
the natives understand how much I applauded the invention. Of

this package the chief contents were a razor with its casea
supply of needles and threada pound or two of tobacco and a few
yards of bright-coloured calico.

I should have mentioned that shortly after Toby's disappearance
perceiving the uncertainty of the time I might be obliged to
remain in the valley--ifindeedI ever should escape from
it--and considering that my whole wardrobe consisted of a shirt
and a pair of trousersI resolved to doff these garments at
oncein order to preserve them in a suitable condition for wear
should I again appear among civilized beings. I was consequently
obliged to assume the Typee costumea little alteredhowever
to suit my own views of proprietyand in which I have no doubt I
appeared to as much advantage as a senator of Rome enveloped in
the folds of his toga. A few folds of yellow tappa tucked about
my waistdescended to my feet in the style of a lady's
petticoatonly I did not have recourse to those voluminous
paddings in the rear with which our gentle dames are in the habit
of augmenting the sublime rotundity of their figures. This
usually comprised my in-door dress; whenever I walked outI
superadded to it an ample robe of the same materialwhich
completely enveloped my personand screened it from the rays of
the sun.

One morning I made a rent in this mantle; and to show the
islanders with what facility it could be repairedI lowered my
bundleand taking from it a needle and threadproceeded to
stitch up the opening. They regarded this wonderful application
of science with intense admiration; and whilst I was stitching
awayold Marheyowho was one of the lookers-onsuddenly
clapped his hand to his foreheadand rushing to a corner of the
housedrew forth a soiled and tattered strip of faded calico
which he must have procured some time or other in traffic on the
beach--and besought me eagerly to exercise a little of my art
upon it. I willingly compliedthough certainly so stumpy a
needle as mine never took such gigantic strides over calico
before. The repairs completedold Marheyo gave me a paternal
hug; and divesting himself of his 'maro' (girdle)swathed the
calico about his loinsand slipping the beloved ornaments into
his earsgrasped his spear and sallied out of the houselike a
valiant Templar arrayed in a new and costly suit of armour.

I never used my razor during my stay in the islandbut although
a very subordinate affairit had been vastly admired by the
Typees; and Narmoneea great hero among themwho was
exceedingly precise in the arrangements of his toilet and the
general adjustment of is personbeing the most accurately
tattooed and laboriously horrified individual in all the valley
thought it would be a great advantage to have it applied to the
already shaven crown of his head.

The implement they usually employ is a shark's toothwhich is
about as well adapted to the purpose as a one-pronged fork for
pitching hay. No wonderthenthat the acute Narmonee perceived
the advantage my razor possessed over the usual implement.
Accordinglyone day he requested as a personal favour that I
would just run over his head with the razor. In replyI gave
him to understand that it was too dulland could not be used to
any purpose without being previously sharpened. To assist my
meaningI went through an imaginary honing process on the palm
of my hand. Narmonee took my meaning in an instantand running
out of the housereturned the next moment with a huge rough mass
of rock as big as a millstoneand indicated to me that that was
exactly the thing I wanted. Of course there was nothing left for

me but to proceed to businessand I began scraping away at a
great rate. He writhed and wriggled under the inflictionbut
fully convinced of my skillendured the pain like a martyr.

Though I never saw Narmonee in battle I willfrom what I then
observedstake my life upon his courage and fortitude. Before
commencing operationshis head had presented a surface of short
bristling hairsand by the time I had concluded my unskilful
operation it resembled not a little a stubble field after being
gone over with a harrow. Howeveras the chief expressed the
liveliest satisfaction at the resultI was too wise to dissent
from his opinion.



DAY after day wore onand still there was no perceptible change
in the conduct of the islanders towards me. Gradually I lost all
knowledge of the regular recurrence of the days of the weekand
sunk insensibly into that kind of apathy which ensues after some
violent outburst of despair. My limb suddenly healedthe
swelling went downthe pain subsidedand I had every reason to
suppose I should soon completely recover from the affliction that
had so long tormented me.

As soon as I was enabled to ramble about the valley in company
with the nativestroops of whom followed me whenever I sallied
out of the houseI began to experience an elasticity of mind
which placed me beyond the reach of those dismal forebodings to
which I had so lately been a prey. Received wherever I went with
the most deferential kindness; regaled perpetually with the most
delightful fruits; ministered to by dark-eyed nymphsand
enjoying besides all the services of the devoted Kory-KoryI
thought thatfor a sojourn among cannibalsno man could have
well made a more agreeable one.

To be sure there were limits set to my wanderings. Toward the
sea my progress was barred by an express prohibition of the
savages; and after having made two or three ineffectual attempts
to reach itas much to gratify my curiousity as anything elseI
gave up the idea. It was in vain to think of reaching it by
stealthsince the natives escorted me in numbers wherever I
wentand not for one single moment that I can recall to mind was
I ever permitted to be alone.

The green and precipitous elevations that stood ranged around the
head of the vale where Marheyo's habitation was situated
effectually precluded all hope of escape in that quartereven if
I could have stolen away from the thousand eyes of the savages.

But these reflections now seldom obtruded upon me; I gave myself
up to the passing hourand if ever disagreeable thoughts arose
in my mindI drove them away. When I looked around the verdant
recess in which I was buriedand gazed up to the summits of the
lofty eminence that hemmed me inI was well disposed to think
that I was in the 'Happy Valley'and that beyond those heights
there was naught but a world of care and anxiety. As I extended

my wanderings in the valley and grew more familiar with the
habits of its inmatesI was fain to confess thatdespite the
disadvantages of his conditionthe Polynesian savagesurrounded
by all the luxurious provisions of natureenjoyed an infinitely
happierthough certainly a less intellectual existence than the
self-complacent European.

The naked wretch who shivers beneath the bleak skiesand starves
among the inhospitable wilds of Tierra-del-Fuegomight indeed be
made happier by civilizationfor it would alleviate his physical
wants. But the voluptuous Indianwith every desire supplied
whom Providence has bountifully provided with all the sources of
pure and natural enjoymentand from whom are removed so many of
the ills and pains of life--what has he to desire at the hands of
Civilization? She may 'cultivate his mind--may elevate his
thoughts'--these I believe are the established phrases--but will
he be the happier? Let the once smiling and populous Hawiian
islandswith their now diseasedstarvingand dying natives
answer the question. The missionaries may seek to disguise the
matter as they willbut the facts are incontrovertible; and the
devoutest Christian who visits that group with an unbiased mind
must go away mournfully asking--'Are thesealas! the fruits of
twenty-five years of enlightening?'

In a primitive state of societythe enjoyments of lifethough
few and simpleare spread over a great extentand are
unalloyed; but Civilizationfor every advantage she imparts
holds a hundred evils in reserve;--the heart-burningsthe
jealousiesthe social rivalriesthe family dissentionsand the
thousand self-inflicted discomforts of refined lifewhich make
up in units the swelling aggregate of human miseryare unknown
among these unsophisticated people.

But it will be urged that these shocking unprincipled wretches
are cannibals. Very true; and a rather bad trait in their
character it must be allowed. But they are such only when they
seek to gratify the passion of revenge upon their enemies; and I
ask whether the mere eating of human flesh so very far exceeds in
barbarity that custom which only a few years since was practised
in enlightened England:--a convicted traitorperhaps a man found
guilty of honestypatriotismand suchlike heinous crimeshad
his head lopped off with a huge axehis bowels dragged cut and
thrown into a fire; while his bodycarved into four quarters
was with his head exposed upon pikesand permitted to rot and
fester among the public haunts of men!

The fiend-like skill we display in the invention of all manner of
death-dealing enginesthe vindictiveness with which we carry on
our warsand the misery and desolation that follow in their
trainare enough of themselves to distinguish the white
civilized man as the most ferocious animal on the face of the

His remorseless cruelty is seen in many of the institutions of
our own favoured land. There is one in particular lately adopted
in one of the States of the Unionwhich purports to have been
dictated by the most merciful considerations. To destroy our
malefactors piece-mealdrying up in their veinsdrop by drop
the blood we are too chicken-hearted to shed by a single blow
which would at once put a period to their sufferingsis deemed
to be infinitely preferable to the old-fashioned punishment of
gibbeting--much less annoying to the victimand more in
accordance with the refined spirit of the age; and yet how feeble
is all language to describe the horrors we inflict upon these

wretcheswhom we mason up in the cells of our prisonsand
condemn to perpetual solitude in the very heart of our

But it is needless to multiply the examples of civilized
barbarity; they far exceed in the amount of misery they cause the
crimes which we regard with such abhorrence in our less
enlightened fellow-creatures.

The term 'Savage' isI conceiveoften misappliedand indeed
when I consider the vicescrueltiesand enormities of every
kind that spring up in the tainted atmosphere of a feverish
civilizationI am inclined to think that so far as the relative
wickedness of the parties is concernedfour or five Marquesan
Islanders sent to the United States as Missionaries might be
quite as useful as an equal number of Americans despatched to the
Islands in a similar capacity.

I once heard it given as an instance of the frightful depravity
of a certain tribe in the Pacific that they had no word in their
language to express the idea of virtue. The assertion was
unfounded; but were it otherwiseit might be met by stating that
their language is almost entirely destitute of terms to express
the delightful ideas conveyed by our endless catalogue of
civilized crimes.

In the altered frame of mind to which I have referredevery
object that presented itself to my notice in the valley struck me
in a new lightand the opportunities I now enjoyed of observing
the manners of its inmatestended to strengthen my favourable
impressions. One peculiarity that fixed my admiration was the
perpetual hilarity reigning through the whole extent of the vale.

There seemed to be no caresgriefstroublesor vexationsin
all Typee. The hours tripped along as gaily as the laughing
couples down a country dance.

There were none of those thousand sources of irritation that the
ingenuity of civilized man has created to mar his own felicity.
There were no foreclosures of mortgagesno protested notesno
bills payableno debts of honour in Typee; no unreasonable
tailors and shoemakers perversely bent on being paid; no duns of
any description and battery attorneysto foment discordbacking
their clients up to a quarreland then knocking their heads
together; no poor relationseverlastingly occupying the spare
bed-chamberand diminishing the elbow room at the family table;
no destitute widows with their children starving on the cold
charities of the world; no beggars; no debtors' prisons; no proud
and hard-hearted nabobs in Typee; or to sum up all in one
word--no Money! 'That root of all evil' was not to be found in
the valley.

In this secluded abode of happiness there were no cross old
womenno cruel step-damesno withered spinstersno lovesick
maidensno sour old bachelorsno inattentive husbandsno
melancholy young menno blubbering youngstersand no squalling
brats. All was mirthfun and high good humour. Blue devils
hypochondriaand doleful dumpswent and hid themselves among
the nooks and crannies of the rocks.

Here you would see a parcel of children frolicking together the
live-long dayand no quarrellingno contentionamong them.
The same number in our own land could not have played together
for the space of an hour without biting or scratching one

another. There you might have seen a throng of young females
not filled with envyings of each other's charmsnor displaying
the ridiculous affectations of gentilitynor yet moving in
whalebone corsetslike so many automatonsbut free
inartificially happyand unconstrained.

There were some spots in that sunny vale where they would
frequently resort to decorate themselves with garlands of
flowers. To have seen them reclining beneath the shadows of one
of the beautiful groves; the ground about them strewn with
freshly gathered buds and blossomsemployed in weaving chaplets
and necklacesone would have thought that all the train of Flora
had gathered together to keep a festival in honour of their

With the young men there seemed almost always some matter of
diversion or business on hand that afforded a constant variety of
enjoyment. But whether fishingor carving canoesor polishing
their ornamentsnever was there exhibited the least sign of
strife or contention among them. As for the warriorsthey
maintained a tranquil dignity of demeanourjourneying
occasionally from house to housewhere they were always sure to
be received with the attention bestowed upon distinguished
guests. The old menof whom there were many in the valeseldom
stirred from their matswhere they would recline for hours and
hourssmoking and talking to one another with all the garrulity
of age.

But the continual happinesswhich so far as I was able to judge
appeared to prevail in the valleysprang principally from that
all-pervading sensation which Rousseau has told us be at one time
experiencedthe mere buoyant sense of a healthful physical
existence. And indeed in this particular the Typees had ample
reason to felicitate themselvesfor sickness was almost unknown.

During the whole period of my stay I saw but one invalid among
them; and on their smooth skins you observed no blemish or mark
of disease.

The general reposehoweverupon which I have just been
descantingwas broken in upon about this time by an event which
proved that the islanders were not entirely exempt from those
occurrences which disturb the quiet of more civilized

Having now been a considerable time in the valleyI began to
feel surprised that the violent hostility subsisting between its
inhabitantsand those of the adjoining bay of Happarshould
never have manifested itself in any warlike encounter. Although
the valiant Typees would often by gesticulations declare their
undying hatred against their enemiesand the disgust they felt
at their cannibal propensities; although they dilated upon the
manifold injuries they had received at their handsyet with a
forbearance truly commendablethey appeared to sit down under
their grievancesand to refrain from making any reprisals. The
Happarsentrenched behind their mountainsand never even
showing themselves on their summitsdid not appear to me to
furnish adequate cause for that excess of animosity evinced
towards them by the heroic tenants of our valeand I was
inclined to believe that the deeds of blood attributed to them
had been greatly exaggerated.

On the other handas the clamours of war had not up to this
period disturbed the serenity of the tribeI began to distrust

the truth of those reports which ascribed so fierce and
belligerent a character to the Typee nation. Surelythought I
all these terrible stories I have heard about the inveteracy with
which they carried on the feudtheir deadly intensityof hatred
and the diabolical malice with which they glutted their revenge
upon the inanimate forms of the slainare nothing more than
fablesand I must confess that I experienced something like a
sense of regret at having my hideous anticipations thus
disappointed. I felt in some sort like a 'prentice boy who
going to the play in the expectation of being delighted with a
cut-and-thrust tragedyis almost moved to tears of
disappointment at the exhibition of a genteel comedy.

I could not avoid thinking that I had fallen in with a greatly
traduced peopleand I moralized not a little upon the
disadvantage of having a bad namewhich in this instance had
given a tribe of savageswho were as pacific as so many
lambkinsthe reputation of a confederacy of giant-killers.

But subsequent events proved that I had been a little too
premature in coming to this conclusion. Oneday about noon
happening to be at the TiI had lain down on the mats with
several of the chiefsand had gradually sunk into a most
luxurious siestawhen I was awakened by a tremendous outcryand
starting up beheld the natives seizing their spears and hurrying
outwhile the most puissant of the chiefsgrasping the six
muskets which were ranged against the bamboosfollowed after
and soon disappeared in the groves. These movements were
accompanied by wild shoutsin which 'HapparHappar' greatly
predominated. The islanders were now seen running past the Ti
and striking across the valley to the Happar side. Presently I
heard the sharp report of a musket from the adjoining hillsand
then a burst of voices in the same direction. At this the women
who had congregated in the grovesset up the most violent
clamoursas they invariably do here as elsewhere on every
occasion of excitement and alarmwith a view of tranquillizing
their own minds and disturbing other people. On this particular
occasion they made such an outrageous noiseand continued it
with such perseverancethat for awhilehad entire volleys of
musketry been fired off in the neighbouring mountainsI should
not have been able to have heard them.

When this female commotion had a little subsided I listened
eagerly for further information. At last bang went another shot
and then a second volley of yells from the hills. Again all was
quietand continued so for such a length of time that I began to
think the contending armies had agreed upon a suspension of
hostilities; when pop went a third gunfollowed as before with a
yell. After thisfor nearly two hours nothing occurred worthy
of commentsave some straggling shouts from the hillside
sounding like the halloos of a parcel of truant boys who had lost
themselves in the woods.

During this interval I had remained standing on the piazza of the
'Ti' which directly fronted the Happar mountainand with no one
near me but Kory-Kory and the old superannuated savages I have
described. These latter never stirred from their matsand
seemed altogether unconscious that anything unusual was going on.

As for Kory-Koryhe appeared to think that we were in the midst
of great eventsand sought most zealously to impress me with a
due sense of their importance. Every sound that reached us
conveyed some momentous item of intelligence to him. At such
timesas if he were gifted with second sighthe would go

through a variety of pantomimic illustrationsshowing me the
precise manner in which the redoubtable Typees were at that very
moment chastising the insolence of the enemy. 'Mehevi hanna
pippee nuee Happar' he exclaimed every five minutesgiving me
to understand that under that distinguished captain the warriors
of his nation were performing prodigies of valour.

Having heard only four reports from the musketsI was led to
believe that they were worked by the islanders in the same manner
as the Sultan Solyman's ponderous artillery at the siege of
Byzantiumone of them taking an hour or two to load and train.
At lastno sound whatever proceeding from the mountainsI
concluded that the contest had been determined one way or the
other. Such appearedindeedto be the casefor in a little
while a courier arrived at the 'Ti'almost breathless with his
exertionsand communicated the news of a great victory having
been achieved by his countrymen: 'Happar poo arva!--Happar poo
arva!' (the cowards had fled). Kory-Kory was in ecstasiesand
commenced a vehement haranguewhichso far as I understood it
implied that the result exactly agreed with his expectationsand
whichmoreoverwas intended to convince me that it would be a
perfectly useless undertakingeven for an army of fire-eaters
to offer battle to the irresistible heroes of our valley. In all
this I of course acquiescedand looked forward with no little
interest to the return of the conquerorswhose victory I feared
might not have been purchased without cost to themselves.

But here I was again mistaken; for Meheviin conducting his
warlike operationsrather inclined to the Fabian than to the
Bonapartean tacticshusbanding his resources and exposing his
troops to no unnecessary hazards. The total loss of the victors
in this obstinately contested affair wasin killedwoundedand
missing--one forefinger and part of a thumb-nail (which the late
proprietor brought along with him in his hand)a severely
contused armand a considerable effusion of blood flowing from
the thigh of a chiefwho had received an ugly thrust from a
Happar spear. What the enemy had suffered I could not discover
but I presume they had succeeded in taking off with them the
bodies of their slain.

Such was the issue of the battleas far as its results came
under my observation: and as it appeared to be considered an
event of prodigious importanceI reasonably concluded that the
wars of the natives were marked by no very sanguinary traits. I
afterwards learned how the skirmish had originated. A number of
the Happars had been discovered prowling for no good purpose on
the Typee side of the mountain; the alarm soundedand the
invadersafter a protracted resistancehad been chased over the
frontier. But why had not the intrepid Mehevi carried the war
into Happar? Why had he not made a descent into the hostile
valeand brought away some trophy of his victory--some materials
for the cannibal entertainment which I had heard usually
terminated every engagement? After allI was much inclined to
believe that these shocking festivals must occur very rarely
among the islandersifindeedthey ever take place.

For two or three days the late event was the theme of general
comment; after which the excitement gradually wore awayand the
valley resumed its accustomed tranquility.



RETURNING health and peace of mind gave a new interest to
everything around me. I sought to diversify my time by as many
enjoyments as lay within my reach. Bathing in company with
troops of girls formed one of my chief amusements. We sometimes
enjoyed the recreation in the waters of a miniature laketo
which the central stream of the valley expanded. This lovely
sheet of water was almost circular in figureand about three
hundred yards across. Its beauty was indescribable. All around
its banks waved luxuriant masses of tropical foliagesoaring
high above which were seenhere and therethe symmetrical shaft
of the cocoanut treesurmounted by its tufts of graceful
branchesdrooping in the air like so many waving ostrich plumes.

The ease and grace with which the maidens of the valley propelled
themselves through the waterand their familiarity with the
elementwere truly astonishing. Sometimes the might be seen
gliding along just under the surfacewithout apparently moving
hand or foot--then throwing themselves on their sidesthey
darted through the waterrevealing glimpses of their formsas
in the course of their rapid progressthey shot for an instant
partly into the air--at one moment they dived deep down into the
waterand the next they rose bounding to the surface.

I remember upon one occasion plunging in among a parcel of these
river-nymphsand counting vainly on my superior strengthsought
to drag some of them under the waterbut I quickly repented my
temerity. The amphibious young creatures swarmed about me like a
shoal of dolphinsand seizing hold of my devoted limbstumbled
me about and ducked me under the surfaceuntil from the strange
noises which rang in my earsand the supernatural visions
dancing before my eyesI thought I was in the land of the
spirits. I stood indeed as little chance among them as a
cumbrous whale attacked on all sides by a legion of swordfish.
When at length they relinquished their hold of methey swam away
in every directionlaughing at my clumsy endeavours to to reach

There was no boat on the lake; but at my solicitation and for my
special usesome of theyoung men attached to Marheyo's
householdunder the direction of the indefatigable Kory-Kory
brought up a light and tastefully carved canoe from the sea. It
was launched upon the sheet of waterand floated there as
gracefully as a swan. Butmelancholy to relateit produced an
effect I had not anticipated. The sweet nymphswho had sported
with me before on the lakenow all fled its vicinity. The
prohibited craftguarded by the edicts of the 'taboo' extended
the prohibition to the waters in which it lay.

For a few daysKory-Korywith one or two other youths
accompanied me in my excursions to the lakeand while I paddled
about in my light canoewould swim after me shouting and
gambolling in pursuit. But I as ever partial to what is termed
in the 'Young Men's Own Book'--'the society of virtuous and
intelligent young ladies;' and in the absence of the mermaids
the amusement became dull and insipid. One morning I expressed
to my faithful servitor my desire for the return of the nymphs.
The honest fellow looked at me bewildered for a momentand then
shook his head solemnlyand murmured 'taboo! taboo!' giving me

to understand that unless the canoe was removed I could not
expect to have the young ladies back again. But to this
procedure I was averse; I not only wanted the canoe to stay where
it wasbut I wanted the beauteous Fayaway to get into itand
paddle with me about the lake. This latter proposition
completely horrified Kory-Kory's notions of propriety. He
inveighed against itas something too monstrous to be thought
of. It not only shocked their established notions of propriety
but was at variance with all their religious ordinances.

Howeveralthough the 'taboo' was a ticklish thing to meddle
withI determined to test its capabilities of resisting an
attack. I consulted the chief Meheviwho endeavoured to
dissuade me from my object; but I was not to be repulsed; and
accordingly increased the warmth of my solicitations. At last he
entered into a longand I have no doubt a very learned and
eloquent exposition of the history and nature of the 'taboo' as
affecting this particular case; employing a variety of most
extraordinary wordswhichfrom their amazing length and
sonorousnessI have every reason to believe were of a
theological nature. But all that he said failed to convince me:
partlyperhapsbecause I could not comprehend a word that he
uttered; but chieflythat for the life of me I could not
understand why a woman would not have as much right to enter a
canoe as a man. At last he became a little more rationaland
intimated thatout of the abundant love he bore mehe would
consult with the priests and see what could be done.

How it was that the priesthood of Typee satisfied the affair with
their consciencesI know not; but so it wasand Fayaway
dispensation from this portion of the taboo was at length
procured. Such an event I believe never before had occurred in
the valley; but it was high time the islanders should be taught a
little gallantryand I trust that the example I set them may
produce beneficial effects. Ridiculousindeedthat the lovely
creatures should be obliged to paddle about in the waterlike so
many duckswhile a parcel of great strapping fellows skimmed
over its surface in their canoes.

The first day after Fayaway's emancipationI had a delightful
little party on the lake--the damsels' Kory-Koryand myself. My
zealous body-servant brought from the house a calabash of
poee-poeehalf a dozen young cocoanuts--stripped of their
husks--three pipesas many yamsand me on his back a part of
the way. Something of a load; but Kory-Kory was a very strong
man for his sizeand by no means brittle in the spine. We had a
very pleasant day; my trusty valet plied the paddle and swept us
gently along the margin of the waterbeneath the shades of the
overhanging thickets. Fayaway and I reclined in the stern of the
canoeon the very best terms possible with one another; the
gentle nymph occasionally placing her pipe to her lipand
exhaling the mild fumes of the tobaccoto which her rosy breath
added a fresh perfume. Strange as it may seemthere is nothing
in which a young and beautiful female appears to more advantage
than in the act of smoking. How captivating is a Peruvian lady
swinging in her gaily-woven hammock of grassextended between
two orange-treesand inhaling the fragrance of a choice cigarro!

But Fayawayholding in her delicately formed olive hand the long
yellow reed of her pipewith its quaintly carved bowland every
few moments languishingly giving forth light wreaths of vapour
from her mouth and nostrilslooked still more engaging.

We floated about thus for several hourswhen I looked up to the

warmglowingtropical skyand then down into the transparent
depths below; and when my eyewandering from the bewitching
scenery aroundfell upon the grotesquely-tattooed form of
Kory-Koryand finallyencountered the pensive gaze of Fayaway
I thought I had been transported to some fairy regionso unreal
did everything appear.

This lovely piece of water was the coolest spot in all the
valleyand I now made it a place of continual resort during the
hottest period of the day. One side of it lay near the
termination of a long gradually expanding gorgewhich mounted to
the heights that environed the vale. The strong trade windmet
in its course by these elevationscircled and eddied about their
summitsand was sometimes driven down the steep ravine and swept
across the valleyruffling in its passage the otherwise tranquil
surface of the lake.

One dayafter we had been paddling about for some timeI
disembarked Kory-Koryand paddled the canoe to the windward side
of the lake. As I turned the canoeFayawaywho was with me
seemed all at once to be struck with some happy idea. With a
wild exclamation of delightshe disengaged from her person the
ample robe of tappa which was knotted over her shoulder (for the
purpose of shielding her from the sun)and spreading it out like
a sailstood erect with upraised arms in the head of the canoe.
We American sailors pride ourselves upon our straightclean
sparsbut a prettier little mast than Fayaway made was never
shipped aboard of any craft.

In a moment the tappa was distended by the breeze--the long brown
tresses of Fayaway streamed in the air--and the canoe glided
rapidly through the waterand shot towards the shore. Seated in
the stemI directed its course with my paddle until it dashed up
the soft sloping bankand Fayawaywith a light spring alighted
on the ground; whilst Kory-Korywho had watched our manoeuvres
with admirationnow clapped his hands in transportand shouted
like a madman. Many a time afterwards was this feat repeated.

If the reader has not observed ere this that I was the declared
admirer of Miss Fayawayall I can say is that he is little
conversant with affairs of the heartand I certainly shall not
trouble myself to enlighten him any farther. Out of the calico I
had brought from the ship I made a dress for this lovely girl.
In it she lookedI must confesssomething like an opera-dancer.

The drapery of the latter damsel generally commences a little
above the elbowsbut my island beauty's began at the waistand
terminated sufficiently far above the ground to reveal the most
bewitching ankle in the universe.

The day that Fayaway first wore this robe was rendered memorable
by a new acquaintance being introduced to me. In the afternoon I
was lying in the house when I heard a great uproar outside; but
being by this time pretty well accustomed to the wild halloos
which were almost continually ringing through the valleyI paid
little attention to ituntil old Marheyounder the influence of
some strange excitementrushed into my presence and communicated
the astounding tidings'Marnoo pemi!' which being interpreted
implied that an individual by the name of Marnoo was approaching.

My worthy old friend evidently expected that this intelligence
would produce a great effect upon meand for a time he stood
earnestly regarding meas if curious to see how I should conduct
myselfbut as I remained perfectly unmovedthe old gentleman

darted out of the house againin as great a hurry as he had
entered it.

'MarnooMarnoo' cogitated I'I have never heard that name
before. Some distinguished characterI presumefrom the
prodigious riot the natives are making;' the tumultuous noise
drawing nearer and nearer every momentwhile 'Marnoo!--Marnoo!'
was shouted by every tongue.

I made up my mind that some savage warrior of consequencewho
had not yet enjoyed the honour of an audiencewas desirous of
paying his respects on the present occasion. So vain had I
become by the lavish attention to which I had been accustomed
that I felt half inclinedas a punishment for such neglectto
give this Marnoo a cold receptionwhen the excited throng came
within viewconvoying one of the most striking specimens of
humanity that I ever beheld.

The stranger could not have been more than twenty-five years of
ageand was a little above the ordinary height; had he a single
hair's breadth tallerthe matchless symmetry of his form would
have been destroyed. His unclad limbs were beautifully formed;
whilst the elegant outline of his figuretogether with his
beardless cheeksmight have entitled him to the distinction of
standing for the statue of the Polynesian Apollo; and indeed the
oval of his countenance and the regularity of every feature
reminded one of an antique bust. But the marble repose of art
was supplied by a warmth and liveliness of expression only to be
seen in the South Sea Islander under the most favourable
developments of nature. The hair of Marnoo was a rich curling
brownand twined about his temples and neck in little close
curling ringletswhich danced up and down continuallywhen he
was animated in conversation. His cheek was of a feminine
softnessand his face was free from the least blemish of
tattooingalthough the rest of his body was drawn all over with
fanciful figureswhich--unlike the unconnected sketching usual
among these natives--appeared to have been executed in conformity
with some general design.

The tattooing on his back in particular attracted my attention.
The artist employed must indeed have excelled in his profession.
Traced along the course of the spine was accurately delineated
the slendertapering and diamond checkered shaft of the
beautiful 'artu' tree. Branching from the stem on each sideand
disposed alternatelywere the graceful branches drooping with
leaves all correctly drawn and elaborately finished. Indeed the
best specimen of the Fine Arts I had yet seen in Typee. A rear
view of the stranger might have suggested the idea of a spreading
vine tacked against a garden wall. Upon his breastarms and
legswere exhibited an infinite variety of figures; every one of
whichhoweverappeared to have reference to the general effect
sought to be produced. The tattooing I have described was of the
brightest blueand when contrasted with the light olive-colour
of the skinproduced an unique and even elegant effect. A
slight girdle of white tappascarcely two inches in widthbut
hanging before and behind in spreading tasselscomposed the
entire costume of the stranger.

He advanced surrounded by the islanderscarrying under one arm a
small roll of native clothand grasping in his other hand a long
and richly decorated spear. His manner was that of a traveller
conscious that he is approaching a comfortable stage in his
journey. Every moment he turned good-humouredly on the throng
around himand gave some dashing sort of reply to their

incessant querieswhich appeared to convulse them with
uncontrollable mirth.

Struck by his demeanourand the peculiarity of his appearance
so unlike that of the shaven-crowned and face-tattooed natives in
generalI involuntarily rose as he entered the houseand
proffered him a seat on the mats beside me. But without deigning
to notice the civilityor even the more incontrovertible fact of
my existencethe stranger passed onutterly regardless of me
and flung himself upon the further end of the long couch that
traversed the sole apartment of Marheyo's habitation.

Had the belle of the seasonin the pride of her beauty and
powerbeen cut in a place of public resort by some supercilious
exquisiteshe could not have felt greater indignation than I did
at this unexpected slight.

I was thrown into utter astonishment. The conduct of the savages
had prepared me to anticipate from every newcomer the same
extravagant expressions of curiosity and regard. The singularity
of his conducthoweveronly roused my desire to discover who
this remarkable personage might bewho now engrossed the
attention of every one.

Tinor placed before him a calabash of poee-poeefrom which the
stranger regaled himselfalternating every mouthful with some
rapid exclamationwhich was eagerly caught up and echoed by the
crowd that completely filled the house. When I observed the
striking devotion of the natives to himand their temporary
withdrawal of all attention from myselfI felt not a little
piqued. The glory of Tommo is departedthought Iand the
sooner he removes from the valley the better. These were my
feelings at the momentand they were prompted by that glorious
principle inherent in all heroic natures--the strong-rooted
determination to have the biggest share of the pudding or to go
without any of it.

Marnoothat all-attractive personagehaving satisfied his
hunger and inhaled a few whiffs from a pipe which was handed to
himlaunched out into an harangue which completely enchained the
attention of his auditors.

Little as I understood of the languageyet from his animated
gestures and the varying expression of his features--reflected as
from so many mirrors in the countenances around himI could
easily discover the nature of those passions which he sought to
arouse. From the frequent recurrence of the words 'Nukuheva' and
'Frannee' (French)and some others with the meaning of which I
was acquaintedhe appeared to be rehearsing to his auditors
events which had recently occurred in the neighbouring bays. But
how he had gained the knowledge of these matters I could not
understandunless it were that he had just come from Nukuheva--a
supposition which his travel-stained appearance not a little
supported. Butif a native of that regionI could not account
for his friendly reception at the hands of the Typees.

Nevercertainlyhad I beheld so powerful an exhibition of
natural eloquence as Marnoo displayed during the course of his
oration. The grace of the attitudes into which he threw his
flexible figurethe striking gestures of his naked armsand
above allthe fire which shot from his brilliant eyesimparted
an effect to the continually changing accents of his voiceof
which the most accomplished orator might have been proud. At one
moment reclining sideways upon the matand leaning calmly upon

his bended armhe related circumstantially the aggressions of
the French--their hostile visits to the surrounding bays
enumerating each one in succession--HapparPuerkaNukuheva
Tior--and then starting to his feet and precipitating himself
forward with clenched hands and a countenance distorted with
passionhe poured out a tide of invectives. Falling back into
an attitude of lofty commandhe exhorted the Typees to resist
these encroachments; reminding themwith a fierce glance of
exultationthat as yet the terror of their name had preserved
them from attackand with a scornful sneer he sketched in
ironical terms the wondrous intrepidity of the Frenchwhowith
five war-canoes and hundreds of menhad not dared to assail the
naked warriors of their valley.

The effect he produced upon his audience was electric; one and
all they stood regarding him with sparkling eyes and trembling
limbsas though they were listening to the inspired voice of a

But it soon appeared that Marnoo's powers were as versatile as
they were extraordinary. As soon as he had finished his vehement
haranguehe threw himself again upon the matsandsingling out
individuals in the crowdaddressed them by namein a sort of
bantering stylethe humour of whichthough nearly hidden from
me filled the whole assembly with uproarious delight.

He had a word for everybody; andturning rapidly from one to
anothergave utterance to some hasty witticismwhich was sure
to be followed by peals of laughter. To the females as well as
to the menhe addressed his discourse. Heaven only knows what
he said to thembut he caused smiles and blushes to mantle their
ingenuous faces. I amindeedvery much inclined to believe
that Marnoowith his handsome person and captivating manners
was a sad deceiver among the simple maidens of the island.

During all this time he had neverfor one momentdeigned to
regard me. He appearedindeedto be altogether unconscious of
my presence. I was utterly at a loss how to account for this
extraordinary conduct. I easily perceived that he was a man of
no little consequence among the islanders; that he possessed
uncommon talents; and was gifted with a higher degree of
knowledge than the inmates of the valley. For these reasonsI
therefore greatly feared lest havingfrom some cause or other
unfriendly feelings towards mehe might exert his powerful
influence to do me mischief.

It seemed evident that he was not a permanent resident of the
valeand yetwhence could he have come? On all sides the
Typees were girt in by hostile tribesand how could he possibly
if belonging to any of thesebe received with so much

The person appearance of the enigmatical stranger suggested
additional perplexities. The facefree from tattooingand the
unshaven crownwere peculiarities I had never before remarked in
any part of the islandend I had always heard that the contrary
were considered the indispensable distinction of a Marquesan
warrior. Altogether the matter was perfectly incomprehensible to
meand I awaited its solution with no small degree of anxiety.

At lengthfrom certain indicationsI suspected that he was
making me the subject of his remarksalthough he appeared
cautiously to avoid either pronouncing my nameor looking in the
direction where I lay. All at once he rose from the mats where

he had been recliningandstill conversingmoved towards me
his eye purposely evading mineand seated himself within less
than a yard of me. I had hardly recovered from my surprisewhen
he suddenly turned roundandwith a most benignant countenance
extended his right hand gracefully towards me. Of course I
accepted the courteous challengeandas soon as our palms met
he bent towards meand murmured in musical accents--'How you
do?' 'How long you been in this bay?' 'You like this bay?'

Had I been pierced simultaneously by three Happar spearsI could
not have started more than I did at hearing these simple
questions. For a moment I was overwhelmed with astonishmentand
then answered something I know not what; but as soon as I
regained my self-possessionthe thought darted through my mind
that from this individual I might obtain that information
regarding Toby which I suspected the natives had purposely
withheld from me. Accordingly I questioned him concerning the
disappearance of my companionbut he denied all knowledge of the
matter. I then inquired from whence he had come? He replied
from Nukuheva. When I expressed my surprisehe looked at me for
a momentas if enjoying my perplexityand then with his strange
vivacityexclaimed--'Ah! me taboo--me go Nukuheva--me go
Tior--me go Typee--me go everywhere--nobody harm me--me

This explanation would have been altogether unintelligible to me
had it not recalled to my mind something I had previously heard
concerning a singular custom among these islanders. Though the
country is possessed by various tribeswhose mutual hostilities
almost wholly prelude any intercourse between them; yet there are
instances where a person having ratified friendly relations with
some individual belonging longing to the valleywhose inmates
are at war with his ownmayunder particular restrictions
venture with impunity into the country of his friendwhere
under other circumstanceshe would have been treated as an
enemy. In this light are personal friendships regarded among
themand the individual so protected is said to be 'taboo'and
his personto a certain extentis held as sacred. Thus the
stranger informed me he had access to all the valleys in the

Curious to know how he had acquired his knowledge of EnglishI
questioned him on the subject. At firstfor some reason or
otherhe evaded the inquirybut afterwards told me thatwhen a
boyhe had been carried to sea by the captain of a trading
vesselwith whom he had stayed three yearsliving part of the
time with him at Sidney in Australiaand that at a subsequent
visit to the islandthe captain hadat his own request
permitted him to remain among his countrymen. The natural
quickness of the savage had been wonderfully improved by his
intercourse with the white menand his partial knowledge of a
foreign language gave him a great ascendancy over his less
accomplished countrymen.

When I asked the now affable Marnoo why it was that he had not
previously spoken to mehe eagerly inquired what I had been led
to think of him from his conduct in that respect. I replied
that I had supposed him to be some great chief or warriorwho
had seen plenty of white men beforeand did not think it worth
while to notice a poor sailor. At this declaration of the
exalted opinion I had formed of himhe appeared vastly
gratifiedand gave me to understand that he had purposely
behaved in that mannerin order to increase my astonishmentas
soon as he should see proper to address me.

Marnoo now sought to learn my version of the story as to how I
came to be an inmate of the Typee valley. When I related to him
the circumstances under which Toby and I had entered ithe
listened with evident interest; but as soon as I alluded to the
absenceyet unaccounted forof my comradehe endeavoured to
change the subjectas if it were something he desired not to
agitate. It seemedindeedas if everything connected with Toby
was destined to beget distrust and anxiety in my bosom.
Notwithstanding Marnoo's denial of any knowledge of his fateI
could not avoid suspecting that he was deceiving me; and this
suspicion revived those frightful apprehensions with regard to my
own fatewhichfor a short time pasthad subsided in my

Influenced by these feelingsI now felt a strong desire to avail
myself of the stranger's protectionand under his safeguard to
return to Nukuheva. But as soon as I hinted at thishe
unhesitatingly pronounced it to be entirely impracticable;
assuring me that the Typees would never consent to my leaving the
valley. Although what he said merely confirmed the impression
which I had before entertainedstill it increased my anxiety to
escape from a captivity whichhowever endurablenaydelightful
it might be in some respectsinvolved in its issues a fate
marked by the most frightful contingencies.

I could not conceal from my mind that Toby had been treated in
the same friendly manner as I had beenand yet all their
kindness terminated with his mysterious disappearance. Might not
the same fate await me?--a fate too dreadful to think of.
Stimulated by these considerationsI urged anew my request to
Marnoo; but he only set forth in stronger colours the
impossibility of my escapeand repeated his previous declaration
that the Typees would never be brought to consent to my

When I endeavoured to learn from him the motives which prompted
them to hold me a prisonerMarnoo again presumed that mysterious
tone which had tormented me with apprehension when I had
questioned him with regard to the fate of my companion.

Thus repulsedin a manner which only servedby arousing the
most dreadful forebodingsto excite me to renewed attemptsI
conjured him to intercede for me with the nativesand endeavour
to procure their consent to my leaving them. To this he appeared
strongly averse; butyielding at last to my importunitieshe
addressed several of the chiefswho with the rest had been
eyeing us intently during the whole of our conversation. His
petitionhoweverwas at once met with the most violent
disapprobationmanifesting itself in angry glances and gestures
and a perfect torrent of passionate wordsdirected to both him
and myself. Marnooevidently repenting the step he had taken
earnestly deprecated the resentment of the crowdandin a few
moments succeeded in pacifying to some extent the clamours which
had broken out as soon as his proposition had been understood.

With the most intense interest had I watched the reception his
intercession might receive; and a bitter pang shot through my
heart at the additional evidencenow furnishedof the
unchangeable determination of the islanders. Marnoo told me with
evident alarm in his countenancethat although admitted into the
bay on a friendly footing with its inhabitantshe could not
presume to meddle with their concernsas such procedureif
persisted inwould at once absolve the Typees from the

restraints of the 'taboo'although so long as he refrained from
such conductit screened him effectually from the consequences
of the enmity they bore his tribe. At this momentMeheviwho
was presentangrily interrupted him; and the words which he
uttered in a commanding toneevidently meant that he must at
once cease talking to me and withdraw to the other part of the
house. Marnoo immediately started uphurriedly enjoining me not
to address him againand as I valued my safetyto refrain from
all further allusion to the subject of my departure; and thenin
compliance with the order of the determined chiefbut not before
it had again been angrily repeatedhe withdrew to a distance.

I now perceivedwith no small degree of apprehensionthe same
savage expression in the countenances of the nativeswhich had
startled me during the scene at the Ti. They glanced their eyes
suspiciously from Marnoo to meas if distrusting the nature of
an intercourse carried onas it wasin a language they could
not understandand they seemed to harbour the belief that
already we had concerted measures calculated to elude their

The lively countenances of these people are wonderfully
indicative of the emotions of the souland the imperfections of
their oral language are more than compensated for by the nervous
eloquence of their looks and gestures. I could plainly tracein
every varying expression of their facesall those passions which
had been thus unexpectedly aroused in their bosoms.

It required no reflection to convince mefrom what was going on
that the injunction of Marnoo was not to be rashly lightedand
accordinglygreat as was the effort to suppress my feelingsI
accosted Mehevi in a good-humoured tonewith a view of
dissipating any ill impression he might have received. But the
irefulangry chief was not so easily mollified. He rejected my
advances with that peculiarly stern expression I have before
describedand took care by the whole of his behaviour towards me
to show the displeasure and resentment which he felt.

Marnooat the other extremity of the houseapparently desirous
of making a diversion in my favourexerted himself to amuse with
his pleasantries the crowd about him; but his lively attempts
were not so successful as they had previously beenandfoiled
in his effortshe rose gravely to depart. No one expressed any
regret at this movementso seizing his roll of tappaand
grasping his spearhe advanced to the front of the pi-piand
waving his hand in adieu to the now silent throngcast upon me a
glance of mingled pity and reproachand flung himself into the
path which led from the house. I watched his receding figure
until it was lost in the obscurity of the groveand then gave
myself up to the most desponding reflections.



THE knowledge I had now obtained as to the intention of the
savages deeply affected me.

MarnooI perceivedwas a man whoby reason of his superior
acquirementsand the knowledge he possessed of the events which
were taking place in the different bays of the islandwas held

in no little estimation by the inhabitants of the valley. He had
been received with the most cordial welcome and respect. The
natives had hung upon the accents of his voiceandhad
manifested the highest gratification at being individually
noticed by him. And yet despite all thisa few words urged in
my behalfwith the intent of obtaining my release from
captivityhad sufficed not only to banish all harmony and
good-will; butif I could believe what he told mehad gone on
to endanger his own personal safety.

How strongly rootedthenmust be the determination of the
Typees with regard to meand how suddenly could they display the
strangest passions! The mere suggestion of my departure had
estranged from mefor the time at leastMeheviwho was the
most influential of all the chiefsand who had previously
exhibited so many instances of his; friendly sentiments. The
rest of the natives had likewise evinced their strong repugnance
to my wishesand even Kory-Kory himself seemed to share in the
general disapprobation bestowed upon me.

In vain I racked my invention to find out some motive for them
but I could discover none.

But however this might bethe scene which had just occurred
admonished me of the danger of trifling with the wayward and
passionate spirits against whom it was vain to struggleand
might even be fatal to do go. My only hope was to induce the
natives to believe that I was reconciled to my detention in the
valleyand by assuming a tranquil and cheerful demeanourto
allay the suspicions which I had so unfortunately aroused. Their
confidence revivedthey might in a short time remit in some
degree their watchfulness over my movementsand I should then be
the better enabled to avail myself of any opportunity which
presented itself for escape. I determinedthereforeto make
the best of a bad bargainand to bear up manfully against
whatever might betide. In this endeavourI succeeded beyond my
own expectations. At the period of Marnoo's visitI had been in
the valleyas nearly as I could conjecturesome two months.
Although not completely recovered from my strange illnesswhich
still lingered about meI was free from pain and able to take
exercise. In shortI had every reason to anticipate a perfect
recovery. Freed from apprehension on this pointand resolved to
regard the future without flinchingI flung myself anew into all
the social pleasures of the valleyand sought to bury all
regretsand all remembrances of my previous existence in the
wild enjoyments it afforded.

In my various wanderings through the valeand as I became better
acquainted with the character of its inhabitantsI was more and
more struck with the light-hearted joyousness that everywhere
prevailed. The minds of these simple savagesunoccupied by
matters of graver momentwere capable of deriving the utmost
delight from circumstances which would have passed unnoticed in
more intelligent communities. All their enjoymentindeed
seemed to be made up of the little trifling incidents of the
passing hour; but these diminutive items swelled altogether to an
amount of happiness seldom experienced by more enlightened
individualswhose pleasures are drawn from more elevated but
rarer sources.

What communityfor instanceof refined and intellectual mortals
would derive the least satisfaction from shooting pop-guns? The
mere supposition of such a thing being possible would excite
their indignationand yet the whole population of Typee did

little else for ten days but occupy themselves with that childish
amusementfairly screamingtoowith the delight it afforded

One day I was frolicking with a little spirited urchinsome six
years oldwho chased me with a piece of bamboo about three feet
longwith which he occasionally belaboured me. Seizing the
stick from himthe idea happened to suggest itselfthat I might
make for the youngsterout of the slender tubeone of those
nursery muskets with which I had sometimes seen children playing.

Accordinglywith my knife I made two parallel slits in the cane
several inches in lengthand cutting loose at one end the
elastic strip between thembent it back and slipped the point
into a little notch made for the purse. Any small substance
placed against this would be projected with considerable force
through the tubeby merely springing the bent strip out of the

Had I possessed the remotest idea of the sensation this piece of
ordnance was destined to produceI should certainly have taken
out a patent for the invention. The boy scampered away with it
half delirious with ecstasyand in twenty minutes afterwards I
might have been seen surrounded by a noisy crowd--venerable old
graybeards--responsible fathers of families--valiant
warriors--matrons--young men--girls and childrenall holding in
their hands bits of bambooand each clamouring to be served

For three or four hours I was engaged in manufacturing pop-guns
but at last made over my good-will and interest in the concern to
a lad of remarkably quick partswhom I soon initiated into the
art and mystery.

PopPopPopPopnow resounded all over the valley. Duels
skirmishespitched battlesand general engagements were to be
seen on every side. Hereas you walked along a path which led
through a thicketyou fell into a cunningly laid ambushand
became a target for a body of musketeers whose tattooed limbs you
could just see peeping into view through the foliage. There you
were assailed by the intrepid garrison of a housewho levelled
their bamboo rifles at you from between the upright canes which
composed its sides. Farther on you were fired upon by a
detachment of sharpshootersmounted upon the top of a pi-pi.

PopPopPopPop! green guavasseedsand berries were flying
about in every directionand during this dangerous state of
affairs I was half afraid thatlike the man and his brazen bull
I should fall a victim to my own ingenuity. Like everything
elsehoweverthe excitement gradually wore awaythough ever
after occasionally pop-guns might be heard at all hours of the

It was towards the close of the pop-gun warthat I was
infinitely diverted with a strange freak of Marheyo's.

I had wornwhen I quitted the shipa pair of thick pumps
whichfrom the rough usage they had received in scaling
precipices and sliding down gorgeswere so dilapidated as to be
altogether unfit for use--soat leastwould have thought the
generality of peopleand so they most certainly werewhen
considered in the light of shoes. But things unservicable in one
waymay with advantage be applied in anotherthat isif one
have genius enough for the purpose. This genius Marheyo

possessed in a superlative degreeas he abundantly evinced by
the use to which he put those sorely bruised and battered old

Every articlehowever trivialwhich belonged to methe natives
appeared to regard as sacred; and I observed that for several
days after becoming an inmate of the housemy pumps were
suffered to remainuntouchedwhere I had first happened to
throw them. I rememberedhoweverthat after awhile I had
missed them from their accustomed place; but the matter gave me
no concernsupposing that Tinor--like any other tidy housewife
having come across them in some of her domestic occupations--had
pitched the useless things out of the house. But I was soon

One day I observed old Marheyo bustling about me with unusual
activityand to such a degree as almost to supersede Kory-Kory
in the functions of his office. One moment he volunteered to
trot off with me on his back to the stream; and when I refused
noways daunted by the repulsehe continued to frisk about me
like a superannuated house-dog. I could not for the life of me
conjecture what possessed the old gentlemanuntil all at once
availing himself of the temporary absence of the householdhe
went through a variety of of uncouth gesturespointing eagerly
down to my feetthen up to a little bundlewhich swung from the
ridge pole overhead. At last I caught a faint idea of his
meaningand motioned him to lower the package. He executed the
order in the twinkling of an eyeand unrolling a piece of tappa
displayed to my astonished gaze the identical pumps which I
thought had been destroyed long before.

I immediately comprehended his desireand very generously gave
him the shoeswhich had become quite mouldywondering for what
earthly purpose he could want them. The same afternoon I
descried the venerable warrior approaching the housewith a
slowstately gaitear-rings in earsand spear in handwith
this highly ornamental pair of shoes suspended from his neck by a
strip of barkand swinging backwards and forwards on his
capacious chest. In the gala costume of the tasteful Marheyo
these calf-skin pendants ever after formed the most striking

But to turn to something a little more important. Although the
whole existence of the inhabitants of the valley seemed to pass
away exempt from toilyet there were some light employments
whichalthough amusing rather than laborious as occupations
contributed to their comfort and luxury. Among these the most
important was the manufacture of the native cloth--'tappa'--so
well knownunder various modificationsthroughout the whole
Polynesian Archipelago. As is generally understoodthis useful
and sometimes elegant article is fabricated from the bark of
different trees. Butas I believe that no description of its
manufacture has ever been givenI shall state what I know
regarding it.

In the manufacture of the beautiful white tappa generally worn on
the Marquesan Islandsthe preliminary operation consists in
gathering a certain quantity of the young branches of the
cloth-tree. The exterior green bark being pulled off as
worthlessthere remains a slender fibrous substancewhich is
carefully stripped from the stickto which it closely adheres.
When a sufficient quantity of it has been collectedthe various
strips are enveloped in a covering of large leaveswhich the
natives use precisely as we do wrapping-paperand which are

secured by a few turns of a line passed round them. The package
is then laid in the bed of some running streamwith a heavy
stone placed over itto prevent its being swept away. After it
has remained for two or three days in this stateit is drawn
outand exposedfor a short timeto the action of the air
every distinct piece being attentively inspectedwith a view of
ascertaining whether it has yet been sufficiently affected by the
operation. This is repeated again and againuntil the desired
result is obtained.

When the substance is in a proper state for the next processit
betrays evidences of incipient decomposition; the fibres are
relaxed and softenedand rendered perfectly malleable. The
different strips are now extendedone by onein successive
layersupon some smooth surface--generally the prostrate trunk
of a cocoanut tree--and the heap thus formed is subjectedat
every new increaseto a moderate beatingwith a sort of wooden
malletleisurely applied. The mallet is made of a hard heavy
wood resembling ebonyis about twelve inches in lengthand
perhaps two in breadthwith a rounded handle at one endand in
shape is the exact counterpart of one of our four-sided
razor-strops. The flat surfaces of the implement are marked with
shallow parallel indentationsvarying in depth on the different
sidesso as to be adapted to the several stages of the
operation. These marks produce the corduroy sort of stripes
discernible in the tappa in its finished state. After being
beaten in the manner I have describedthe material soon becomes
blended in one masswhichmoistened occasionally with wateris
at intervals hammered outby a kind of gold-beating processto
any degree of thinness required. In this way the cloth is easily
made to vary in strength and thicknessso as to suit the
numerous purposes to which it is applied.

When the operation last described has been concludedthe
new-made tappa is spread out on the grass to bleach and dryand
soon becomes of a dazzling whiteness. Sometimesin the first
stages of the manufacturethe substance is impregnated with a
vegetable juicewhich gives it a permanent colour. A rich brown
and a bright yellow are occasionally seenbut the simple taste
of the Typee people inclines them to prefer the natural tint.

The notable wife of Kamehamehathe renowned conqueror and king
of the Sandwich Islandsused to pride herself in the skill she
displayed in dyeing her tappa with contrasting colours disposed
in regular figures; andin the midst of the innovations of the
timeswas regardedtowards the decline of her lifeas a lady
of the old schoolclinging as she did to the national clothin
preference to the frippery of the European calicoes. But the art
of printing the tappa is unknown upon the Marquesan Islands. In
passing along the valleyI was often attracted by the noise of
the malletwhichwhen employed in the manufacture of the cloth
produces at every stroke of its hardheavy wooda clear
ringingand musical soundcapable of being heard at a great
distance. When several of these implements happen to be in
operation at the same timenear one anotherthe effect upon the
ear of a personat a little distanceis really charming.



NOTHING can be more uniform and undiversified than the life of
the Typees; one tranquil day of ease and happiness follows
another in quiet succession; and with these unsophisicated
savages the history of a day is the history of a life. I will
thereforeas briefly as I candescribe one of our days in the

To begin with the morning. We were not very early risers--the
sun would be shooting his golden spikes above the Happar
mountainere I threw aside my tappa robeand girding my long
tunic about my waistsallied out with Fayaway and Kory-Koryand
the rest of the householdand bent my steps towards the stream.
Here we found congregated all those who dwelt in our section of
the valley; and here we bathed with them. The fresh morning air
and the cool flowing waters put both soul and body in a glowand
after a half-hour employed in this recreationwe sauntered back
to the house--Tinor and Marheyo gathering dry sticks by the way
for fire-wood; some of the young men laying the cocoanut trees
under contribution as they passed beneath them; while Kory-Kory
played his outlandish pranks for my particular diversionand
Fayaway and Inot arm in arm to be surebut sometimes hand in
handstrolled alongwith feelings of perfect charity for all
the worldand especial good-will towards each other.

Our morning meal was soon prepared. The islanders are somewhat
abstemious at this repast; reserving the more powerful efforts of
their appetite to a later period of the day. For my own part
with the assistance of my valetwhoas I have before stated
always officiated as spoon on these occasionsI ate sparingly
from one of Tinor's trenchersof poee-poee; which was devoted
exclusively for my own usebeing mixed with the milky meat of
ripe cocoanut. A section of a roasted bread-fruita small cake
of 'Amar'or a mess of 'Cokoo' two or three bananasor a
mammee-apple; an annueeor some other agreeable and nutritious
fruit served from day to day to diversify the mealwhich was
finished by tossing off the liquid contents of a young cocoanut
or two.

While partaking of this simple repastthe inmates of Marheyo's
houseafter the style of the ancient Romansreclined in
sociable groups upon the divan of matsand digestion was
promoted by cheerful conversation.

After the morning meal was concludedpipes were lighted; and
among them my own especial pipea present from the noble Mehevi.

The islanderswho only smoke a whiff or two at a timeand at
long intervalsand who keep their pipes going from hand to hand
continuallyregarded my systematic smoking of four or five
pipefuls of tobacco in successionas something quite wonderful.
When two or three pipes had circulated freelythe company
gradually broke up. Marheyo went to the little hut he was
forever building. Tinor began to inspect her rolls of tappaor
employed her busy fingers in plaiting grass-mats. The girls
anointed themselves with their fragrant oilsdressed their hair
or looked over their curious fineryand compared together their
ivory trinketsfashioned out of boar's tusks or whale's teeth.
The young men and warriors produced their spearspaddles
canoe-gearbattle-clubsand war-conchsand occupied themselves
in carvingall sorts of figures upon them with pointed bits of
shell or flintand adorning themespecially the war-conchs
with tassels of braided bark and tufts of human hair. Some
immediately after eatingthrew themselves once more upon the
inviting matsand resumed the employment of the previous night

sleeping as soundly as if they had not closed their eyes for a
week. Others sallied out into the grovesfor the purpose of
gathering fruit or fibres of bark and leaves; the last two being
in constant requisitionand applied to a hundred uses. A few
perhapsamong the girlswould slip into the woods after
flowersor repair to the stream will; small calabashes and
cocoanut shellsin order to polish them by friction with a
smooth stone in the water. In truth these innocent people seemed
to be at no loss for something to occupy their time; and it would
be no light task to enumerate all their employmentsor rather

My own mornings I spent in a variety of ways. Sometimes I
rambled about from house to housesure of receiving a cordial
welcome wherever I went; or from grove to groveand from one
shady place to anotherin company with Kory-Kory and Fayaway
and a rabble rout of merry young idlers. Sometimes I was too
indolent for exerciseand accepting one of the many invitations
I was continually receivingstretched myself out on the mats of
some hospitable dwellingand occupied myself pleasantly either
in watching the proceedings of those around me or taking part in
them myself. Whenever I chose to do the latterthe delight of
the islanders was boundless; and there was always a throng of
competitors for the honour of instructing me in any particular
craft. I soon became quite an accomplished hand at making
tappa--could braid a grass sling as well as the best of them--and
oncewith my knifecarved the handle of a javelin so
exquisitelythat I have no doubtto this dayKarnoonooits
ownerpreserves it as a surprising specimen of my skill. As
noon approachedall those who had wandered forth from our
habitationbegan to return; and when midday was fairly come
scarcely a sound was to be heard in the valley: a deep sleep fell
upon all. The luxurious siesta was hardly ever omittedexcept
by old Marheyowho was so eccentric a characterthat he seemed
to be governed by no fixed principles whatever; but acting just
according to the humour of the momentslepteator tinkered
away at his little hutwithout regard to the proprieties of time
or place. Frequently he might have been seen taking a nap in the
sun at noon-dayor a bath in the stream of mid-night. Once I
beheld him perched eighty feet from the groundin the tuft of a
cocoanut treesmoking; and often I saw him standing up to the
waist in waterengaged in plucking out the stray hairs of his
beardusing a piece of muscle-shell for tweezers.

The noon-tide slumber lasted generally an hour and a half: very
often longer; and after the sleepers had arisen from their mats
they again had recourse to their pipesand then made
preparations for the most important meal of the day.

Ihoweverlike those gentlemen of leisure who breakfast at home
and dine at their clubalmost invariablyduring my intervals of
healthenjoyed the afternoon repast with the bachelor chiefs of
the Tiwho were always rejoiced to see meand lavishly spread
before me all the good things which their larder afforded.
Mehevi generally introduced among other dainties a baked pigan
article which I have every reason to suppose was provided for my
sole gratification.

The Ti was a right jovial place. It did my heartas well as my
bodygood to visit it. Secure from female intrusionthere was
no restraint upon the hilarity of the warriorswholike the
gentlemen of Europe after the cloth is drawn and the ladies
retirefreely indulged their mirth.

After spending a considerable portion of the afternoon at the Ti
I usually found myselfas the cool of the evening came on
either sailing on the little lake with Fayawayor bathing in the
waters of the stream with a number of the savageswhoat this
houralways repaired thither. As the shadows of night
approached Marheyo's household were once more assembled under his
roof: tapers were litlong curious chants were raised
interminable stories were told (for which one present was little
the wiser)and all sorts of social festivities served to while
away the time.

The young girls very often danced by moonlight in front of their
dwellings. There are a great variety of these dancesin which
howeverI never saw the men take part. They all consist of
activerompingmischievous evolutionsin which every limb is
brought into requisition. Indeedthe Marquesan girls dance all
overas it were; not only do their feet dancebut their arms
handsfingersaytheir very eyesseem to dance in their

The damsels wear nothing but flowers and their compendious gala
tunics; and when they plume themselves for the dancethey look
like a band of olive-coloured Sylphides on the point of taking
wing. In good sooththey so sway their floating formsarch
their neckstoss aloft their naked armsand glideand swim
and whirlthat it was almost too much for a quietsober-minded
modest young man like myself.

Unless some particular festivity was going forwardthe inmates
of Marheyo's house retired to their mats rather early in the
evening; but not for the nightsinceafter slumbering lightly
for a whilethey rose againrelit their taperspartook of the
third and last meal of the dayat which poee-poee alone was
eatenand thenafter inhaling a narcotic whiff from a pipe of
tobaccodisposed themselves for the great business of night
sleep. With the Marquesans it might almost most be styled the
great business of lifefor they pass a large portion of their
time in the arms of Somnus. The native strength of their
constitution is no way shown more emphatically than in the
quantity of sleep they can endure. To many of themindeedlife
is little else than an often interrupted and luxurious nap.



ALMOST every country has its medicinal springs famed for their
healing virtues. The Cheltenham of Typee is embosomed in the
deepest solitudeand but seldom receives a visitor. It is
situated remote from any dwellinga little way up the mountain
near the head of the valley; and you approach it by a pathway
shaded by the most beautiful foliageand adorned with a thousand
fragrant plants. The mineral waters of Arva Wai* ooze forth from
the crevices of a rockand gliding down its mossy sidefall at
lastin many clustering dropsinto a natural basin of stone
fringed round with grass and dewy-looking little violet-coloured
flowersas fresh and beautiful as the perpetual moisture they
enjoy can make them.

*I presume this might be translated into 'Strong Waters'. Arva
is the name bestowed upon a root the properties of which are both

inebriating and medicinal. 'Wai' is the Marquesan word for

The water is held in high estimation by the islanderssome of
whom consider it an agreeable as well as a medicinal beverage;
they bring it from the mountain in their calabashesand store it
away beneath heaps of leaves in some shady nook near the house.
Old Marheyo had a great love for the waters of the spring. Every
now and then he lugged off to the mountain a great round demijohn
of a calabashandpanting with his exertionsbrought it back
filled with his darling fluid.

The water tasted like a solution of a dozen disagreeable things
and was sufficiently nauseous to have made the fortune of the
proprietorhad the spa been situated in the midst of any
civilized community.

As I am no chemistI cannot give a scientific analysis of the
water. All I know about the matter isthat one day Marheyo in
my presence poured out the last drop from his huge calabashand
I observed at the bottom of the vessel a small quantity of
gravelly sediment very much resembling our common sand. Whether
this is always found in the waterand gives it its peculiar
flavour and virtuesor whether its presence was merely
incidentalI was not able to ascertain.

One day in returning from this spring by a circuitous pathI
came upon a scene which reminded me of Stonehenge and the
architectural labours of the Druids.

At the base of one of the mountainsand surrounded on all sides
by dense grovesa series of vast terraces of stone risesstep
by stepfor a considerable distance up the hill side. These
terraces cannot be less than one hundred yards in length and
twenty in width. Their magnitudehoweveris less striking than
the immense size of the blocks composing them. Some of the
stonesof an oblong shapeare from ten to fifteen feet in
lengthand five or six feet thick. Their sides are quite
smoothbut though squareand of pretty regular formationthey
bear no mark of the chisel. They are laid together without
cementand here and there show gaps between. The topmost
terrace and the lower one are somewhat peculiar in their
construction. They have both a quadrangular depression in the
centreleaving the rest of the terrace elevated several feet
above it. In the intervals of the stones immense trees have
taken rootand their broad boughs stretching far overand
interlacing togethersupport a canopy almost impenetrable to the
sun. Overgrowing the greater part of themand climbing from one
to anotheris a wilderness of vinesin whose sinewy embrace
many of the stones lie half-hiddenwhile in some places a thick
growth of bushes entirely covers them. There is a wild pathway
which obliquely crosses two of these terraces; and so profound is
the shadeso dense the vegetationthat a stranger to the place
might pass along it without being aware of their existence.

These structures bear every indication of a very high antiquity
and Kory-Korywho was my authority in all matters of scientific
researchgave me to understand that they were coeval with the
creation of the world; that the great gods themselves were the
builders; and that they would endure until time shall be no more.

Kory-Kory's prompt explanation and his attributing the work to a

divine originat once convinced me that neither he nor the rest
of his country-men knew anything about them.

As I gazed upon this monumentdoubtless the work of an extinct
and forgotten racethus buried in the green nook of an island at
the ends of the earththe existence of which was yesterday
unknowna stronger feeling of awe came over me than if I had
stood musing at the mighty base of the Pyramid of Cheops. There
are no inscriptionsno sculptureno clueby which to
conjecture its history; nothing but the dumb stones. How many
generations of the majestic trees which overshadow them have
grown and flourished and decayed since first they were erected!

These remains naturally suggest many interesting reflections.
They establish the great age of the islandan opinion which the
builders of theories concerningthe creation of the various
groups in the South Seas are not always inclined to admit. For
my own partI think it just as probable that human beings were
living in the valleys of the Marquesas three thousand years ago
as that they were inhabiting the land of Egypt. The origin of
the island of Nukuheva cannot be imputed to the coral insect; for
indefatigable as that wonderful creature isit would be hardly
muscular enough to pile rocks one upon the other more than three
thousand feet above the level of the sea. That the land may have
been thrown up by a submarine volcano is as possible as anything
else. No one can make an affidavit to the contraryand
therefore I still say nothing against the supposition: indeed
were geologists to assert that the whole continent of America had
in like manner been formed by the simultaneous explosion of a
train of Etnas laid under the water all the way from the North
Pole to the parallel of Cape HornI am the last man in the world
to contradict them.

I have already mentioned that the dwellings of the islanders were
almost invariably built upon massive stone foundationswhich
they call pi-pis. The dimensions of thesehoweveras well as
of the stones composing themare comparatively small: but there
are other and larger erections of a similar description
comprising the 'morais'or burying groundsand festival-places
in nearly all the valleys of the island. Some of these piles are
so extensiveand so great a degree of labour and skill must have
been requisite in constructing themthat I can scarcely believe
they were built by the ancestors of the present inhabitants. If
indeed they werethe race has sadly deteriorated in their
knowledge of the mechanic arts. To say nothing of their habitual
indolenceby what contrivance within the reach of so simple a
people could such enormous masses have been moved or fixed in
their places? and how could they with their rude implements have
chiselled and hammered them into shape?

All of these larger pi-pis--like that of the Hoolah Hoolah ground
in the Typee valley--bore incontestible marks of great age; and I
am disposed to believe that their erection may be ascribed to the
same race of men who were the builders of the still more ancient
remains I have just described.

According to Kory-Kory's accountthe pi-pi upon which stands the
Hoolah Hoolah ground was built a great many moons agounder the
direction of Monooa great chief and warriorandas it would
appearmaster-mason among the Typees. It was erected for the
express purpose to which it is at present devotedin the
incredibly short period of one sun; and was dedicated to the
immortal wooden idols by a grand festivalwhich lasted ten days
and nights.

Among the smaller pi-pisupon which stand the dwelling-houses of
the nativesI never observed any which intimated a recent
erection. There are in every part of the valley a great many of
these massive stone foundations which have no houses upon them.
This is vastly convenientfor whenever an enterprising islander
chooses to emigrate a few hundred yards from the place where he
was bornall he has to do in order to establish himself in some
new localityis to select one of. the many unappropriated
pi-pisand without further ceremony pitch his bamboo tent upon



FROM the time that my lameness had decreased I had made a daily
practice of visiting Mehevi at the Tiwho invariably gave me a
most cordial reception. I was always accompanied in these
excursions by Fayaway and the ever-present Kory- Kory. The
formeras soon as we reached the vicinity of the Ti--which was
rigorously tabooed to the whole female sex--withdrew to a
neighbouring hutas if her feminine delicacy 'restricted' her
from approaching a habitation which might be regarded as a sort
of Bachelor's Hall.

And in good truth it might well have been so considered.
Although it was the permanent residence of several distinguished
chiefsand of the noble Mehevi in particularit was still at
certain seasons the favourite haunt of all the jollytalkative
and elderly savages of the valewho resorted thither in the same
way that similar characters frequent a tavern in civilized
countries. There they would remain hour after hourchatting
smokingeating poee-poeeor busily engaged in sleeping for the
good of their constitutions.

This building appeared to be the head-quarters of the valley
where all flying rumours concentrated; and to have seen it filled
with a crowd of the nativesall malesconversing in animated
clusterswhile multitudes were continually coming and goingone
would have thought it a kind of savage Exchangewhere the rise
and fall of Polynesian Stock was discussed.

Mehevi acted as supreme lord over the placespending the greater
portion of his time there: and often whenat particular hours of
the dayit was deserted by nearly every one else except the
verd-antique looking centenarianswho were fixtures in the
buildingthe chief himself was sure to be found enjoying his
'otium cum dignitate'--upon the luxurious mats which covered the
floor. Whenever I made my appearance he invariably roseand
like a gentleman doing the honours of his mansioninvited me to
repose myself wherever I pleasedand calling out 'tamaree!'
(boy)a little fellow would appearand then retiring for an
instantreturn with some savoury messfrom which the chief
would press me to regale myself. To tell the truthMehevi was
indebted to the excellence of his viands for the honour of my
repeated visits--a matter which cannot appear singularwhen it
is borne in mind that bachelorsall the world overare famous
for serving up unexceptionable repasts.

One dayon drawing near to the TiI observed that extensive
preparations were going forwardplainly betokening some
approaching festival. Some of the symptoms reminded me of the
stir produced among the scullions of a large hotelwhere a grand
jubilee dinner is about to be given. The natives were hurrying
about hither and thitherengaged in various dutiessome lugging
off to the stream enormous hollow bamboosfor the purpose of
filling them with water; others chasing furious-looking hogs
through the bushesin their endeavours to capture them; and
numbers employed in kneading great mountains of poee-poee heaped
up in huge wooden vessels.

After observing these lively indications for a whileI was
attracted to a neighbouring grove by a prodigious squeaking which
I heard there. On reaching the spot I found it proceeded from a
large hog which a number of natives were forcibly holding to the
earthwhile a muscular fellowarmed with a bludgeonwas
ineffectually aiming murderous blows at the skull of the
unfortunate porker. Again and again he missed his writhing and
struggling victimbut though puffing and panting with his
exertionshe still continued them; and after striking a
sufficient number of blows to have demolished an entire drove of
oxenwith one crashing stroke he laid him dead at his feet.

Without letting any blood from the bodyit was immediately
carried to a fire which had been kindled near at hand and four
savages taking hold of the carcass by its legspassed it rapidly
to and fro in the flames. In a moment the smell of burning
bristles betrayed the object of this procedure. Having got thus
far in the matterthe body was removed to a little distance and
being disembowelledthe entrails were laid aside as choice
partsand the whole carcass thoroughly washed with water. An
ample thick green clothcomposed of the long thick leaves of a
species of palm-treeingeniously tacked together with little
pins of bamboowas now spread upon the groundin which the body
being carefully rolledit was borne to an oven previously
prepared to receive it. Here it was at once laid upon the heated
stones at the bottomand covered with thick layers of leaves
the whole being quickly hidden from sight by a mound of earth
raised over it.

Such is the summary style in which the Typees convert
perverse-minded and rebellious hogs into the most docile and
amiable pork; a morsel of which placed on the tongue melts like a
soft smile from the lips of Beauty.

I commend then peculiar mode of proceeding to the consideration
of all butcherscooksand housewives. The hapless porker whose
fate I have just rehearsedwas not the only one who suffered in
that memorable day. Many a dismal gruntmany an imploring
squeakproclaimed what was going on throughout the whole extent
of the valley; and I verily believe the first-born of every
litter perished before the setting of that fatal sun.

The scene around the Ti was now most animated. Hogs and
poee-poee were baking in numerous ovenswhichheaped up with
fresh earth into slight elevationslooked like so many
ant-hills. Scores of the savages were vigorously plying their
stone pestles in preparing masses of poee-poeeand numbers were
gathering green bread-fruit and young cocoanuts in the
surrounding groves; when an exceeding great multitudewith a
view of encouraging the rest in their laboursstood stilland
kept shouting most lustily without intermission.

It is a peculiarity among these peoplethatwhen engaged in an
employmentthey always make a prodigious fuss about it. So
seldom do they ever exert themselvesthat when they do work they
seem determined that so meritorious an action shall not escape
the observation of those around iffor examplethey have
occasion to remove a stone to a little distancewhich perhaps
might be carried by two able-bodied mena whole swarm gather
about itandafter a vast deal of palaveringlift it up among
themevery one struggling to get hold of itand bear it off
yelling and panting as if accomplishing some mighty achievement.
Seeing them on these occasionsone is reminded of an infinity of
black ants clustering about and dragging away to some hole the
leg of a deceased fly.

Having for some time attentively observed these demonstrations of
good cheerI entered the Tiwhere Mehevi sat complacently
looking out upon the busy sceneand occasionally issuing his
orders. The chief appeared to be in an extraordinary flow of
spirits and gave me to understand that on the morrow there would
be grand doings in the Groves generallyand at the Ti in
particular; and urged me by no means to absent myself. In
commemoration of what eventhoweveror in honour of what
distinguished personagethe feast was to be givenaltogether
passed my comprehension. Mehevi sought to enlighten my
ignorancebut he failed as signally as when he had endeavoured
to initiate me into the perplexing arcana of the taboo.

On leaving the TiKory-Korywho had as a matter of course
accompanied meobserving that my curiosity remained unabated
resolved to make everything plain and satisfactory. With this
intenthe escorted me through the Taboo Grovespointing out to
my notice a variety of objectsand endeavoured to explain them
in such an indescribable jargon of wordsthat it almost put me
in bodily pain to listen to him. In particularhe led me to a
remarkable pyramidical structure some three yards square at the
baseand perhaps ten feet in heightwhich had lately been
thrown upand occupied a very conspicuous position. It was
composed principally of large empty calabasheswith a few
polished cocoanut shellsand looked not unlike a cenotaph of
skulls. My cicerone perceived the astonishment with which I
gazed at this monument of savage crockeryand immediately
addressed himself in the task of enlightening me: but all in
vain; and to this hour the nature of the monument remains a
complete mystery to me. Ashoweverit formed so prominent a
feature in the approaching revelsI bestowed upon the latterin
my own mindthe title of the 'Feast of Calabashes'.

The following morningawaking rather lateI perceived the whole
of Marheyo's family busily engaged in preparing for the festival.

The old warrior himself was arranging in round balls the two grey
locks of hair that were suffered to grow from the crown of his
head; his earrings and spearboth well polishedlay beside him
while the highly decorative pair of shoes hung suspended from a
projecting cane against the side of the house. The young men
were similarly employed; and the fair damselsincluding Fayaway
were anointing themselves with 'aka'arranging their long
tressesand performing other matters connected with the duties
of the toilet.

Having completed their preparationsthe girls now exhibited
themselves in gala costume; the most conspicuous feature of which
was a necklace of beautiful white flowerswith the stems
removedand strung closely together upon a single fibre of

tappa. Corresponding ornaments were inserted in their earsand
woven garlands upon their heads. About their waist they wore a
short tunic of spotless white tappaand some of them super-added
to this a mantle of the same materialtied in an elaborate bow
upon the left shoulderand falling about the figure in
picturesque folds.

Thus arrayedI would have matched the charming Fayaway against
any beauty in the world.

People may say what they will about the taste evinced by our
fashionable ladies in dress. Their jewelstheir featherstheir
silksand their furbelowswould have sunk into utter
insignificance beside the exquisite simplicity of attire adopted
by the nymphs of the vale on this festive occasion. I should
like to have seen a gallery of coronation beautiesat
Westminster Abbeyconfronted for a moment by this band of island
girls; their stiffnessformalityand affectationcontrasted
with the artless vivacity and unconcealed natural graces of these
savage maidens. It would be the Venus de' Medici placed beside a
milliner's doll. It was not long before Kory-Kory and myself
were left alone in the housethe rest of its inmates having
departed for the Taboo Groves. My valet was all impatience to
follow them; and was as fidgety about my dilatory movements as a
diner out waiting hat in hand at the bottom of the stairs for
some lagging companion. At lastyielding to his importunities
I set out for the Ti. As we passed the houses peeping out from
the groves through which our route layI noticed that they were
entirely deserted by their inhabitants.

When we reached the rock that abruptly terminated the pathand
concealed from us the festive scenewild shouts and a confused
blending of voices assured me that the occasionwhatever it
might behad drawn together a great multitude. Kory-Kory
previous to mounting the elevationpaused for a momentlike a
dandy at a ball-room doorto put a hasty finish to his toilet.
During this short intervalthe thought struck me that I ought
myself perhaps to be taking some little pains with my appearance.

But as I had no holiday raimentI was not a little puzzled to
devise some means of decorating myself. Howeveras I felt
desirous to create a sensationI determined to do all that lay
in my power; and knowing that I could not delight the savages
more than by conforming to their style of dressI removed from
my person the large robe of tappa which I was accustomed to wear
over my shoulders whenever I sallied into the open airand
remained merely girt about with a short tunic descending from my
waist to my knees.

My quick-witted attendant fully appreciated the compliment I was
paying to the costume of his raceand began more sedulously to
arrange the folds of the one only garment which remained to me.
Whilst he was doing thisI caught sight of a knot of young
lasseswho were sitting near us on the grass surrounded by heaps
of flowers which they were forming into garlands. I motioned to
them to bring some of their handywork to me; and in an instant a
dozen wreaths were at my disposal. One of them I put round the
apology for a hat which I had been forced to construct for myself
out of palmetto-leavesand some of the others I converted into a
splendid girdle. These operations finishedwith the slow and
dignified step of a full-dressed beau I ascended the rock.



THE whole population of the valley seemed to be gathered within
the precincts of the grove. In the distance could be seen the
long front of the Tiits immense piazza swarming with men
arrayed in every variety of fantastic costumeand all
vociferating with animated gestures; while the whole interval
between it and the place where I stood was enlivened by groups of
females fancifully decorateddancingcaperingand uttering
wild exclamations. As soon as they descried me they set up a
shout of welcome; and a band of them came dancing towards me
chanting as they approached some wild recitative. The change in
my garb seemed to transport them with delightand clustering
about me on all sidesthey accompanied me towards the Ti. When
however we drew near it these joyous nymphs paused in their
careerand parting on either sidepermitted me to pass on to
the now densely thronged building.

So soon as I mounted to the pi-pi I saw at a glance that the
revels were fairly under way.

What lavish plenty reigned around?--Warwick feasting his
retainers with beef and alewas a niggard to the noble
Mehevi!--All along the piazza of the Ti were arranged elaborately
carved canoe-shaped vesselssome twenty feet in lengthtied
with newly made poee-poeeand sheltered from the sun by the
broad leaves of the banana. At intervals were heaps of green
bread-fruitraised in pyramidical stacksresembling the regular
piles of heavy shot to be seen in the yard of an arsenal.
Inserted into the interstices of the huge stones which formed the
pi-pi were large boughs of trees; hanging from the branches of
whichand screened from the sun by their foliagewere
innumerable little packages with leafy coveringscontaining the
meat of the numerous hogs which had been slaindone up in this
manner to make it more accessible to the crowd. Leaning against
the railing on the piazza were an immense number of longheavy
bamboosplugged at the lower endand with their projecting
muzzles stuffed with a wad of leaves. These were filled with
water from the streamand each of them might hold from four to
five gallons.

The banquet being thus spreadnaught remained but for everyone
to help himself at his pleasure. Accordingly not a moment passed
but the transplanted boughs I have mentioned were rifled by the
throng of the fruit they certainly had never borne before.
Calabashes of poee-poee were continually being replenished from
the extensive receptacle in which that article was storedand
multitudes of little fires were kindled about the Ti for the
purpose of roasting the bread-fruit.

Within the building itself was presented a most extraordinary
scene. The immense lounge of mats lying between the parallel
rows of the trunks of cocoanut treesand extending the entire
length of the houseat least two hundred feetwas covered by
the reclining forms of a host of chiefs and warriors who were
eating at a great rateor soothing the cares of Polynesian life
in the sedative fumes of tobacco. The smoke was inhaled from
large pipesthe bowls of whichmade out of small cocoanut
shellswere curiously carved in strange heathenish devices.
These were passed from mouth to mouth by the recumbent smokers
each of whomtaking two or three prodigious whiffshanded the
pipe to his neighbour; sometimes for that purpose stretching

indolently across the body of some dozing individual whose
exertions at the dinner-table had already induced sleep.

The tobacco used among the Typees was of a very mild and pleasing
flavourand as I always saw it in leavesand the natives
appeared pretty well supplied with itI was led to believe that
it must have been the growth of the valley. Indeed Kory-Kory
gave me to understand that this was the case; but I never saw a
single plant growing on the island. At NukuhevaandI believe
in all the other valleysthe weed is very scarcebeing only
obtained in small quantities from foreignersand smoking is
consequently with the inhabitants of these places a very great
luxury. How it was that the Typees were so well furnished with
it I cannot divine. I should think them too indolent to devote
any attention to its culture; andindeedas far as my
observation extendednot a single atom of the soil was under any
other cultivation than that of shower and sunshine. The
tobacco-planthoweverlike the sugar-canemay grow wild in
some remote part of the vale.

There were many in the Ti for whom the tobacco did not furnish a
sufficient stimulusand who accordingly had recourse to 'arva'
as a more powerful agent in producing the desired effect.

'Arva' is a root very generally dispersed over the South Seas
and from it is extracted a juicethe effects of which upon the
system are at first stimulating in a moderate degree; but it soon
relaxes the musclesand exerting a narcotic influence produces a
luxurious sleep. In the valley this beverage was universally
prepared in the following way:--Some half-dozen young boys seated
themselves in a circle around an empty wooden vesseleach one of
them being supplied with a certain quantity of the roots of the
'arva'broken into small bits and laid by his side. A cocoanut
goblet of water was passed around the juvenile companywho
rinsing their mouths with its contentsproceeded to the business
before them. This merely consisted in thoroughly masticating the
'arva'and throwing it mouthful after mouthful into the
receptacle provided. When a sufficient quantity had been thus
obtained water was poured upon the massand being stirred about
with the forefinger of the right handthe preparation was soon
in readiness for use. The 'arva' has medicinal qualities.

Upon the Sandwich Islands it has been employed with no small
success in the treatment of scrofulous affectionsand in
combating the ravages of a disease for whose frightful inroads
the ill-starred inhabitants of that group are indebted to their
foreign benefactors. But the tenants of the Typee valleyas yet
exempt from these inflictionsgenerally employ the 'arva' as a
minister to social enjoymentand a calabash of the liquid
circulates among them as the bottle with us.

Meheviwho was greatly delighted with the change in my costume
gave me a cordial welcome. He had reserved for me a most
delectable mess of 'cokoo'well knowing my partiality for that
dish; and had likewise selected three or four young cocoanuts
several roasted bread-fruitand a magnificent bunch of bananas
for my especial comfort and gratification. These various matters
were at once placed before me; but Kory-Kory deemed the banquet
entirely insufficient for my wants until he had supplied me with
one of the leafy packages of porkwhichnotwithstanding the
somewhat hasty manner in which it had been preparedpossessed a
most excellent flavourand was surprisingly sweet and tender.

Pork is not a staple article of food among the people of the

Marquesas; consequently they pay little attention to the BREEDING
of the swine. The hogs are permitted to roam at large on the
groveswhere they obtain no small part of their nourishment from
the cocoanuts which continually fall from the trees. But it is
only after infinite labour and difficultythat the hungry animal
can pierce the husk and shell so as to get at the meat. I have
frequently been amused at seeing one of themafter crunching the
obstinate nut with his teeth for a long time unsuccessfullyget
into a violent passion with it. He would then root furiously
under the cocoanutandwith a fling of his snouttoss it
before him on the ground. Following it uphe would crunch at it
again savagely for a momentand then next knock it on one side
pausing immediately afteras if wondering how it could so
suddenly have disappeared. In this way the persecuted cocoanuts
were often chased half across the valley.

The second day of the Feast of Calabashes was ushered in by still
more uproarious noises than the first. The skins of innumerable
sheep seemed to be resounding to the blows of an army of
drummers. Startled from my slumbers by the dinI leaped upand
found the whole household engaged in making preparations for
immediate departure. Curious to discover of what strange events
these novel sounds might be the precursorsand not a little
desirous to catch a sight of the instruments which produced the
terrific noiseI accompanied the natives as soon as they were in
readiness to depart for the Taboo Groves.

The comparatively open space that extended from the Ti toward the
rockto which I have before alluded as forming the ascent to the
placewaswith the building itselfnow altogether deserted by
the men; the whole distance being filled by bands of females
shouting and dancing under the influence of some strange

I was amused at the appearance of four or five old women whoin
a state of utter nuditywith their arms extended flatly down
their sidesand holding themselves perfectly erectwere leaping
stiffly into the airlike so many sticks bobbing to the surface
after being pressed perpendicularly into the water. They
preserved the utmost gravity of countenanceand continued their
extraordinary movements without a single moment's cessation.
They did not appear to attract the observation of the crowd
around thembut I must candidly confess that for myown partI
stared at them most pertinaciously.

Desirous of being enlightened in regard to the meaning of this
peculiar diversionI turnedinquiringly to Kory-Kory; that
learned Typee immediately proceeded to explain the whole matter
thoroughly. But all that I could comprehend from what he said
wasthat the leaping figures before me were bereaved widows
whose partners had been slain in battle many moons previously;
and whoat every festivalgave public evidence in this manner
of their calamities. It was evident that Kory-Kory considered
this an all-sufficient reason for so indecorous a custom; but I
must say that it did not satisfy me as to its propriety.

Leaving these afflicted femaleswe passed on to the Hoolah
Hoolah ground. Within the spacious quadranglethe whole
population of the valley seemed to be assembledand the sight
presented was truly remarkable. Beneath the sheds of bamboo
which opened towards the interior of the square reclined the
principal chiefs and warriorswhile a miscellaneous throng lay
at their ease under the enormous trees which spread a majestic
canopy overhead. Upon the terraces of the gigantic altarsat

each endwere deposited green bread-fruit in baskets of cocoanut
leaveslarge rolls of tappabunches of ripe bananasclusters
of mammee-applesthe golden-hued fruit of the artu-treeand
baked hogslaid out in large wooden trenchersfancifully
decorated with freshly plucked leaveswhilst a variety of rude
implements of war were piled in confused heaps before the ranks
of hideous idols. Fruits of various; kinds were likewise
suspended in leafen basketsfrom the tops of poles planted
uprightlyand at regular intervalsalong the lower terraces of
both altars. At their base were arranged two parallel rows of
cumbersome drumsstanding at least fifteen feet in heightand
formed from the hollow trunks of large trees. Their heads were
covered with shark skinsand their barrels were elaborately
carved with various quaint figures and devices. At regular
intervals they were bound round by a species of sinnate of
various coloursand strips of native cloth flattened upon them
here and there. Behind these instruments were built slight
platformsupon which stood a number of young men whobeating
violently with the palms of their hands upon the drum-heads
produced those outrageous sounds which had awakened me in the
morning. Every few minutes these musical performers hopped down
from their elevation into the crowd belowand their places were
immediately supplied by fresh recruits. Thus an incessant din
was kept up that might have startled Pandemonium.

Precisely in the middle of the quadrangle were placed
perpendicularly in the grounda hundred or more slender
fresh-cut polesstripped of their barkand decorated at the end
with a floating pennon of white tappa; the whole being fenced
about with a little picket of canes. For what purpose these
angular ornaments were intended I in vain endeavoured to

Another most striking feature of the performance was exhibited by
a score of old menwho sat cross-legged in the little pulpits
which encircled the trunks of the immense trees growing in the
middle of the enclosure. These venerable gentlemenwho I
presume were the priestskept up an uninterrupted monotonous
chantwhich was partly drowned in the roar of drums. In the
right hand they held a finely woven grass fanwith a heavy black
wooden handle curiously chased: these fans they kept in continual

But no attention whatever seemed to be paid to the drummers or to
the old priests; the individuals who composed the vast crowd
present being entirely taken up in chanting and laughing with one
anothersmokingdrinking 'arva'and eating. For all the
observation it attractedor the good it achievedthe whole
savage orchestra might with great advantage to its own members
and the company in generalhave ceased the prodigious uproar
they were making.

In vain I questioned Kory-Kory and others of the nativesas to
the meaning of the strange things that were going on; all their
explanations were conveyed in such a mass of outlandish gibberish
and gesticulation that I gave up the attempt in despair. All
that day the drums resoundedthe priests chantedand the
multitude feasted and roared till sunsetwhen the throng
dispersedand the Taboo Groves were again abandoned to quiet and
repose. The next day the same scene was repeated until night
when this singular festival terminated.



ALTHOUGH I had been baffled in my attempts to learn the origin of
the Feast of Calabashesyet it seemed very plain to me that it
was principallyif not whollyof a religious character. As a
religious solemnityhoweverit had not at all corresponded with
the horrible descriptions of Polynesian worship which we have
received in some published narrativesand especially in those
accounts of the evangelized islands with which the missionaries
have favoured us. Did not the sacred character of these persons
render the purity of their intentions unquestionableI should
certainly be led to suppose that they had exaggerated the evils
of Paganismin order to enhance the merit of their own
disinterested labours.

In a certain work incidentally treating of the 'Washingtonor
Northern Marquesas Islands' I have seen the frequent immolation
of human victims upon the altars of their godspositively and
repeatedly charged upon the inhabitants. The same work gives
also a rather minute account of their religion--enumerates a
great many of their superstitions--and makes known the particular
designations of numerous orders of the priesthood. One would
almost imagine from the long list that is given of cannibal
primatesbishopsarch-deaconsprebendariesand other inferior
ecclesiasticsthat the sacerdotal order far outnumbered the rest
of the populationand that the poor natives were more severely
priest-ridden than even the inhabitants of the papal states.
These accounts are likewise calculated to leave upon the reader's
mind an impression that human victims are daily cooked and served
up upon the altars; that heathenish cruelties of every
description are continually practised; and that these ignorant
Pagans are in a state of the extremest wretchedness in
consequence of the grossness of their superstitions. Be it
observedhoweverthat all this information is given by a man
whoaccording to his own statementwas only at one of the
islandsand remained there but two weekssleeping every night
on board his shipand taking little kid-glove excursions ashore
in the daytimeattended by an armed party.

Nowall I can say isthat in all my excursions through the
valley of TypeeI never saw any of these alleged enormities. If
any of them are practised upon the Marquesas Islands they must
certainly have come to my knowledge while living for months with
a tribe of savageswholly unchanged from their original
primitive conditionand reputed the most ferocious in the South

The fact isthat there is a vast deal of unintentional
humbuggery in some of the accounts we have from scientific men
concerning the religious institutions of Polynesia. These
learned tourists generally obtain the greater part of their
information from retired old South-Sea roverswho have
domesticated themselves among the barbarous tribes of the
Pacific. Jackwho has long been accustomed to the long-bowand
to spin tough yarns on the ship's forecastleinvariably
officiates as showman of the island on which he has settledand
having mastered a few dozen words of the languageis supposed to

know all about the people who speak it. A natural desire to make
himself of consequence in the eyes of the strangersprompts him
to lay claim to a much greater knowledge of such matters than he
actually possesses. In reply to incessant querieshe
communicates not only all he knows but a good deal moreand if
there be any information deficient still he is at no loss to
supply it. The avidity with which his anecdotes are noted down
tickles his vanityand his powers of invention increase with the
credulity auditors. He knows just the sort of information
wantedand furnishes it to any extent.

This is not a supposed case; I have met with several individuals
like the one describedand I have been present at two or three
of their interviews with strangers.

Nowwhen the scientific voyager arrives at home with his
collection of wondershe attemptsperhapsto give a
description of some ofthe strange people he has been visiting.
Instead of representing them as a community of lusty savageswho
are leading a merryidleinnocent lifehe enters into a very
circumstantial and learned narrative of certain unaccountable
superstitions and practicesabout which he knows as little as
the islanders themselves. Having had little timeand scarcely
any opportunityto become acquainted with the customs he
pretends to describehe writes them down one after another in an
off-handhaphazard style; and were the book thus produced to be
translated into the tongue of the people of whom it purports to
give the historyit would appear quite as wonderful to them as
it does to the American publicand much more improbable.

For my own partI am free to confess my almost entire inability
to gratify any curiosity that may be felt with regard to the
theology of the valley. I doubt whether the inhabitants
themselves could do so. They are either too lazy or too sensible
to worry themselves about abstract points of religious belief.
While I was among themthey never held any synods or councils to
settle the principles of their faith by agitating them. An
unbounded liberty of conscience seemed to prevail. Those who
pleased to do so were allowed to repose implicit faith in an
ill-favoured god with a large bottle-nose and fat shapeless arms
crossed upon his breast; whilst others worshipped an image which
having no likeness either in heaven or on earthcould hardly be
called an idol. As the islanders always maintained a discreet
reserve with regard to my own peculiar views on religionI
thought it would be excessively ill-bred of me to pry into

Butalthough my knowledge of the religious faith of the Typees
was unavoidably limitedone of their superstitious observances
with which I became acquainted interested me greatly.

In one of the most secluded portions of the valley within a
stone's cast of Fayaway's lake--for so I christened the scene of
our island yachting--and hard by a growth of palmswhich stood
ranged in order along both banks of the streamwaving their
green arms as if to do honour to its passagewas the mausoleum
of a deceasedwarrior chief. Like all the other edifices of any
noteit was raised upon a small pi-pi of stoneswhichbeing of
unusual heightwas a conspicuous object from a distance. A
light thatching of bleached palmetto-leaves hung over it like a
self supported canopy; for it was not until you came very near
that you saw it was supported by four slender columns of bamboo
rising at each corner to a little more than the height of a man.
A clear area of a few yards surrounded the pi-piand was

enclosed by four trunks of cocoanut trees resting at the angles
on massive blocks of stone. The place was sacred. The sign of
the inscrutable Taboo was seen in the shape of a mystic roll of
white tappasuspended by a twisted cord of the same material
from the top of a slight pole planted within the enclosure*. The
sanctity of the spot appeared never to have been violated. The
stillness of the grave was thereand the calm solitude around
was beautiful and touching. The soft shadows of those lofty
palm-trees!--I can see them now--hanging over the little temple
as if to keep out the intrusive sun.

*White appears to be the sacred colour among the Marquesans.

On all sides as you approached this silent spot you caught sight
of the dead chief's effigyseated in the stern of a canoewhich
was raised on a light frame a few inches above the level of the
pi-pi. The canoe was about seven feet in length; of a richdark
coloured woodhandsomely carved and adorned in many places with
variegated bindings of stained sinnateinto which were
ingeniously wrought a number of sparkling seashellsand a belt
of the same shells ran all round it. The body of the figure--of
whatever material it might have been made--was effectually
concealed in a heavy robe of brown tapparevealing; only the
hands and head; the latter skilfully carved in woodand
surmounted by a superb arch of plumes. These plumesin the
subdued and gentle gales which found access to this sequestered
spotwere never for one moment at restbut kept nodding and
waving over the chief's brow. The long leaves of the palmetto
drooped over the eavesand through them you saw the warrior
holding his paddle with both hands in the act of rowingleaning
forward and inclining his headas if eager to hurry on his
voyage. Glaring at him foreverand face to facewas a polished
human skullwhich crowned the prow of the canoe. The spectral
figureheadreversed in its positionglancing backwardsseemed
to mock the impatient attitude of the warrior.

When I first visited this singular place with Kory-Koryhe told
me--or at least I so understood him--that the chief was paddling
his way to the realms of blissand bread-fruit--the Polynesian
heaven--where every moment the bread-fruit trees dropped their
ripened spheres to the groundand where there was no end to the
cocoanuts and bananas: there they reposed through the livelong
eternity upon mats much finer than those of Typee; and every day
bathed their glowing limbs in rivers of cocoanut oil. In that
happy land there were plenty of plumes and feathersand
boars'-tusks and sperm-whale teethfar preferable to all the
shining trinkets and gay tappa of the white men; andbest of
allwomen far lovelier than the daughters of earth were there in
abundance. 'A very pleasant place' Kory-Kory said it was; 'but
after allnot much pleasanterhe thoughtthan Typee.' 'Did he
not then' I asked him'wish to accompany the warrior?' 'Oh no:
he was very happy where he was; but supposed that some time or
other he would go in his own canoe.'

Thus farI thinkI clearly comprehended Kory-Kory. But there
was a singular expression he made use of at the timeenforced by
as singular a gesturethe meaning of which I would have given
much to penetrate. I am inclined to believe it must have been a
proverb he uttered; for I afterwards heard him repeat the same
words several timesand in what appeared to me to be a somewhat:
similar sense. IndeedKory-Kory had a great variety of short
smart-sounding sentenceswith which he frequently enlivened his
discourse; and he introduced them with an air which plainly
intimatedthat in his opinionthey settled the matter in

questionwhatever it might be.

Could it have been thenthat when I asked him whether he desired
to go to this heaven of bread-fruitcocoanutsand young ladies
which he had been describinghe answered by saying something
equivalent to our old adage--'A bird in the hand is worth two in
the bush'?--if he didKory-Kory was a discreet and sensible
fellowand I cannot sufficiently admire his shrewdness.

Wheneverin the course of my rambles through the valley I
happened to be near the chief's mausoleumI always turned aside
to visit it. The place had a peculiar charm for me; I hardly
know whybut so it was. As I leaned over the railing and gazed
upon the strange effigy and watched the play of the feathery
head-dressstirred by the same breeze which in low tones
breathed amidst the lofty palm-treesI loved to yield myself up
to the fanciful superstition of the islandersand could almost
believe that the grim warrior was bound heavenward. In this mood
when I turned to departI bade him 'God speedand a pleasant
voyage.' Ayepaddle awaybrave chieftainto the land of
spirits! To the material eye thou makest but little progress;
but with the eye of faithI see thy canoe cleaving the bright
waveswhich die away on those dimly looming shores of Paradise.

This strange superstition affords another evidence of the fact
that however ignorant man may behe still feels within him his
immortal spirit yearningafter the unknown future.

Although the religious theories of the islands were a complete
mystery to metheir practical every-day operation could not be
concealed. I frequently passed the little temples reposing in
the shadows of the taboo groves and beheld the offerings--mouldy
fruit spread out upon a rude altaror hanging in half-decayed
baskets around some uncouth jolly-looking image; I was present
during the continuance of the festival; I daily beheld the
grinning idols marshalled rank and file in the Hoolah Hoolah
groundand was often in the habit of meeting those whom I
supposed to be the priests. But the temples seemed to be
abandoned to solitude; the festival had been nothing more than a
jovial mingling of the tribe; the idols were quite harmless as
any other logs of wood; and the priests were the mightiest dogs
in the valley.

In fact religious affairs in Typee were at a very low ebb: all
such matters sat very lightly upon the thoughtless inhabitants;
andin the celebration of many of their strange ritesthey
appeared merely to seek a sort of childish amusement.

A curious evidence of this was given in a remarkable ceremony in
which I frequently saw Mehevi and several other chefs and
warriors of note take part; but never a single female.

Among those whom I looked upon as forming the priesthood of the
valleythere was one in particular who often attracted my
noticeand whom I could not help regarding as the head of the
order. He was a noble looking manin the prime of his lifeand
of a most benignant aspect. The authority this manwhose name
was Koloryseemed to exercise over the restthe episcopal part
he took in the Feast of Calabasheshis sleek and complacent
appearancethe mystic characters which were tattooed upon his
chestand above all the mitre he frequently worein the shape
of a towering head-dressconsisting of part of a cocoanut
branchthe stalk planted uprightly on his browand the leaflets
gathered together and passed round the temples and behind the

earsall these pointed him out as Lord Primate of Typee. Kolory
was a sort of Knight Templar--a soldier-priest; for he often wore
the dress of a Marquesan warriorand always carried a long
spearwhichinstead of terminating in a paddle at the lower
endafter the general fashion of these weaponswas curved into
a heathenish-looking little image. This instrumenthowever
might perhaps have been emblematic of his double functions. With
one end in carnal combat he transfixed the enemies of his tribe;
and with the other as a pastoral crook he kept in order his
spiritual flock. But this is not all I have to say about Kolory.

His martial grace very often carried about with him what seemed
to me the half of a broken war-club. It was swathed round with
ragged bits of white tappaand the upper partwhich was
intended to represent a human headwas embellished with a strip
of scarlet cloth of European manufacture. It required little
observation to discover that this strange object was revered as a
god. By the side of the big and lusty images standing sentinel
over the altars of the Hoolah Hoolah groundit seemed a mere
pigmy in tatters. But appearances all the world over are
deceptive. Little men are sometimes very potentand rags
sometimes cover very extensive pretensions. In factthis funny
little image was the 'crack' god of the island; lording it over
all the wooden lubbers who looked so grim and dreadful; its name
was Moa Artua*. And it was in honour of Moa Artuaand for the
entertainment of those who believe in himthat the curious
ceremony I am about to describe was observed.

*The word 'Artua'although having some other significationsis
in nearly all the Polynesian dialects used as the general
designation of the gods.

Mehevi and the chieftains of the Ti have just risen from their
noontide slumbers. There are no affairs of state to dispose of;
and having eaten two or three breakfasts in the course of the
morningthe magnates of the valley feel no appetite as yet for
dinner. How are their leisure moments to be occupied? They
smokethey chatand at last one of their number makes a
proposition to the restwho joyfully acquiescinghe darts out
of the houseleaps from the pi-piand disappears in the grove.
Soon you see him returning with Kolorywho bears the god Moa
Artua in his armsand carries in one hand a small trough
hollowed out in the likeness of a canoe. The priest comes along
dandling his charge as if it were a lachrymose infant he was
endeavouring to put into a good humour. Presently entering the
Tihe seats himself on the mats as composedly as a juggler about
to perform his sleight-of-hand tricks; and with the chiefs
disposed in a circle around himcommences his ceremony. In
thefirst place he gives Moa Artua an affectionate hugthen
caressingly lays him to his breastandfinallywhispers
something in his ear; the rest of the company listening eagerly
for a reply. But the baby-god is deaf or dumb--perhaps both
for never a word doeshe utter. At last Kolory speaks a little
louderand soon growing angrycomes boldly out with what he has
to say and bawls to him. He put me in mind of a choleric fellow
whoafter trying in vain to communicated a secret to a deaf man
all at once flies into a passion and screams it out so that every
one may hear. Still Moa Artua remains as quiet as ever; and
Koloryseemingly losing his temperfetches him a box over the
headstrips him of his tappa and red clothand laying him in a
state of nudity in a little troughcovers him from sight. At
this proceeding all present loudly applaud and signify their

approval by uttering the adjective 'motarkee' with violent
emphasis. Kolory howeveris so desirous his conduct should meet
with unqualified approbationthat he inquires of each individual
separately whether under existing circumstances he has not done
perfectly right in shutting up Moa Artua. The invariable
response is 'AaAa' (yesyes)repeated over again and again in
a manner which ought to quiet the scruples of the most
conscientious. After a few moments Kolory brings forth his doll
againand while arraying it very carefully in the tappa and red
clothalternately fondles and chides it. The toilet being
completedhe once more speaks to it aloud. The whole company
hereupon show the greatest interest; while the priest holding Moa
Artua to his ear interprets to them what he pretends the god is
confidentially communicating to him. Some items intelligence
appear to tickle all present amazingly; for one claps his hands
in a rapture; another shouts with merriment; and a third leaps to
his feet and capers about like a madman.

What under the sun Moa Artua on these occasions had to say to
Kolory I never could find out; but I could not help thinking that
the former showed a sad want of spirit in being disciplined into
making those disclosureswhich at first he seemed bent on
withholding. Whether the priest honestly interpreted what he
believed the divinity said to himor whether he was not all the
while guilty of a vile humbugI shall not presume to decide. At
any ratewhatever as coming from the god was imparted to those
present seemed to be generally of a complimentary nature: a fact
which illustrates the sagacity of Koloryor else the timeserving
disposition of this hardly used deity.

Moa Artua having nothing more to sayhis bearer goes to nursing
him againin which occupationhoweverhe is soon interrupted
by a question put by one of the warriors to the god. Kolory
hereupon snatches it up to his ear againand after listening
attentivelyonce more officiates as the organ of communication.
A multitude of questions and answers having passed between the
partiesmuch to the satisfaction of those who propose themthe
god is put tenderly to bed in the troughand the whole company
unite in a long chantled off by Kolory. This endedthe
ceremony is over; the chiefs rise to their feet in high good
humourand my Lord Archbishopafter chatting awhileand
regaling himself with a whiff or two from a pipe of tobacco
tucks the canoe under his arm and marches off with it.

The whole of these proceedings were like those of a parcel of
children playing with dolls and baby houses.

For a youngster scarcely ten inches highand with so few early
advantages as he doubtless had hadMoa Artua was certainly a
precocious little fellow if he really said all that was imputed
to him; but for what reason this poor devil of a deitythus
cuffed aboutcajoledand shut up in a boxwas held in greater
estimation than the full-grown and dignified personages of the
Taboo GrovesI cannot divine. And yet Meheviand other chiefs
of unquestionable veracity--to say nothing of the Primate
himself--assured me over and over again that Moa Artua was the
tutelary deity of Typeeand was more to be held in honour than a
whole battalion of the clumsy idols in the Hoolah Hoolah grounds.

Kory-Kory--who seemed to have devoted considerable attention to
the study of theologyas he knew the names of all the graven
images in the valleyand often repeated them over to
me--likewise entertained some rather enlarged ideas with regard
to the character and pretensions of Moa Artua. He once gave me

to understandwith a gesture there was no misconceivingthat if
he (Moa Artua) were so minded he could cause a cocoanut tree to
sprout out of his (Kory-Kory's) head; and that it would be the
easiest thing in life for him (Moa Artua) to take the whole
island of Nukuheva in his mouth and dive down to the bottom of
the sea with it.

But in sober seriousnessI hardly knew what to make of the
religion of the valley. There was nothing that so much perplexed
the illustrious Cookin his intercourse with the South Sea
islandersas their sacred rites. Although this prince of
navigators was in many instances assisted by interpreters in the
prosecution of his researcheshe still frankly acknowledges that
he was at a loss to obtain anything like a clear insight into the
puzzling arcana of their faith. A similar admission has been
made by other eminent voyagers: by CarteretByronKotzebueand

For my own partalthough hardly a day passed while I remained
upon the island that I did not witness some religious ceremony or
otherit was very much like seeing a panel of 'Freemasons'
making secret signs to each other; I saw everythingbut could
comprehend nothing.

On the wholeI am inclined to believethat the islanders in the
Pacific have no fixed and definite ideas whatever on the subject
of religion. I am persuaded that Kolory himself would be
effectually posed were he called upon to draw up the articles of
his faith and pronounce the creed by which he hoped to be saved.
In truththe Typeesso far as their actions evincesubmitted
to no laws human or divine--always excepting the thrice
mysterious Taboo. The 'independent electors' of the valley were
not to be brow-beaten by chiefspriestsidol or devils. As for
the luckless idolsthey received more hard knocks than
supplications. I do not wonder that some of them looked so grim
and stood so bolt upright as if fearful of looking to the right
or the left lest they should give any one offence. The fact is
they had to carry themselves 'PRETTY STRAIGHT' or suffer the
consequences. Their worshippers were such a precious set of
fickle-minded and irreverent heathensthat there was no telling
when they might topple one of them overbreak it to piecesand
making a fire with it on the very altar itselffall to roasting
the offerings of bread-fruitand at them in spite of its teeth.

In how little reverence these unfortunate deities were held by
the natives was on one occasion most convincingly proved to
me.--Walking with Kory-Kory through the deepest recesses of the
grovesI perceived a curious looking imageabout six feet in
height which originally had been placed upright against a low
pi-pisurmounted by a ruinous bamboo templebut having become
fatigued and weak in the kneeswas now carelessly leaning
against it. The idol was partly concealed by the foliage of a
tree which stood nearand whose leafy boughs drooped over the
pile of stonesas if to protect the rude fane from the decay to
which it was rapidly hastening. The image itself was nothing
more than a grotesquely shaped logcarved in the likeness of a
portly naked man with the arms clasped over the headthe jaws
thrown wide apartand its thick shapeless legs bowed into an
arch. It was much decayed. The lower part was overgrown with a
bright silky moss. Thin spears of grass sprouted from the
distended mouthand fringed the outline of the head and arms.
His godship had literally attained a green old age. All its
prominent points were bruised and batteredor entirely rotted
away. The nose had taken its departureand from the general

appearance of the head it might havebeen supposed that the
wooden divinityin despair at the neglect of its worshippers
had been trying to beat its own brains out against the
surrounding trees.

I drew near to inspect more closely this strange object of
idolatrybut halted reverently at the distance of two or three
pacesout of regard to the religious prejudices of my valet. As
soonhoweveras Kory-Kory perceived that I was in one of my
inquiringscientific moodsto my astonishmenthe sprang to the
side of the idoland pushing it away from the stones against
which it restedendeavoured to make it stand upon its legs. But
the divinity had lost the use of them altogether; and while
Kory-Kory was trying to prop it upplacing a stick between it
and the pi-pithe monster fell clumsily to the groundand would
have infallibly have broken its neck had not Kory-Kory
providentially broken its fall by receiving its whole weight on
his own half-crushed back. I never saw the honest fellow in such
a rage before. He leaped furiously to his feetand seizing the
stickbegan beating the poor image: every momentor two pausing
and talking to it in the most violent manneras if upbraiding it
for the accident. When his indignation had subsided a little he
whirled the idol about most profanelyso as to give me an
opportunity of examining it on all sides. I am quite sure I
never should have presumed to have taken such liberties with the
god myselfand I was not a little shocked at Kory-Kory's

This anecdote speaks for itself. When one of the inferior order
of natives could show such contempt for a venerable and decrepit
God of the Groveswhat the state of religion must be among the
people in general is easy to be imagined. In truthI regard the
Typees as a back-slidden generation. They are sunk in religious
slothand require a spiritual revival. A long prosperity of
bread-fruit and cocoanuts has rendered them remiss in the
performance of their higher obligations. The wood-rot malady is
spreading among the idols--the fruit upon their altars is
becoming offensive--the temples themselves need rethatching--the
tattooed clergy are altogether too light-hearted and lazy--and
their flocks are going astray.



ALTHOUGH I had been unable during the late festival to obtain
information on many interesting subjects which had much excited
my curiositystill that important event had not passed by
without adding materially to my general knowledge of the

I was especially struck by the physical strength and beauty which
they displayedby their great superiority in these respects over
the inhabitants of the neighbouring bay of Nukuhevaand by the
singular contrasts they presented among themselves in their
various shades of complexion.

In beauty of form they surpassed anything I had ever seen. Not a
single instance of natural deformity was observable in all the
throng attending the revels. Occasionally I noticed among the
men the scars of wounds they had received in battle; and
sometimesthough very seldomthe loss of a fingeran eyeor
an armattributable to the same cause. With these exceptions
every individual appeared free from those blemishes which
sometimes mar the effect of an otherwise perfect form. But their
physical excellence did not merely consist in an exemption from
these evils; nearly every individual of their number might have
been taken for a sculptor's model.

When I remembered that these islanders derived no advantage from
dressbut appeared in all the naked simplicity of natureI
could not avoid comparing them with the fine gentlemen and
dandies who promenade such unexceptionable figures in our
frequented thoroughfares. Stripped of the cunning artifices of
the tailorand standing forth in the garb of Eden--what a sorry
set of round-shoulderedspindle-shankedcrane-necked varlets
would civilized men appear! Stuffed calvespadded breastsand
scientifically cut pantaloons would then avail them nothingand
the effect would be truly deplorable.

Nothing in the appearance of the islanders struck me more
forcibly than the whiteness of their teeth. The novelist always
compares the masticators of his heroine to ivory; but I boldly
pronounce the teeth of the Typee to be far more beautiful than
ivory itself. The jaws of the oldest graybeards among them were
much better garnished than those of most of the youths of
civilized countries; while the teeth of the young and
middle-agedin their purity and whitenesswere actually
dazzling to the eye. Their marvellous whiteness of the teeth is
to be ascribed to the pure vegetable diet of these peopleand
the uninterrupted healthfulness of their natural mode of life.

The menin almost every instanceare of lofty staturescarcely
ever less than six feet in heightwhile the other sex are
uncommonly diminutive. The early period of life at which the
human form arrives at maturity in this generous tropical climate
likewise deserves to be mentioned. A little creaturenot more
than thirteen years of ageand who in other particulars might be
regarded as a mere childis often seen nursing her own baby
whilst lads whounder less ripening skieswould be still at
schoolare here responsible fathers of families.

On first entering the Typee ValleyI had been struck with the
marked contrast presented by its inhabitants with those of the
bay I had previously left. In the latter placeI had not been
favourably impressed with the personal appearance of the male
portion of the population; although with the femalesexcepting
in some truly melancholy instancesI had been wonderfully
pleased. I had observed that even the little intercourse
Europeans had carried on with the Nukuheva natives had not failed
to leave its traces amongst them. One of the most dreadful
curses under which humanity labours had commenced its havocks
and betrayedas it ever does among the South Sea islandersthe
most aggravated symptoms. From thisas from all other foreign
inflictionsthe yet uncontaminated tenants of the Typee Valley
were wholly exempt; and long may they continue so. Better will
it be for them for ever to remain the happy and innocent heathens
and barbarians that they now arethanlike the wretched
inhabitants of the Sandwich Islandsto enjoy the mere name of
Christians without experiencing any of the vital operations of

true religionwhilstat the same timethey are made the
victims of the worst vices and evils of civilized life.

Aparthoweverfrom these considerationsI am inclined to
believe that there exists a radical difference between the two
tribesif indeed they are not distinct races of men. To those
who have merely touched at Nukuheva Baywithout visiting other
portions of the islandit would hardly appear credible the
diversities presented between the various small clans inhabiting
so diminutive a spot. But the hereditary hostility which has
existed between them for agesfully accounts for this.

Not so easyhoweveris it to assign an adequate cause for the
endless variety of complexions to be seen in the Typee Valley.
During the festivalI had noticed several young females whose
skins were almost as white as any Saxon damsel's; a slight dash
of the mantling brown being all that marked the difference. This
comparative fairness of complexionthough in a great degree
perfectly naturalis partly the result of an artificial process
and of an entire exclusion from the sun. The juice of the 'papa'
root found in great abundance at the head of the valleyis held
in great esteem as a cosmeticwith which many of the females
daily anoint their whole person. The habitual use of it whitens
and beautifies the skin. Those of the young girls who resort to
this method of heightening their charmsnever expose themselves
selves to the rays of the sun; an observancehoweverthat
produces little or no inconveniencesince there are but few of
the inhabited portions of the vale which are not shaded over with
a spreading canopy of boughsso that one may journey from house
to housescarcely deviating from the direct courseand yet
never once see his shadow cast upon the ground.

The 'papa'when usedis suffered to remain upon the skin for
several hours; being of a light green colourit consequently
imparts for the time a similar hue to the complexion. Nothing
thereforecan be imagined more singular than the appearance of
these nearly naked damsels immediately after the application of
the cosmetic. To look at one of them you would almost suppose
she was some vegetable in an unripe state; and thatinstead of
living in the shade for evershe ought to be placed out in the
sun to ripen.

All the islanders are more or less in the habit of anointing
themselves; the women preferring the 'aker' to 'papa'and the
men using the oil of the cocoanut. Mehevi was remarkable fond of
mollifying his entire cuticle with this ointment. Sometimes he
might be seenwith his whole body fairly reeking with the
perfumed oil of the nutlooking as if he had just emerged from a
soap-boiler's vator had undergone the process of dipping in a
tallow-chandlery. To this cause perhapsunited to their
frequent bathing and extreme cleanlinessis ascribablein a
great measurethe marvellous purity and smoothness of skin
exhibited by the natives in general.

The prevailing tint among the women of the valley was a light
oliveand of this style of complexion Fayaway afforded the most
beautiful example. Others were still darker; while not a few
were of a genuine golden colourand some of a swarthy hue.

As agreeing with much previously mentioned in this narrative I
may here observe that Mendannatheir discovererin his account
of the Marquesasdescribed the natives as wondrously beautiful
to beholdand as nearly resembling the people of southern
Europe. The first of these islands seen by Mendanna was La

Madelenawhich is not far distant from Nukuheva; and its
inhabitants in every respect resemble those dwelling on that and
the other islands of the group. Figueroathe chronicler of
Mendanna's voyagesaysthat on the morning the land was
descriedwhen the Spaniards drew near the shorethere sallied
forthin rude progressionabout seventy canoesand at the same
time many of the inhabitants (females I presume) made towards the
ships by swimming. He addsthat 'in complexion they were nearly
white; of good statureand finely formed; and on their faces and
bodies were delineated representations of fishes and other
devices'. The old Don then goes on to say'There cameamong
otherstwo lads paddling their canoewhose eyes were fixed on
the ship; they had beautiful faces and the most promising
animation of countenance; and were in all things so becoming
that the pilot-mayor Quiros affirmednothing in his life ever
caused him so much regret as the leaving such fine creatures to
be lost in that country.'* More than two hundred years have gone
by since the passage of which the above is a translation was
written; and it appears to me nowas I read itas fresh and
true as if written but yesterday. The islanders are still the
same; and I have seen boys in the Typee Valley of whose
'beautiful faces' and promising 'animation of countenance' no one
who has not beheld them can form any adequate idea. Cookin the
account of his voyagepronounces the Marquesans as by far the
most splendid islanders in the South Seas. Stewartthe chaplain
of the U.S. ship Vincennesin his 'Scenes in the South Seas'
expressesin more than one placehis amazement at the
surpassing loveliness of the women; and says that many of the
Nukuheva damsels reminded him forcibly of the most celebrated
beauties in his own land. Fanninga Yankee mariner of some
reputationlikewise records his lively impressions of the
physical appearance of these people; and Commodore David Porter
of the U.S. frigate Essexis said to have been vastly smitten
by the beauty of the ladies. Their great superiority over all
other Polynesians cannot fail to attract the notice of those who
visit the principal groups in the Pacific. The voluptuous
Tahitians are the only people who at all deserve to be compared
with them; while the dark-haired Hawaiians and the woolly-headed
Feejees are immeasurably inferior to them. The distinguishing
characteristic of the Marquesan islandersand that which at once
strikes youis the European cast of their features--a
peculiarity seldom observable among other uncivilized people.
Many of their faces present profiles classically beautifuland
in the valley of Typee I saw several wholike the stranger
Marnoowere in every respect models of beauty.

* This passagewhich is cited as an almost literal translation
from the originalI found in a small volume entitled
'Circumnavigation of the Globein which volume are several
extracts from 'Dalrymple's Historical Collections'. The
last-mentioned work I have never seenbut it is said to contain
a very correct English version of great part of the learned
Doctor Christoval Suaverde da Figueroa's History of Mendanna's
Voyagepublished at MadridA.D. 1613.
Some of the natives present at the Feast of Calabashes had
displayed a few articles of European dress; disposed however
about their persons after their own peculiar fashion. Among
these I perceived two pieces of cotton-cloth which poor Toby and
myself had bestowed upon our youthful guides the afternoon we
entered the valley. They were evidently reserved for gala days;
and during those of the festival they rendered the young

islanders who wore them very distinguished characters. The small
number who were similarly adornedand the great value they
appeared to place upon the most common and most trivial articles
furnished ample evidence of the very restricted intercourse they
held with vessels touching at the island. A few cotton
handkerchiefsof a gay patterntied about the neckand
suffered to fall over the shoulder; strips of fanciful calico
swathed about the loinswere nearly all I saw.

Indeedthroughout the valleythere were few things of any kind
to be seen of European origin. All I ever sawbesides the
articles just alluded towere the six muskets preserved in the
Tiand three or four similar implements of warfare hung up in
other houses; some small canvas bagspartly filled with bullets
and powderand half a dozen old hatchet-headswith the edges
blunted and battered to such a degree as to render them utterly
worthless. These last seemed to be regarded as nearly worthless
by the natives; and several times they held upone of them
before meand throwing it aside with a gesture of disgust
manifested their contempt for anything that could so soon become

But the musketsthe powderand the bullets were held in most
extravagant esteem. The formerfrom their great age and the
peculiarities they exhibitedwere well worthy a place in any
antiquarian's armoury. I remember in particular one that hung in
the Tiand which Mehevi--supposing as a matter of course that I
was able to repair it--had put into my hands for that purpose.
It was one of those clumsyold-fashionedEnglish pieces known
generally as Tower Hill musketsandfor aught I knowmight
have been left on the island by WallaceCarteretCookor
Vancouver. The stock was half rotten and worm-eaten; the lock
was as rusty and about as well adapted to its ostensible purpose
as an old door-hinge; the threading of the screws about the
trigger was completely worn away; while the barrel shook in the
wood. Such was the weapon the chief desired me to restore to its
original condition. As I did not possess the accomplishments of
a gunsmithand was likewise destitute of the necessary toolsI
was reluctantly obliged to signify my inability to perform the
task. At this unexpected communication Mehevi regarded mefor a
momentas if he half suspected I was some inferior sort of white
manwho after all did not know much more than a Typee. However
after a most laboured explanation of the matterI succeeded in
making him understand the extreme difficulty of the task.
Scarcely satisfied with my apologieshoweverhe marched off
with the superannuated musket in something of a huffas if he
would no longer expose it to the indignity of being manipulated
by such unskilful fingers.

During the festival I had not failed to remark the simplicity of
mannerthe freedom from all restraintandto certain degree
the equality of condition manifested by the natives in general.
No one appeared to assume any arrogant pretensions. There was
little more than a slight difference in costume to distinguish
the chiefs from the other natives. All appeared to mix together
freelyand without any reserve; although I noticed that the
wishes of a chiefeven when delivered in the mildest tone
received the same immediate obedience which elsewhere would have
been only accorded to a peremptory command. What may be the
extent of the authority of the chiefs over the rest of the tribe
I will not venture to assert; but from all I saw during my stay
in the valleyI was induced to believe that in matters
concerning the general welfare it was very limited. The required
degree of deference towards themhoweverwas willingly and

cheerfully yielded; and as all authority is transmitted from
father to sonI have no doubt that one of the effects hereas
elsewhereof high birthis to induce respect and obedience.

The civil institutions of the Marquesas Islands appear to be in
thisas in other respectsdirectly the reverse of those of the
Tahitian and Hawiian groupswhere the original power of the king
and chiefs was far more despotic than that of any tyrant in
civilized countries. At Tahiti it used to be death for one of
the inferior orders to approachwithout permissionunder the
shadowof the king's house; or to fail in paying the customary
reverence when food destined for the king was borne past them by
his messengers. At the Sandwich IslandsKaahumanuthe gigantic
old dowager queen--a woman of nearly four hundred pounds weight
and who is said to be still living at Mowee--was accustomedin
some of her terrific gusts of temperto snatch up an ordinary
sized man who had offended herand snap his spine across her
knee. Incredible as this may seemit is a fact. While at
Lahainaluna--the residence of this monstrous Jezebel--a
humpbacked wretch was pointed out to mewhosome twenty-five
years previouslyhad had the vertebrae of his backbone very
seriously discomposed by his gentle mistress.

The particular grades of rank existing among the chiefs of Typee
I could not in all cases determine. Previous to the Feast of
Calabashes I had been puzzled what particular station to assign
to Mehevi. But the important part he took upon that occasion
convinced me that he had no superior among the inhabitants of the
valley. I had invariably noticed a certain degree of deference
paid to him by all with whom I had ever seen him brought in
contact; but when I remembered that my wanderings had been
confined to a limited portion of the valleyand that towards the
sea a number of distinguished chiefs residedsome of whom had
separately visited me at Marheyo's houseand whomuntil the
FestivalI had never seen in the company of MeheviI felt
disposed to believe that his rank after all might not be
particularly elevated.

The revelshoweverhad brought together all the warriors whom I
had seen individually and in groups at different times and
places. Among them Mehevi moved with an easy air of superiority
which was not to be mistaken; and he whom I had only looked at as
the hospitable host of the Tiand one of the military leaders of
the tribenow assumed in my eyes the dignity of royal station.
His striking costumeno less than his naturally commanding
figureseemed indeed to give him pre-eminence over the rest.
The towering helmet of feathers that he wore raised him in height
above all who surrounded him; and though some others were
similarly adornedthe length and luxuriance of their plumes were
inferior to his.

Mehevi was in fact the greatest of the chiefs--the head of his
clan--the sovereign of the valley; and the simplicity of the
social institutions of the people could not have been more
completely proved than by the factthat after having been
several weeks in the valleyand almost in daily intercourse with
MeheviI should have remained until the time of the festival
ignorant of his regal character. But a new light had now broken
in upon me. The Ti was the palace--and Mehevi the king. Both
the one and the other of a most simple and patriarchal nature: it
must be allowedand wholly unattended by the ceremonious pomp
which usually surrounds the purple.

After having made this discovery I could not avoid congratulating

myself that Mehevi had from the first taken me as it were under
his royal protectionand that he still continued to entertain
for me the warmest regardas far at least as I was enabled to
judge from appearances. For the future I determined to pay most
assiduous court to himhoping that eventually through his
kindness I might obtain my liberty.



KING MEHEVI!--A goodly sounding title--and why should I not
bestow it upon the foremost man in the valley of Typee? The
republican missionaries of Oahu cause to be gazetted in the Court
Journalpublished at Honoluluthe most trivial movement of 'his
gracious majesty' King Kammehammaha IIIand 'their highnesses
the princes of the blood royal'.* And who is his 'gracious
majesty'and what the quality of this blood royal'?--His
'gracious majesty' is a fatlazynegro-looking blockheadwith
as little character as power. He has lost the noble traits of
the barbarianwithout acquiring the redeeming graces of a
civilized being; andalthough a member of the Hawiian Temperance
Societyis a most inveterate dram-drinker.

*Accounts like these are sometimes copied into English and
American journals. They lead the reader to infer that the arts
and customs of civilized life are rapidly refining the natives of
the Sandwich Islands. But let no one be deceived by these
accounts. The chiefs swagger about in gold lace and broadcloth
while the great mass of the common people are nearly as primitive
in their appearance as in the days of Cook. In the progress of
events at these islandsthe two classes are receding from each
other; the chiefs are daily becoming more luxurious and
extravagant in their style of livingand the common people more
and more destitute of the necessaries and decencies of life. But
the end to which both will arrive at last will be the same: the
one are fast destroying themselves by sensual indulgencesand
the other are fast being destroyed by a complication of
disordersand the want of wholesome food. The resources of the
domineering chiefs are wrung from the starving serfsand every
additional bauble with which they bedeck themselves is purchased
by the sufferings of their bondsmen; so that the measure of
gew-gaw refinement attained by the chiefs is only an index to the
actual state in which the greater portion of the population lie

The 'blood royal' is an extremely thickdepraved fluid; formed
principally of raw fishbad brandyand European sweetmeatsand
is charged with a variety of eruptive humourswhich are
developed in sundry blotches and pimples upon the august face of
'majesty itself'and the angelic countenances of the 'princes
and princesses of the blood royal'!

Nowif the farcical puppet of a chief magistrate in the Sandwich
Islands be allowed the title of Kingwhy should it be withheld
from the noble savage Meheviwho is a thousand times more worthy
of the appellation? All hailthereforeMeheviKing of the
Cannibal Valleyand long life and prosperity to his Typeean
majesty! May Heaven for many a year preserve himthe
uncompromising foe of Nukuheva and the Frenchif a hostile
attitude will secure his lovely domain from the remorseless
inflictions of South Sea civilization.

Previously to seeing the Dancing Widows I had little idea that
there were any matrimonial relations subsisting in Typeeand I
should as soon have thought of a Platonic affection being
cultivated between the sexesas of the solemn connection of man
and wife. To be surethere were old Marheyo and Tinorwho
seemed to have a sort of nuptial understanding with one another;
but for all thatI had sometimes observed a comical-looking old
gentleman dressed in a suit of shabby tattooingwho had the
audacity to take various liberties with the ladyand that too in
the very presence of the old warrior her husbandwho looked on
as good-naturedly as if nothing was happening. This behaviour
until subsequent discoveries enlightened mepuzzled me more than
anything else I witnessed in Typee.

As for MeheviI had supposed him a confirmed bacheloras well
as most of the principal chiefs. At any rateif they had wives
and familiesthey ought to have been ashamed of themselves; for
sure I amthey never troubled themselves about any domestic
affairs. In truthMehevi seemed to be the president of a club
of hearty fellowswho kept 'Bachelor's Hall' in fine style at
the Ti. I had no doubt but that they regarded children as odious
incumbrances; and their ideas of domestic felicity were
sufficiently shown in the factthat they allowed no meddlesome
housekeepers to turn topsy-turvy those snug little arrangements
they had made in their comfortable dwelling. I strongly
suspected howeverthat some of these jolly bachelors were
carrying on love intrigues with the maidens of the tribe;
although they did not appear publicly to acknowledge them. I
happened to pop upon Mehevi three or four times when he was
romping--in a most undignified manner for a warrior king--with
one of the prettiest little witches in the valley. She lived
with an old woman and a young manin a house near Marheyo's; and
although in appearance a mere child herselfhad a noble boy
about a year oldwho bore a marvellous resemblance to Mehevi
whom I should certainly have believed to have been the father
were it not that the little fellow had no triangle on his
face--but on second thoughtstattooing is not hereditary.
Mehevihoweverwas not the only person upon whom the damsel
Moonoony smiled--the young fellow of fifteenwho permanently
resided in the home with herwas decidedly in her good graces.
I sometimes beheld both him and the chief making love at the same
time. Is it possiblethought Ithat the valiant warrior can
consent to give up a corner in the thing he loves? This too was
a mystery whichwith others of the same kindwas afterwards
satisfactorily explained.

During the second day of the Feast of Calabashes
Kory-Kory--being determined that I should have some understanding
on these matters--hadin the course of his explanations
directed my attention to a peculiarity I had frequently remarked
among many of the females;--principally those of a mature age and
rather matronly appearance. This consisted in having the right
hand and the left foot most elaborately tattooed; whilst the rest
of the body was wholly free from the operation of the artwith

the exception of the minutely dotted lips and slight marks on the
shouldersto which I have previously referred as comprising the
sole tattooing exhibited by Fayawayin common with other young
girls of her age. The hand and foot thus embellished were
according to Kory-Korythe distinguishing badge of wedlockso
far as that social and highly commendable institution is known
among those people. It answersindeedthe same purpose as the
plain gold ring worn by our fairer spouses.

After Kory-Kory's explanation of the subjectI was for some time
studiously respectful in the presence of all females thus
distinguishedand never ventured to indulge in the slightest
approach to flirtation with any of their number. Married women
to be sure!--I knew better than to offend them.

A further insighthoweverinto the peculiar domestic customs of
the inmates of the valley did away in a measure with the severity
of my scruplesand convinced me that I was deceived in some at
least of my conclusions. A regular system of polygamy exists
among the islanders; but of a most extraordinary nature--a
plurality of husbandsinstead of wives! and this solitary fact
speaks volumes for the gentle disposition of the male population.

Where elseindeedcould such a practice existeven for a
single day?--Imagine a revolution brought about in a Turkish
seraglioand the harem rendered the abode of bearded men; or
conceive some beautiful woman in our own country running
distracted at the sight of her numerous lovers murdering one
another before her eyesout of jealousy for the unequal
distribution of her favours!--Heaven defend us from such a state
of things!--We are scarcely amiable and forbearing enough to
submit to it.

I was not able to learn what particular ceremony was observed in
forming the marriage contractbut am inclined to think that it
must have been of a very simple nature. Perhaps the mere
'popping the question'as it is termed with usmight have been
followed by an immediate nuptial alliance. At any rateI have
more than one reason to believe that tedious courtships are
unknown in the valley of Typee.

The males considerably outnumber the females. This holds true of
many of the islands of Polynesiaalthough the reverse of what is
the case in most civilized countries. The girls are first wooed
and wonat a very tender ageby some stripling in the household
in which they reside. Thishoweveris a mere frolic of the
affectionsand no formal engagement is contracted. By the time
this first love has a little subsideda second suitor presents
himselfof graver yearsand carries both boy and girl away to
his own habitation. This disinterested and generous-hearted
fellow now weds the young couple--marrying damsel and lover at
the same time--and all three thenceforth live together as
harmoniously as so many turtles. I haveheard of some men who
in civilized countries rashly marry large families with their
wivesbut had no idea that there was any place where people
married supplementary husbands with them. Infidelity on either
side is very rare. No man has more than one wifeand no wife of
mature years has less than two husbands--sometimes she has
threebut such instances are not frequent. The marriage tie
whatever it may bedoes not appear to be indissoluble; for
separations occasionally happen. Thesehoweverwhen they do
take placeproduce no unhappinessand are preceded by no
bickerings; for the simple reasonthan an ill-used wife or a
henpecked husband is not obliged to file a bill in Chancery to

obtain a divorce. As nothing stands in the way of a separation
the matrimonial yoke sits easily and lightlyand a Typee wife
lives on very pleasant and sociable terms with her husband. On
the wholewedlockas known among these Typeesseems to be of a
more distinct and enduring nature than is usually the case with
barbarous people. A baneful promiscuous intercourse of the sexes
is hereby avoidedand virtuewithout being damorously invoked
isas it wereunconsciously practised.

The contrast exhibited between the Marquesas and other islands of
the Pacific in this respectis worthy of being noticed. At
Tahiti the marriage tie was altogether unknown; and the relation
of husband and wifefather and soncould hardly be said to
exist. The Arreory Society--one of the most singular
institutions that ever existed in any part of the world--spread
universal licentiousness over the island. It was the voluptuous
character of these people which rendered the disease introduced
among them by De Bougainville's ships; in 1768doubly
destructive. It visited them like a plaguesweeping them off by

Notwithstanding the existence of wedlock among the Typeesthe
Scriptural injunction to increase and multiply seems to be but
indifferently attended to. I never saw any of those large
families in arithmetical or step-ladder progression which one
often meets with at home. I never knew of more than two
youngsters living together in the same homeand but seldom even
that number. As for the womenit was very plain that the
anxieties of the nursery but seldom disturbed the serenity of
their souls; and they were never seen going about the valley with
half a score of little ones tagging at their apronstringsor
rather at the bread-fruit-leaf they usually wore in the rear.

The ratio of increase among all the Polynesian nations is very
small; and in some places as yet uncorrupted by intercourse with
Europeansthe births would appear not very little to outnumber
the deaths; the population in such instances remaining nearly the
same for several successive generationseven upon those islands
seldom or never desolated by warsand among people with whom the
crime of infanticide is altogether unknown. This would seem
expressively ordained by Providence to prevent the overstocking
of the islands with a race too indolent to cultivate the ground
and whofor that reason alonewouldby any considerable
increase in their numbersbe exposed to the most deplorable
misery. During the entire period of my stay in the valley of
TypeeI never saw more than ten or twelve children under the age
of six monthsand only became aware of two births.

It is to the looseness of the marriage tie that the late rapid
decrease of the population of the Sandwich Islands and of Tahiti
is in part to be ascribed. The vices and diseases introduced
among these unhappy people annually swell the ordinary mortality
of the islandswhilefrom the same causethe originally small
number of births is proportionally decreased. Thus the progress
of the Hawiians and Tahitians to utter extinction is accelerated
in a sort of compound ratio.

I have before had occasion to remarkthat I never saw any of the
ordinary signs of a pace of sepulture in the valleya
circumstance which I attributedat the timeto my living in a
particular part of itand being forbidden to extend my ramble to
any considerable distance towards the sea. I have since thought
it probablehoweverthat the Typeeseither desirous of
removing from their sight the evidences of mortalityor prompted

by a taste for rural beautymay have some charming cemetery
situation in the shadowy recesses along the base of the
mountains. At Nukuhevatwo or three large quadrangular
'pi-pis'heavily flaggedenclosed with regular stone wallsand
shaded over and almost hidden from view by the interlacing
branches of enormous treeswere pointed out to me as
burial-places. The bodiesI understoodwere deposited in rude
vaults beneath the flaggingand were suffered to remain there
without being disinterred. Although nothing could be more
strange and gloomy than the aspect of these placeswhere the
lofty trees threw their dark shadows over rude blocks of stonea
stranger looking at them would have discerned none of the
ordinary evidences of a place of sepulture.

During my stay in the valleyas none of its inmates were so
accommodating as to die and be buried in order to gratify my
curiosity with regard to their funeral ritesI was reluctantly
obliged to remain in ignorance of them. As I have reason to
believehoweverthe observances of the Typees in these matters
are the same with those of all the other tribes in the islandI
will here relate a scene I chanced to witness at Nukuheva.

A young man had diedabout daybreakin a house near the beach.
I had been sent ashore that morningand saw a good deal of the
preparations they were making for his obsequies. The body
neatly wrapped in a new white tappawas laid out in an open shed
of cocoanut boughsupon a bier constructed of elastic bamboos
ingeniously twisted together. This was supported about two feet
from the groundby large canes planted uprightly in the earth.
Two femalesof a dejected appearancewatched by its side
plaintively chanting and beating the air with large grass fans
whitened with pipe-clay. In the dwelling-house adjoining a
numerous company we assembledand various articles of food were
being prepared for consumption. Two or three individuals
distinguished by head-dresses of beautiful tappaand wearing a
great number of ornamentsappeared to officiate as masters of
the ceremonies. By noon the entertainment had fairly begun and
we were told that it would last during the whole of the two
following days. With the exception of those who mourned by the
corpseevery one seemed disposed to drown the sense of the late
bereavement in convivial indulgence. The girlsdecked out in
their savage finerydanced; the old men chanted; the warriors
smoked and chatted; and the young and lustyof both sexes
feasted plentifullyand seemed to enjoy themselves as pleasantly
as they could have done had it been a wedding.

The islanders understand the art of embalmingand practise it
with such success that the bodies of their great chiefs are
frequently preserved for many years in the very houses where they
died. I saw three of these in my visit to the Bay of Tior. One
was enveloped in immense folds of tappawith only the face
exposedand hung erect against the side of the dwelling. The
others were stretched out upon biers of bambooin openelevated
templeswhich seemed consecrated to their memory. The heads of
enemies killed in battle are invariably preserved and hung up as
trophies in the house of the conqueror. I am not acquainted with
the process which is in usebut believe that fumigation is the
principal agency employed. All the remains which I saw presented
the appearance of a ham after being suspended for some time in a
smoky chimney.

But to return from the dead to the living. The late festival had
drawn togetheras I had every reason to believethe whole
population of the valeand consequently I was enabled to make

some estimate with regard to its numbers. I should imagine that
there were about two thousand inhabitants in Typee; and no number
could have been better adapted to the extent of the valley. The
valley is some nine miles in lengthand may average one in
breadth; the houses being distributed at wide intervals
throughout its whole extentprincipallyhowevertowards the
head of the vale. There are no villages; the houses stand here
and there in the shadow of the grovesor are scattered along the
banks of the winding stream; their golden-hued bamboo sides and
gleaming white thatch forming a beautiful contrast to the
perpetual verdure in which they are embowered. There are no
roads of any kind in the valley. Nothing but a labyrinth of
footpaths twisting and turning among the thickets without end.

The penalty of the Fall presses very lightly upon the valley of
Typee; forwith the one solitary exception of striking a light
I scarcely saw any piece of work performed there which caused the
sweat to stand upon a single brow. As for digging and delving
for a livelihoodthe thing is altogether unknown. Nature has
planted the bread-fruit and the bananaand in her own good time
she brings them to maturitywhen the idle savage stretches forth
his handand satisfies his appetite.

Ill-fated people! I shudder when I think of the change a few
years will produce in their paradisaical abode; and probably when
the most destructive vicesand the worst attendances on
civilizationshall have driven all peace and happiness from the
valleythe magnanimous French will proclaim to the world that
the Marquesas Islands have been converted to Christianity! and
this the Catholic world will doubtless consider as a glorious
event. Heaven help the 'Isles of the Sea'!--The sympathy which
Christendom feels for themhasalas! in too many instances
proved their bane.

How little do some of these poor islanders comprehend when they
look around themthat no inconsiderable part of their disasters
originate in certain tea-party excitementsunder the influence
of which benevolent-looking gentlemen in white cravats solicit
almsand old ladies in spectaclesand young ladies in sober
russet gownscontribute sixpences towards the creation of a
fundthe object of which is to ameliorate the spiritual
condition of the Polynesiansbut whose end has almost invariably
been to accomplish their temporal destruction!

Let the savages be civilizedbut civilize them with benefits
and not with evils; and let heathenism be destroyedbut not by
destroying the heathen. The Anglo-Saxon hive have extirpated
Paganism from the greater part of the North American continent;
but with it they have likewise extirpated the greater portion of
the Red race. Civilization is gradually sweeping from the earth
the lingering vestiges of Paganismand at the same time the
shrinking forms of its unhappy worshippers.

Among the islands of Polynesiano sooner are the images
overturnedthe temples demolishedand the idolators converted
into NOMINAL Christiansthat diseaseviceand premature death
make their appearance. The depopulated land is then recruited
from the rapacioushordes of enlightened individuals who settle
themselves within its bordersand clamorously announce the
progress of the Truth. Neat villastrim gardensshaven lawns
spiresand cupolas arisewhile the poor savage soon finds
himself an interloper in the country of his fathersand that too
on the very site of the hut where he was born. The spontaneous
fruits of the earthwhich God in his wisdom had ordained for the

support of the indolent nativesremorselessly seized upon and
appropriated by the strangerare devoured before the eyes of the
starving inhabitantsor sent on board the numerous vessels which
now touch at their shores.

When the famished wretches are cut off in this manner from their
natural suppliesthey are told by their benefactors to work and
earn their support by the sweat of their brows! But to no fine
gentleman born to hereditary opulencedoes this manual labour
come more unkindly than to the luxurious Indian when thus robbed
of the bounty of heaven. Habituated to a life of indolencehe
cannot and will not exert himself; and wantdiseaseand vice
all evils of foreign growthsoon terminate his miserable

But what matters all this? Behold the glorious result!--The
abominations of Paganism have given way to the pure rites of the
Christian worship--the ignorant savage has been supplanted by
the refined European! Look at Honoluluthe metropolis of the
Sandwich Islands!--A community of disinterested merchantsand
devoted self-exiled heralds of the Crosslocated on the very
spot that twenty years ago was defiled by the presence of
idolatry. What a subject for an eloquent Bible-melting orator!
Nor has such an opportunity for a display of missionary rhetoric
been allowed to pass by unimproved!--But when these
philanthropists send us such glowing accounts of one half of
their labourswhy does their modesty restrain them from
publishing the other half of the good they have wrought?--Not
until I visited Honolulu was I aware of the fact that the small
remnant of the natives had been civilized into drought-horses;
and evangelized into beasts of burden. But so it is. They have
been literally broken into the tracesand are harnessed to the
vehicles of their spiritual instructors like so many dumb brutes!

. . . . . . .

Lest the slightest misconception should arise from anything
thrown out in this chapteror indeed in any other part of the
volumelet me here observe that against the cause of missions
inthe abstract no Christian can possibly be opposed: it is in
truth a just and holy cause. But if the great end proposed by it
be spiritualthe agency employed to accomplish that end is
purely earthly; andalthough the object in view be the
achievement of much goodthat agency may nevertheless be
productive of evil. In shortmissionary undertakinghowever it
may blessed of heavenis in itself but human; and subjectlike
everything elseto errors and abuses. And have not errors and
abuses crept into the most sacred placesand may there not be
unworthy or incapable missionaries abroadas well as
ecclesiastics of similar character at home? May not the
unworthiness or incapacity of those who assume apostolic
functions upon the remote islands of the sea more easily escape
detection by the world at large than if it were displayed in the
heart of a city? An unwarranted confidence in the sanctity of
its apostles--a proneness to regard them as incapable of
guile--and an impatience of the least suspicion to their
rectitude as men or Christianshave ever been prevailing faults
in the Church. Nor is this to be wondered at: for subject as
Christianity is to the assaults of unprincipled foeswe are
naturally disposed to regard everything like an exposure of
ecclesiastical misconduct as the offspring of malevolence or
irreligious feeling. Not even this last considerationhowever
shall deter me from the honest expression of my sentiments.

There is something apparently wrong in the practical operations
of the Sandwich Islands Mission. Those who from pure religious
motives contribute to the support of this enterprise should take
care to ascertain that their donationsflowing through many
devious channelsat last effect their legitimate objectthe
conversion of the Hawaiians. I urge this not because I doubt the
moral probity of those who disburse the fundsbut because I know
that they are not rightly applied. To read pathetic accounts of
missionary hardshipsand glowing descriptions of conversionand
baptismstaking place beneath palm-treesis one thing; and to
go to the Sandwich Islands and see the missionaries dwelling in
picturesque and prettily furnished coral-rock villaswhilst the
miserable natives are committing all sorts of immorality around
themis quite another.

In justice to the missionarieshoweverI will willingly admit
that where-ever evils may have resulted from their collective
mismanagement of the business of the missionand from the want
of vital piety evinced by some of their numberstill the present
deplorable condition of the Sandwich Islands is by no means
wholly chargeable against them. The demoralizing influence of a
dissolute foreign populationand the frequent visits of all
descriptions of vesselshave tended not a little to increase the
evils alluded to. In a wordhereas in every case where
civilization has in any way been introduced among those whom we
call savagesshe has scattered her vicesand withheld her

As wise a man as Shakespeare has saidthat the bearer of evil
tidings hath but a losing office; and so I suppose will it prove
with mein communicating to the trusting friends of the Hawiian
Mission what has been disclosed in various portions of this
narrative. I am persuadedhoweverthat as these disclosures
will by their very nature attract attentionso they will lead to
something which will not be without ultimate benefit to the cause
of Christianity in the Sandwich Islands.

I have but one more thing to add in connection with this
subject--those things which I have stated as facts will remain
factsin spite of whatever the bigoted or incredulous may say or
write against them. My reflectionshoweveron those facts may
not be free from error. If such be the caseI claim no further
indulgence than should be conceded to every man whose object is
to do good.



I HAVE already mentioned that the influence exerted over the
people of the valley by their chiefs was mild in the extreme; and
as to any general rule or standard of conduct by which the
commonality were governed in their intercourse with each other
so far as my observation extendedI should be almost tempted to
saythat none existed on the islandexceptindeedthe
mysterious 'Taboo' be considered as such. During the time I
lived among the Typeesno one was ever put upon his trial for
any offence against the public. To all appearance there were no
courts of law or equity. There was no municipal police for the
purpose of apprehending vagrants and disorderly characters. In
shortthere were no legal provisions whatever for the well-being
and conservation of societythe enlightened end of civilized

legislation. And yet everything went on in the valley with a
harmony and smoothness unparalleledI will venture to assertin
the most selectrefinedand pious associations of mortals in
Christendom. How are we to explain this enigma? These islanders
were heathens! savages! aycannibals! and how came they
without the aid of established lawto exhibitin so eminent a
degreethat social order which is the greatest blessing and
highest pride of the social state?

It may reasonably be inquiredhow were these people governed?
how were their passions controlled in their everyday
transactions? It must have been by an inherent principle of
honesty and charity towards each other. They seemed to be
governed by that sort of tacit common-sense law whichsay what
they will of the inborn lawlessness of the human racehas its
precepts graven on every breast. The grand principles of virtue
and honourhowever they may be distorted by arbitrary codesare
the same all the world over: and where these principles are
concernedthe right or wrong of any action appears the same to
the uncultivated as to the enlightened mind. It is to this
indwellingthis universally diffused perception of what is just
and noblethat the integrity of the Marquesans in their
intercourse with each otheris to be attributed. In the darkest
nights they slept securelywith all their worldly wealth around
themin houses the doors of which were never fastened. The
disquieting ideas of theft or assassination never disturbed them.

Each islander reposed beneath his own palmetto thatchingor sat
under his own bread-fruit treeswith none to molest or alarm
him. There was not a padlock in the valleynor anything that
answered the purpose of one: still there was no community of
goods. This long spearso elegantly carvedand highly
polishedbelongs to Wormoonoo: it is far handsomer than the one
which old Marheyo so greatly prizes; it is the most valuable
article belonging to its owner. And yet I have seen it leaning
against a cocoanut tree in the groveand there it was found when
sought for. Here is a sperm-whale toothgraven all over with
cunning devices: it is the property of Karluna; it is the most
precious of the damsel's ornaments. In her estimation its price
is far above rubies--and yet there hangs the dental jewel by its
cord of braided barkin the girl's housewhich is far back in
the valley; the door is left openand all the inmates have gone
off to bathe in the stream.*

*The strict honesty which the inhabitants of nearly all the
Polynesian Islands manifest toward each otheris in striking
contrast with the thieving propensities some of them evince in
their intercourse with foreigners. It would almost seem that
according to their peculiar code of moralsthe pilfering of a
hatchet or a wrought nail from a Europeanis looked upon as a
praiseworthy action. Or ratherit may be presumedthat bearing
in mind the wholesale forays made upon them by their nautical
visitorsthey consider the property of the latter as a fair
object of reprisal. This considerationwhile it serves to
reconcile an apparent contradiction in the moral character of the
islandersshould in some measure alter that low opinion of it
which the reader of South Sea voyages is too apt to form.

So much for the respect in which 'personal property' is held in
Typee; how secure an investment of 'real property' may beI
cannot take upon me to say. Whether the land of the valley was
the joint property of its inhabitantsor whether it was

parcelled out among a certain number of landed proprietors who
allowed everybody to 'squat' and 'poach' as much as he or she
pleasedI never could ascertain. At any ratemusty parchments
and title-deeds there were none on the island; and I am half
inclined to believe that its inhabitants hold their broad valleys
in fee simple from Nature herself; to have and to holdso long
as grass grows and water runs; or until their French visitorsby
a summary mode of conveyancingshall appropriate them to their
own benefit and behoof.

Yesterday I saw Kory-Kory hie him away armed with a long pole
with whichstanding on the groundhe knocked down the fruit
from the topmost boughs of the treesand brought them home in
his basket of cocoanut leaves. Today I see an islanderwhom I
know to reside in a distant part of the valleydoing the
self-same thing. On the sloping bank of the stream are a number
of banana-trees I have often seen a score or two of young people
making a merry foray on the great golden clustersand bearing
them offone after anotherto different parts of the vale
shouting and trampling as they went. No churlish old curmudgeon
could have been the owner of that grove of bread-fruit treesor
of these gloriously yellow bunches of bananas.

From what I have said it will be perceived that there is a vast
difference between 'personal property' and 'real estate' in the
valley of Typee. Some individualsof courseare more wealthy
than others. For examplethe ridge-pole of Marheyo's house
bends under the weight of many a huge packet of tappa; his long
couch is laid with mats placed one upon the other seven deep.
OutsideTinor has ranged along in her bamboo cupboard--or
whatever the place may be called--a goodly array of calabashes
and wooden trenchers. Nowthe house just beyond the groveand
next to Marheyo'soccupied by Ruarugais not quite so well
furnished. There are only three moderate-sized packages
swinging overhead: there are only two layers of mats beneath; and
the calabashes and trenchers are not so numerousnor so
tastefully stained and carved. But thenRuaruga has a
house--not so pretty a oneto be sure--but just as commodious as
Marheyo's; andI supposeif he wished to vie with his
neighbour's establishmenthe could do so with very little
trouble. Thesein shortconstituted the chief differences
perceivable in the relative wealth of the people in Typee.

Civilization does not engross all the virtues of humanity: she
has not even her full share of them. They flourish in greater
abundance and attain greater strength among many barbarous
people. The hospitality of the wild Arabthe courage of the
North American Indianand the faithful friendship of some of the
Polynesian nationsfar surpass anything of a similar kind among
the polished communities of Europe. If truth and justiceand
the better principles of our naturecannot exist unless enforced
by the statute-bookhow are we to account for the social
condition of the Typees? So pure and upright were they in all
the relations of lifethat entering their valleyas I did
under the most erroneous impressions of their characterI was
soon led to exclaim in amazement: 'Are these the ferocious
savagesthe blood-thirsty cannibals of whom I have heard such
frightful tales! They deal more kindly with each otherand are
more humane than many who study essays on virtue and benevolence
and who repeat every night that beautiful prayer breathed first
by the lips of the divine and gentle Jesus.' I will frankly
declare that after passing a few weeks in this valley of the
MarquesasI formed a higher estimate of human nature than I had
ever before entertained. But alas! since then I have been one

of the crew of a man-of-warand the pent-up wickedness of five
hundred men has nearly overturned all my previous theories.

There was one admirable trait in the general character of the
Typees whichmore than anything elsesecured my admiration: it
was the unanimity of feeling they displayed on every occasion.
With them there hardly appeared to be any difference of opinion
upon any subject whatever. They all thought and acted alike. I
do not conceive that they could support a debating society for a
single night: there would be nothing to dispute about; and were
they to call a convention to take into consideration the state of
the tribeits session would be a remarkably short one. They
showed this spirit of unanimity in every action of life;
everything was done in concert and good fellowship. I will give
an instance of this fraternal feeling.

One dayin returning with Kory-Kory from my accustomed visit to
the Tiwe passed by a little opening in the grove; on one side
of whichmy attendant informed mewas that afternoon to be
built a dwelling of bamboo. At least a hundred of the natives
were bringing materials to the groundsome carrying in their
hands one or two of the canes which were to form the sides
others slender rods of the habiscusstrung with palmetto leaves
for the roof. Every one contributed something to the work; and
by the unitedbut easyand even indolentlabours of allthe
entire work was completed before sunset. The islanderswhile
employed in erecting this tenementreminded me of a colony of
beavers at work. To be surethey were hardly as silent and
demure as those wonderful creaturesnor were they by any means
as diligent. To tell the truth they were somewhat inclined to be
lazybut a perfect tumult of hilarity prevailed; and they worked
together so unitedlyand seemed actuated by such an instinct of
friendlinessthat it was truly beautiful to behold.

Not a single female took part in this employment: and if the
degree of consideration in which the ever-adorable sex is held by
the men be--as the philosophers affirm--a just criterion of the
degree of refinement among a peoplethen I may truly pronounce
the Typees to be as polished a community as ever the sun shone
upon. The religious restrictions of the taboo alone excepted
the women of the valley were allowed every possible indulgence.
Nowhere are the ladies more assiduously courted; nowhere are they
better appreciated as the contributors to our highest enjoyments;
and nowhere are they more sensible of their power. Far different
from their condition among many rude nationswhere the women are
made to perform all the work while their ungallant lords and
masters lie buried in sloththe gentle sex in the valley of
Typee were exempt from toilif toil it might be called that
even in the tropical climatenever distilled one drop of
perspiration. Their light household occupationstogether with
the manufacture of tappathe platting of matsand the polishing
of drinking-vesselswere the only employments pertaining to the
women. And even these resembled those pleasant avocations which
fill up the elegant morning leisure of our fashionable ladies at
home. But in these occupationsslight and agreeable though they
werethe giddy young girls very seldom engaged. Indeed these
wilful care-killing damsels were averse to all useful employment.

Like so many spoiled beautiesthey ranged through the
groves--bathed in the stream--danced--flirted--played all manner
of mischievous pranksand passed their days in one merry round
of thoughtless happiness.

During my whole stay on the island I never witnessed a single

quarrelnor anything that in the slightest degree approached
even to a dispute. The natives appeared to form one household
whose members were bound together by the ties of strong
affection. The love of kindred I did not so much perceivefor
it seemed blended in the general love; and where all were treated
as brothers and sistersit was hard to tell who were actually
related to each other by blood.

Let it not be supposed that I have overdrawn this picture. I
have not done so. Nor let it be urgedthat the hostility of
this tribe to foreignersand the hereditary feuds they carry on
against their fellow-islanders beyond the mountainsare facts
which contradict me. Not so; these apparent discrepancies are
easily reconciled. By many a legendary tale of violence and
wrongas well as by events which have passed before their eyes
these people have been taught to look upon white men with
abhorrence. The cruel invasion of their country by Porter has
alone furnished them with ample provocation; and I can sympathize
in the spirit which prompts the Typee warrior to guard all the
passes to his valley with the point of his levelled spearand
standing upon the beachwith his back turned upon his green
hometo hold at bay the intruding European.

As to the origin of the enmity of this particular clan towards
the neighbouring tribesI cannot so confidently speak. I will
not say that their foes are the aggressorsnor will I endeavour
to palliate their conduct. But surelyif our evil passions must
find ventit is far better to expend them on strangers and
aliensthan in the bosom of the community in which we dwell. In
many polished countries civil contentionsas well as domestic
enmitiesare prevalentand the same time that the most
atrocious foreign wars are waged. How much less guiltythen
are our islanderswho of these three sins are only chargeable
with oneand that the least criminal!

The reader will ere long have reason to suspect that the Typees
are not free from the guilt of cannibalism; and he will then
perhapscharge me with admiring a people against whom so odious
a crime is chargeable. But this only enormity in their character
is not half so horrible as it is usually described. According to
the popular fictionsthe crews of vesselsshipwrecked on some
barbarous coastare eaten alive like so many dainty joints by
the uncivil inhabitants; and unfortunate voyagers are lured into
smiling and treacherous bays; knocked on the head with outlandish
war-clubs; and served up without any prelimary dressing. In
truthso horrific and improbable are these accountsthat many
sensible and well-informed people will not believe that any
cannibals exist; and place every book of voyages which purports
to give any account of themon the same shelf with Blue Beard
and Jack the Giant-Killer. While othersimplicitly crediting
the most extravagant fictionsfirmly believe that there are
people in the world with tastes so depraved that they would
infinitely prefer a single mouthful of material humanity to a
good dinner of roast beef and plum pudding. But hereTruthwho
loves to be centrally locatedis again found between the two
extremes; for cannibalism to a certain moderate extent is
practised among several of the primitive tribes in the Pacific
but it is upon the bodies of slain enemies aloneand horrible
and fearful as the custom isimmeasurably as it is to be
abhorred and condemnedstill I assert that those who indulge in
it are in other respects humane and virtuous.



THERE was no instance in which the social and kindly dispositions
of the Typees were more forcibly evinced than in the manner the
conducted their great fishing parties. Four times during my stay
in the valley the young men assembled near the full of the moon
and went together on these excursions. As they were generally
absent about forty-eight hoursI was led to believe that they
went out towards the open seasome distance from the bay. The
Polynesians seldom use a hook and linealmost always employing
large well-made netsmost ingeniously fabricated from the
twisted fibres of a certain bark. I examined several of them
which had been spread to dry upon the beach at Nukuheva. They
resemble very much our own seinesand I should think they were
nearly as durable.

All the South Sea Islanders are passionately fond of fish; but
none of them can be more so than the inhabitants of Typee. I
could not comprehendthereforewhy they so seldom sought it in
their watersfor it was only at stated times that the fishing
parties were formedand these occasions were always looked
forward to with no small degree of interest.

During their absence the whole population of the place were in a
fermentand nothing was talked of but 'peheepehee' (fish
fish). Towards the time when they were expected to return the
vocal telegraph was put into operation--the inhabitantswho were
scattered throughout the length of the valleyleaped upon rocks
and into treesshouting with delight at the thoughts of the
anticipated treat. As soon as the approach of the party was
announcedthere was a general rush of the men towards the beach;
some of them remaininghoweverabout the Ti in order to get
matters in readiness for the reception of the fishwhich were
brought to the Taboo Groves in immense packages of leaveseach
one of them being suspended from a pole carried on the shoulders
of two men.

I was present at the Ti on one of these occasionsand the sight
was most interesting. After all the packages had arrivedthey
were laid in a row under the verandah of the building and opened.

The fish were all quite smallgenerally about the size of a
herringand of every variety. About one-eighth of the whole
being reserved for the use of the Ti itselfthe remainder was
divided into numerous smaller packageswhich were immediately
dispatched in every direction to the remotest parts of the
valley. Arrived at their destinationthese were in turn
portioned outand equally distributed among the various houses
of each particular district. The fish were under a strict Taboo
until the distribution was completedwhich seemed to be effected
in the most impartial manner. By the operation of this system
every manwomanand child in the valewere at one and the same
time partaking of this favourite article of food.

Once I remember the party arrived at midnight; but the
unseasonableness of the tour did not repress the impatience of
the islanders. The carriers dispatched from the Ti were to be
seen hurrying in all directions through the deep groves; each
individual preceded by a boy bearing a flaming torch of dried
cocoanut boughswhich from time to time was replenished from the

materials scattered along the path. The wild glare of these
enormous flambeauxlighting up with a startling brilliancy the
innermost recesses of the valeand seen moving rapidly along
beneath the canopy of leavesthe savage shout of the excited
messengers sounding the news of their approachwhich was
answered on all sidesand the strange appearance of their naked
bodiesseen against the gloomy backgroundproduced altogether
an effect upon my mind that I shall long remember.

It was on this same occasion that Kory-Kory awakened me at the
dead hour of nightand in a sort of transport communicated the
intelligence contained in the words 'pehee perni' (fish come).
As I happened to have been in a remarkably sound and refreshing
slumberI could not imagine why the information had not been
deferred until morningindeedI felt very much inclined to fly
into a passion and box my valet's ears; but on second thoughts I
got quietly upand on going outside the house was not a little
interested by the moving illumination which I beheld.

When old Marheyo received his share of the spoilsimmediate
preparations were made for a midnight banquet; calabashes of
poee-poee were filled to the brim; green bread-fruit were
roasted; and a huge cake of 'amar' was cut up with a sliver of
bamboo and laid out on an immense banana-leaf.

At this supper we were lighted by several of the native tapers
held in the hands of young girls. These tapers are most
ingeniously made. There is a nut abounding in the valleycalled
by the Typees 'armor'closely resembling our common
horse-chestnut. The shell is brokenand the contents extracted
whole. Any number of these are strung at pleasure upon the long
elastic fibre that traverses the branches of the cocoanut tree.
Some of these tapers are eight or ten feet in length; but being
perfectly flexibleone end is held in a coilwhile the other is
lighted. The nut burns with a fitful bluish flameand the oil
that it contains is exhausted in about ten minutes. As one burns
downthe next becomes ignitedand the ashes of the former are
knocked into a cocoanut shell kept for the purpose. This
primitive candle requires continual attentionand must be
constantly held in the hand. The person so employed marks the
lapse of time by the number of nuts consumedwhich is easily
learned by counting the bits of tappa distributed at regular
intervals along the string.

I grieve to state so distressing a factbut the inhabitants of
Typee were in the habit of devouring fish much in the same way
that a civilized being would eat a radishand without any more
previous preparation. They eat it raw; scalesbonesgillsand
all the inside. The fish is held by the tailand the head being
introduced into the mouththe animal disappears with a rapidity
that would at first nearly lead one to imagine it had been
launched bodily down the throat.

Raw fish! Shall I ever forget my sensations when I first saw my
island beauty devour one. Ohheavens! Fayawayhow could you
ever have contracted so vile a habit? Howeverafter the first
shock had subsidedthe custom grew less odious in my eyesand I
soon accustomed myself to the sight. Let no one imagine
howeverthat the lovely Fayaway was in the habit of swallowing
great vulgar-looking fishes: ohno; with her beautiful small
hand she would clasp a delicatelittlegolden-hued love of a
fish and eat it as elegantly and as innocently as though it were
a Naples biscuit. But alas! it was after all a raw fish; and
all I can say isthat Fayaway ate it in a more ladylike manner

than any other girl of the valley.

When at Rome do as the Romans doI held to be so good a proverb
that being in Typee I made a point of doing as the Typees did.
Thus I ate poee-poee as they did; I walked about in a garb
striking for its simplicity; and I reposed on a community of
couches; besides doing many other things in conformity with their
peculiar habits; but the farthest I ever went in the way of
conformitywas on several occasions to regale myself with raw
fish. These being remarkably tenderand quite smallthe
undertaking was not so disagreeable in the mainand after a few
trials I positively began to relish them; howeverI subjected
them to a slight operation with a knife previously to making my



I THINK I must enlighten the reader a little about the natural
history of the valley.

Whencein the name of Count Buffon and Baron Cuviercame those
dogs that I saw in Typee? Dogs!--Big hairless rats rather; all
with smoothshining speckled hides--fat sidesand very
disagreeable faces. Whence could they have come? That they were
not the indigenous production of the regionI am firmly
convinced. Indeed they seemed aware of their being interlopers
looking fairly ashamedand always trying to hide themselves in
some dark corner. It was plain enough they did not feel at home
in the vale--that they wished themselves well out of itand back
to the ugly country from which they must have come.

Scurvy curs! they were my abhorrence; I should have liked
nothing better than to have been the death of every one of them.
In facton one occasionI intimated the propriety of a canine
crusade to Mehevi; but the benevolent king would not consent to
it. He heard me very patiently; but when I had finishedshook
his headand told me in confidence that they were 'taboo'.

As for the animal that made the fortune of the ex-lord-mayor
WhittingtonI shall never forget the day that I was lying in the
house about nooneverybody else being fast asleep; and happening
to raise my eyesmet those of a big black spectral catwhich
sat erect in the doorwaylooking at me with its frightful
goggling green orbslike one of those monstrous imps that
torment some of Teniers' saints! I am one of those unfortunate
persons to whom the sight of these animals areat any time an
insufferable annoyance.

Thus constitutionally averse to cats in generalthe unexpected
apparition of this one in particular utterly confounded me. When
I had a little recovered from the fascination of its glanceI
started up; the cat fledand emboldened by thisI rushed out of
the house in pursuit; but it had disappeared. It was the only
time I ever saw one in the valleyand how it got there I cannot
imagine. It is just possible that it might have escaped from one
of the ships at Nukuheva. It was in vain to seek information on

the subject from the nativessince none of them had seen the
animalthe appearance of which remains a mystery to me to this

Among the few animals which are to be met with in Typeethere
was none which I looked upon with more interest than a beautiful
golden-hued species of lizard. It measured perhaps five inches
from head to tailand was most gracefully proportioned. Numbers
of those creatures were to be seen basking in the sunshine upon
the thatching of the housesand multitudes at all hours of the
day showed their glittering sides as they ran frolicking between
the spears of grass or raced in troops up and down the tall
shafts of the cocoanut trees. But the remarkable beauty of these
little animals and their lively ways were not their only claims
upon my admiration. They were perfectly tame and insensible to
fear. Frequentlyafter seating myself upon the ground in some
shady place during the heat of the dayI would be completely
overrun with them. If I brushed one off my armit would leap
perhaps into my hair: when I tried to frighten it away by gently
pinching its legit would turn for protection to the very hand
that attacked it.

The birds are also remarkably tame. If you happened to see one
perched upon a branch within reach of your armand advanced
towards itit did not fly away immediatelybut waited quietly
looking at youuntil you could almost touch itand then took
wing slowlyless alarmed at your presenceit would seemthan
desirous of removing itself from your path. Had salt been less
scarce in the valley than it wasthis was the very place to have
gone birding with it. I remember that onceon an uninhabited
island of the Gallipagosa bird alighted on my outstretched arm
while its mate chirped from an adjoining tree. Its tamenessfar
from shocking meas a similar occurrence did Selkirkimparted
to me the most exquisite thrill of delight I ever experienced
and with somewhat of the same pleasure did I afterwards behold
the birds and lizards of the valley show their confidence in the
kindliness of man.

Among the numerous afflictions which the Europeans have entailed
upon some of the natives of the South Seasis the accidental
introduction among them of that enemy of all repose and ruffler
of even tempers--the Mosquito. At the Sandwich Islands and at
two or three of the Society groupthere are now thriving
colonies of these insectswho promise ere long to supplant
altogether the aboriginal sand-flies. They stingbuzzand
tormentfrom one end of the year to the otherand by
incessantly exasperating the natives materially obstruct the
benevolent labours of the missionaries.

From this grievous visitationhowever the Typees are as yet
wholly exempt; but its place is unfortunately in some degree
supplied by the occasional presence of a minute species of fly
whichwithout stingingis nevertheless productive of no little
annoyance. The tameness of the birds and lizards is as nothing
when compared to the fearless confidence of this insect. He will
perch upon one of your eye-lashesand go to roost there if you
do not disturb himor force his way through your hairor along
the cavity of the nostriltill you almost fancy he is resolved
to explore the very brain itself. On one occasion I was so
inconsiderate as to yawn while a number of them were hovering
around me. I never repeated the act. Some half-dozen darted
into the open apartmentand began walking about its ceiling; the
sensation was dreadful. I involuntarily closed my mouthand the
poor creatures being enveloped in inner darknessmust in their

consternation have stumbled over my palateand been precipitated
into the gulf beneath. At any ratethough I afterwards
charitably held my mouth open for at least five minuteswith a
view of affording egress to the stragglersnone of them ever
availed themselves of the opportunity.

There are no wild animals of any kind on the island unless it be
decided that the natives themselves are such. The mountains and
the interior present to the eye nothing but silent solitudes
unbroken by the roar of beasts of preyand enlivened by few
tokens even of minute animated existence. There are no venomous
reptilesand no snakes of any description to be found in any of
the valleys.

In a company of Marquesan natives the weather affords no topic of
conversation. It can hardly be said to have any vicissitudes.
The rainy seasonit is truebrings frequent showersbut they
are intermitting and refreshing. When an islander bound on some
expedition rises from his couch in the morninghe is never
solicitous to peep out and see how the sky looksor ascertain
from what quarter the wind blows. He is always sure of a 'fine
day'and the promise of a few genial showers he hails with
pleasure. There is never any of that 'remarkable weather' on the
islands which from time immemorial has been experienced in
Americaand still continues to call forth the wondering
conversational exclamations of its elderly citizens. Nor do
there even occur any of those eccentric meteorological changes
which elsewhere surprise us. In the valley of Typee ice-creams
would never be rendered less acceptable by sudden frostsnor
would picnic parties be deferred on account of inauspicious
snowstorms: for there day follows day in one unvarying round of
summer and sunshineand the whole year is one long tropical
month of June just melting into July.

It is this genial climate which causes the cocoanuts to flourish
as they do. This invaluable fruitbrought to perfection by the
rich soil of the Marquesasand home aloft on a stately column
more than a hundred feet from the groundwould seem at first
almost inaccessible to the simple natives. Indeed the slender
smoothand soaring shaftwithout a single limb or protuberance
of any kind to assist one in mounting itpresents an obstacle
only to be overcome by the surprising agility and ingenuity of
the islanders. It might be supposed that their indolence would
lead them patiently to await the period when the ripened nuts
slowly parting from their stemsfall one by one to the ground.
This certainly would be the casewere it not that the young
fruitencased in a soft green huskwith the incipient meat
adhering in a jelly-like pellicle to its sidesand containing a
bumper of the most delicious nectaris what they chiefly prize.
They have at least twenty different terms to express as many
progressive stages in the growth of the nut. Many of them reject
the fruit altogether except at a particular period of its growth
whichincredible as it may appearthey seemed to me to be able
to ascertain within an hour or two. Others are still more
capricious in their tastes; and after gathering together a heap
of the nuts of all agesand ingeniously tapping themwill first
sip from one and then from anotheras fastidiously as some
delicate wine-bibber experimenting glass in hand among his dusty
demi-johns of different vintages.

Some of the young menwith more flexible frames than their
comradesand perhaps with more courageous soulsbad a way of
walking up the trunk of the cocoanut trees which to me seemed
little less than miraculous; and when looking at them in the act

I experienced that curious perplexity a child feels when he
beholds a fly moving feet uppermost along a ceiling.

I will endeavour to describe the way in which Narneea noble
young chiefsometimes performed this feat for my peculiar
gratification; but his preliminary performances must also be
recorded. Upon my signifying my desire that he should pluck me
the young fruit of some particular treethe handsome savage
throwing himself into a sudden attitude of surprisefeigns
astonishment at the apparent absurdity of the request.
Maintaining this position for a momentthe strange emotions
depicted on his countenance soften down into one of humorous
resignation to my willand then looking wistfully up to the
tufted top of the treehe stands on tip-toestraining his neck
and elevating his armas though endeavouring to reach the fruit
from the ground where he stands. As if defeated in this childish
attempthe now sinks to the earth despondinglybeating his
breast in well-acted despair; and thenstarting to his feet all
at onceand throwing back his headraises both handslike a
school-boy about to catch a falling ball. After continuing this
for a moment or twoas if in expectation that the fruit was
going to be tossed down to him by some good spirit in the
tree-tophe turns wildly round in another fit of despairand
scampers off to the distance of thirty or forty yards. Here he
remains awhileeyeing the treethe very picture of misery; but
the next momentreceivingas it werea flash of inspiration
he rushes again towards itand clasping both arms about the
trunkwith one elevated a little above the otherhe presses the
soles of his feet close together against the treeextending his
legs from it until they are nearly horizontaland his body
becomes doubled into an arch; thenhand over hand and foot over
foothe rises from the earth with steady rapidityand almost
before you are aware of ithas gained the cradled and embowered
nest of nutsand with boisterous glee flings the fruit to the

This mode of walking the tree is only practicable where the trunk
declines considerably from the perpendicular. Thishoweveris
almost always the case; some of the perfectly straight shafts of
the trees leaning at an angle of thirty degrees.

The less active among the menand many of the children of the
valley have another method of climbing. They take a broad and
stout piece of barkand secure each end of it to their ankles
so that when the feet thus confined are extended aparta space
of little more than twelve inches is left between them. This
contrivance greatly facilitates the act of climbing. The band
pressed against the treeand closely embracing ityields a
pretty firm support; while with the arms clasped about the trunk
and at regular intervals sustaining the bodythe feet are drawn
up nearly a yard at a timeand a corresponding elevation of the
hands immediately succeeds. In this way I have seen little
childrenscarcely five years of agefearlessly climbing the
slender pole of a young cocoanut treeand while hanging perhaps
fifty feet from the groundreceiving the plaudits of their
parents beneathwho clapped their handsand encouraged them to
mount still higher.

Whatthought Ion first witnessing one of these exhibitions
would the nervous mothers of America and England say to a similar
display of hardihood in any of their children? The Lacedemonian
nation might have approved of itbut most modern dames would
have gone into hysterics at the sight.

At the top of the cocoanut tree the numerous branchesradiating
on all sides from a common centreform a sort of green and
waving basketbetween the leaflets of which you just discern the
nuts thickly clustering togetherand on the loftier trees
looking no bigger from the ground than bunches of grapes. I
remember one adventurous little fellow--Too-Too was the rascal's
name--who had built himself a sort of aerial baby-house in the
picturesque tuft of a tree adjoining Marheyo's habitation. He
used to spend hours there--rustling among the branchesand
shouting with delight every time the strong gusts of wind rushing
down from the mountain sideswayed to and fro the tall and
flexible column on which he was perched. Whenever I heard
Too-Too's musical voice sounding strangely to the ear from so
great a heightand beheld him peeping down upon me from out his
leafy coverthe always recalled to my mind Dibdin's lines--

'There's a sweet little cherub that sits up aloftTo look out
for the life of poor Jack.'

Birds--bright and beautiful birds--fly over the valley of Typee.
You see them perched aloft among the immovable boughs of the
majestic bread-fruit treesor gently swaying on the elastic
branches of the Omoo; skimming over the palmetto thatching of the
bamboo huts; passing like spirits on the wing through the shadows
of the groveand sometimes descending into the bosom of the
valley in gleaming flights from the mountains. Their plumage is
purple and azurecrimson and whiteblack and gold; with bills
of every tint: bright bloody redjet blackand ivory whiteand
their eyes are bright and sparkling; they go sailing through the
air in starry throngs; butalas! the spell of dumbness is upon
them all--there is not a single warbler in the valley!

I know not why it wasbut the sight of these birdsgenerally
the ministers of gladnessalways oppressed me with melancholy.
As in their dumb beauty they hovered by me whilst I was walking
or looked down upon me with steady curious eyes from out the
foliageI was almost inclined to fancy that they knew they were
gazing upon a strangerand that they commiserated his fate.



IN one of my strolls with Kory-Koryin passing along the border
of a thick growth of bushesmy attention was arrested by a
singular noise. On entering the thicket I witnessed for the
first time the operation of tattooing as performed by these

I beheld a man extended flat upon his back on the groundand
despite the forced composure of his countenanceit was evident
that he was suffering agony. His tormentor bent over him
working away for all the world like a stone-cutter with mallet
and chisel. In one hand he held a short slender stickpointed
with a shark's toothon the upright end of which he tapped with
a small hammer-like piece of woodthus puncturing the skinand
charging it with the colouring matter in which the instrument was
dipped. A cocoanut shell containing this fluid was placed upon
the ground. It is prepared by mixing with a vegetable juice the
ashes of the 'armor'or candle-nutalways preserved for the

purpose. Beside the savageand spread out upon a piece of
soiled tappawere a great number of curious black-looking little
implements of bone and woodused in the various divisions of his
art. A few terminated in a single fine pointandlike very
delicate pencilswere employed in giving the finishing touches
or in operating upon the more sensitive portions of the bodyas
was the case in the present instance. Others presented several
points distributed in a linesomewhat resembling the teeth of a
saw. These were employed in the coarser parts of the workand
particularly in pricking in straight marks. Some presented their
points disposed in small figuresand being placed upon the body
wereby a single blow of the hammermade to leave their
indelible impression. I observed a few the handles of which were
mysteriously curvedas if intended to be introduced into the
orifice of the earwith a view perhaps of beating the tattoo
upon the tympanum. Altogether the sight of these strange
instruments recalled to mind that display of cruel-looking
mother-of-pearl-handled things which one sees in their
velvet-lined cases at the elbow of a dentist.

The artist was not at this time engaged on an original sketch
his subject being a venerable savagewhose tattooing had become
somewhat faded with age and needed a few repairsand accordingly
he was merely employed in touching up the works of some of the
old masters of the Typee schoolas delineated upon the human
canvas before him. The parts operated upon were the eyelids
where a longitudinal streaklike the one which adorned
Kory-Korycrossed the countenance of the victim.

In spite of all the efforts of the poor old mansundry
twitchings and screwings of the muscles of the face denoted the
exquisite sensibility of these shutters to the windows of his
soulwhich he was now having repainted. But the artistwith a
heart as callous as that of an army surgeoncontinued his
performanceenlivening his labours with a wild chanttapping
away the while as merrily as a woodpecker.

So deeply engaged was he in his workthat he had not observed
our approachuntilafter havingenjoyed an unmolested view of
the operationI chose to attract his attention. As soon as he
perceived mesupposing that I sought him in his professional
capacityhe seized hold of me in a paroxysm of delightand was
an eagerness to begin the work. WhenhoweverI gave him to
understand that he had altogether mistaken my viewsnothing
could exceed his grief and disappointment. But recovering from
thishe seemed determined not to discredit my assertionand
grasping his implementshe flourished them about in fearful
vicinity to my facegoing through an imaginary performance of
his artand every moment bursting into some admiring exclamation
at the beauty of his designs.

Horrified at the bare thought of being rendered hideous for life
if the wretch were to execute his purpose upon meI struggled to
get away from himwhile Kory-Koryturning traitorstood by
and besought me to comply with the outrageous request. On my
reiterated refusals the excited artist got half beside himself
and was overwhelmed with sorrow at losing so noble an opportunity
of distinguishing himself in his profession.

The idea of engrafting his tattooing upon my white skin filled
him with all a painter's enthusiasm; again and again he gazed
into my countenanceand every fresh glimpse seemed to add to the
vehemence of his ambition. Not knowing to what extremities he
might proceedand shuddering at the ruin he might inflict upon

my figure-headI now endeavoured to draw off his attention from
itand holding out my arm in a fit of desperationsigned to him
to commence operations. But he rejected the compromise
indignantlyand still continued his attack on my faceas though
nothing short of that would satisfy him. When his forefinger
swept across my featuresin laying out the borders of those
parallel bands which were to encircle my countenancethe flesh
fairly crawled upon my bones. At lasthalf wild with terror and
indignationI succeeded in breaking away from the three savages
and fled towards old Marheyo's housepursued by the indomitable
artistwho ran after meimplements in hand. Kory-Kory
howeverat last interfered and drew him off from the chase.

This incident opened my eyes to a new danger; and I now felt
convinced that in some luckless hour I should be disfigured in
such a manner as never more to have the FACE to return to my
countrymeneven should an opportunity offer.

These apprehensions were greatly increased by the desire which
King Mehevi and several of the inferior chiefs now manifested
that I should be tattooed. The pleasure of the king was first
signified to me some three days after my casual encounter with
Karky the artist. Heavens! what imprecations I showered upon
that Karky. Doubtless he had plotted a conspiracy against me and
my countenanceand would never rest until his diabolical purpose
was accomplished. Several times I met him in various parts of
the valleyandinvariablywhenever he descried mehe came
running after me with his mallet and chiselflourishing them
about my face as if he longed to begin. What an object he would
have made of me!

When the king first expressed his wish to meI made known to him
my utter abhorrence of the measureand worked myself into such a
state of excitementthat he absolutely stared at me in
amazement. It evidently surpassed his majesty's comprehension
how any sober-minded and sensible individual could entertain the
least possible objection to so beautifying an operation.

Soon afterwards he repeated his suggestionand meeting with a
little repulseshowed some symptoms of displeasure at my
obduracy. On his a third time renewing his requestI plainly
perceived that something must be doneor my visage was ruined
for ever; I therefore screwed up my courage to the sticking
pointand declared my willingness to have both arms tattooed
from just above the wrist to the shoulder. His majesty was
greatly pleased at the propositionand I was congratulating
myself with having thus compromised the matterwhen he intimated
that as a thing of course my face was first to undergo the
operation. I was fairly driven to despair; nothing but the utter
ruin of my 'face divine'as the poets call itwouldI
perceivedsatisfy the inexorable Mehevi and his chiefsor
ratherthat infernal Karkyfor he was at the bottom of it all.

The only consolation afforded me was a choice of patterns: I was
at perfect liberty to have my face spanned by three horizontal
barsafter the fashion of my serving-man's; or to have as many
oblique stripes slanting across it; or iflike a true courtier
I chose to model my style on that of royaltyI might wear a sort
of freemason badge upon my countenance in the shape of a mystic
triangle. HoweverI would have none of thesethough the king
most earnestly impressed upon my mind that my choice was wholly
unrestricted. At lastseeing my unconquerable repugnancehe
ceased to importune me.

But not so some other of the savages. Hardly a day passed but I
was subjected to their annoying requestsuntil at last my
existence became a burden to me; the pleasures I had previously
enjoyed no longer afforded me delightand all my former desire
to escape from the valley now revived with additional force.

A fact which I soon afterwards learned augmented my apprehension.
The whole system of tattooing wasI foundconnected with their
religion; and it was evidentthereforethat they were resolved
to make a convert of me.

In the decoration of the chiefs it seems to be necessary to
exercise the most elaborate pencilling; while some of the
inferior natives looked as if they had been daubed over
indiscriminately with a house-painter's brush. I remember one
fellow who prided himself hugely upon a great oblong patch
placed high upon his backand who always reminded me of a man
with a blister of Spanish fliesstuck between his shoulders.
Another whom I frequently met had the hollow of his eyes tattooed
in two regular squares and his visual organs being remarkably
brilliantthey gleamed forth from out this setting like a couple
of diamonds inserted in ebony.

Although convinced that tattooing was a religious observance
still the nature of the connection between it and the
superstitious idolatry of the people was a point upon which I
could never obtain any information. Like the still more
important system of the 'Taboo'it always appeared inexplicable
to me.

There is a marked similarityalmost an identitybetween the
religious institutions of most of the Polynesian islandsand in
all exists the mysterious 'Taboo'restricted in its uses to a
greater or less extent. So strange and complex in its
arrangements is this remarkable systemthat I have in several
cases met with individuals whoafter residing for years among
the islands in the Pacificand acquiring a considerable
knowledge of the languagehave nevertheless been altogether
unable to give any satisfactory account of its operations.
Situated as I was in the Typee valleyI perceived every hour the
effects of this all-controlling powerwithout in the least
comprehending it. Those effects wereindeedwide-spread and
universalpervading the most important as well as the minutest
transactions of life. The savagein shortlives in the
continual observance of its dictateswhich guide and control
every action of his being.

For several days after entering the valley I had been saluted at
least fifty times in the twenty-four hours with the talismanic
word 'Taboo' shrieked in my earsat some gross violation of its
provisionsof which I had unconsciously been guilty. The day
after our arrival I happened to hand some tobacco to Toby over
the head of a native who sat between us. He started upas if
stung by an adder; while the whole companymanifesting an equal
degree of horrorsimultaneously screamed out 'Taboo!' I never
again perpetrated a similar piece of ill-mannerswhichindeed
was forbidden by the canons of good breedingas well as by the
mandates of the taboo. But it was not always so easy to perceive
wherein you had contravened the spirit of this institution.
was many times called to orderif I may use the phrasewhen I
could not for the life of me conjecture what particular offence I
had committed.

One day I was strolling through a secluded portion of the valley

and hearing the musical sound of the cloth-mallet at a little
distanceI turned down a path that conducted me in a few moments
to a house where there were some half-dozen girls employed in
making tappa. This was an operation I had frequently witnessed
and had handled the bark in all the various stages of its
preparation. On the present occasion the females were intent
upon their occupationand after looking up and talking gaily to
me for a few momentsthey resumed their employment. I regarded
them for a while in silenceand then carelessly picking up a
handful of the material that lay aroundproceeded unconsciously
to pick it apart. While thus engagedI was suddenly startled by
a screamlike that of a whole boarding-school of young ladies
just on the point of going into hysterics. Leaping up with the
idea of seeing a score of Happar warriors about to perform anew
the Sabine atrocityI found myself confronted by the company of
girlswhohaving dropped their workstood before me with
starting eyesswelling bosomsand fingers pointed in horror
towards me.

Thinking that some venomous reptile must be concealed in the bark
which I held in my handI began cautiously to separate and
examine it. Whilst I did so the horrified girls re-doubled their
shrieks. Their wild cries and frightened motions actually
alarmed meand throwing down the tappaI was about to rush from
the housewhen in the same instant their clamours ceasedand
one of themseizing me by the armpointed to the broken fibres
that had just fallen from my graspand screamed in my ears the
fatal word Taboo!

I subsequently found out that the fabric they were engaged in
making was of a peculiar kinddestined to be worn on the heads
of the femalesand through every stage of its manufacture was
guarded by a rigorous taboowhich interdicted the whole
masculine gender from even so much as touching it.

Frequently in walking through the groves I observed bread-fruit
and cocoanut treeswith a wreath of leaves twined in a peculiar
fashion about their trunks. This was the mark of the taboo. The
trees themselvestheir fruitand even the shadows they cast
upon the groundwere consecrated by its presence. In the same
way a pipewhich the king had bestowed upon mewas rendered
sacred in the eyes of the nativesnone of whom could I ever
prevail upon to smoke from it. The bowl was encircled by a woven
band of grasssomewhat resembling those Turks' heads
occasionally worked in the handles of our whip-stalks

A similar badge was once braided about my wrist by the royal hand
of Mehevi himselfwhoas soon as he had concluded the
operationpronounced me 'Taboo'. This occurred shortly after
Toby's disappearance; andwere it not that from the first moment
I had entered the valley the natives had treated me with uniform
kindnessI should have supposed that their conduct afterwards
was to be ascribed to the fact that I had received this sacred

The capriciousoperations of the taboo are not its least
remarkable feature: to enumerate them all would be impossible.
Black hogs--infants to a certain age--women in an interesting
situation--young men while the operation of tattooing their faces
is going on--and certain parts of the valley during the
continuance of a shower--are alike fenced about by the operation
of the taboo.

I witnessed a striking instance of its effects in the bay of

Tiormy visit to which place has been alluded to in a former
part of this narrative. On that occasion our worthy captain
formed one of the party. He was a most insatiable sportsman.
Outward boundand off the pitch of Cape Hornhe used to sit on
the taffrailand keep the steward loading three or four old
fowling pieceswith which he would bring down albatrossesCape
pigeonsjayspetrelsand divers other marine fowlwho
followed chattering in our wake. The sailors were struck aghast
at his impietyand one and all attributed our forty days'
beating about that horrid headland to his sacrilegious slaughter
of these inoffensive birds.

At Tior he evinced the same disregard for the religious
prejudices of the islandersas he had previously shown for the
superstitions of the sailors. Having heard that there were a
considerable number of fowls in the valley the progeny of some
cocks and hens accidentally left there by an English vesseland
whichbeing strictly tabooedflew about almost in a wild
state--he determined to break through all restraintsand be the
death of them. Accordinglyhe provided himself with a most
formidable looking gunand announced his landing on the beach by
shooting down a noble cock that was crowing what proved to be his
own funeral dirgeon the limb of an adjoining tree. 'Taboo'
shrieked the affrighted savages. 'Ohhang your taboo' says the
nautical sportsman; 'talk taboo to the marines'; and bang went
the piece againand down came another victim. At this the
natives ran scampering through the groveshorror-struck at the
enormity of the act.

All that afternoon the rocky sides of the valley rang with
successive reportsand the superb plumage of many a beautiful
fowl was ruffled by the fatal bullet. Had it not been that the
French admiralwith a large partywas then in the glenI have
no doubt that the nativesalthough their tribe was small and
dispiritedwould have inflicted summary vengeance upon the man
who thus outraged their most sacred institutions; as it wasthey
contrived to annoy him not a little.

Thirsting with his exertionsthe skipper directed his steps to a
stream; but the savageswho had followed at a little distance
perceiving his objectrushed towards him and forced him away
from its bank--his lips would have polluted it. Wearied at last
he sought to enter a house that he might rest for a while on the
mats; its inmates gathered tumultuously about the door and denied
him admittance. He coaxed and blustered by turnsbut in vain;
the natives were neither to be intimidated nor appeasedand as a
final resort he was obliged to call together his boat's crewand
pull away from what he termed the most infernal place he ever
stepped upon.

Lucky was it for him and for us that we were not honoured on our
departure by a salute of stones from the hands of the exasperated
Tiors. In this wayon the neighbouring island of Ropowere
killedbut a few weeks previouslyand for a nearly similar
offencethe master and three of the crew of the K---.

I cannot determine with anything approaching to certaintywhat
power it is that imposes the taboo. When I consider the slight
disparity of condition among the islanders--the very limited and
inconsiderable prerogatives of the king and chiefs--and the loose
and indefinite functions of the priesthoodmost of whom were
hardly to be distinguished from the rest of their countrymenI
am wholly at a loss where to look for the authority which
regulates this potent institution. It is imposed upon something

todayand withdrawn tomorrow; while its operations in other
cases are perpetual. Sometimes its restrictions only affect a
single individual--sometimes a particular family--sometimes a
whole tribe; and in a few instances they extend not merely over
the various clans on a single islandbut over all the
inhabitants of an entire group. In illustration of this latter
peculiarityI may cite the law which forbids a female to enter a
canoe--a prohibition which prevails upon all the northern
Marquesas Islands.

The word itself (taboo) is used in more than one signification.
It is sometimes used by a parent to his childwhen in the
exercise of parental authority he forbids it to perform a
particular action. Anything opposed to the ordinary customs of
the islandersalthough not expressly prohibitedis said to be

The Typee language is one very difficult to be acquired; it bears
a close resemblance to the other Polynesian dialectsall of
which show a common origin. The duplication of wordsas 'lumee
lumee''poee poee''muee muee'is one of their peculiar
features. But anotherand a more annoying oneis the different
senses in which one and the same word is employed; its various
meanings all have a certain connectionwhich only makes the
matter more puzzling. So one brisklively little word is
obligedlike a servant in a poor familyto perform all sorts of
duties; for instanceone particular combination of syllables
expresses the ideas of sleeprestrecliningsittingleaning
and all other things anywise analogous theretothe particular
meaning being shown chiefly by a variety of gestures and the
eloquent expression of the countenance.

The intricacy of these dialects is another peculiarity. In the
Missionary College at Lahainalunaon Moweeone of the Sandwich
IslandsI saw a tabular exhibition of a Hawiian verbconjugated
through all its moods and tenses. It covered the side of a
considerable apartmentand I doubt whether Sir William Jones
himself would not have despaired of mastering it.



SADLY discursive as I have already beenI must still further
entreat the reader's patienceas I am about to string together
without any attempt at ordera few odds and ends of things not
hitherto mentionedbut which are either curious in themselves or
peculiar to the Typees.

There was one singular custom observed in old Marheyo's domestic
establishmentwhich often excited my surprise. Every night
before retiringthe inmates of the house gathered together on
the matsand so squatting upon their haunchesafter the
universal practice of these islanderswould commence a low
dismal and monotonous chantaccompanying the voice with the
instrumental melody produced by two small half-rotten sticks
tapped slowly togethera pair of which were held in the hands of

each person present. Thus would they employ themselves for an
hour or twosometimes longer. Lying in the gloom which wrapped
the further end of the houseI could not avoid looking at them
although the spectacle suggested nothing but unpleasant
reflection. The flickering rays of the 'armor' nut just served
to reveal their savage lineamentswithout dispelling the
darkness that hovered about them.

Sometimes whenafter falling into a kind of dozeand awaking
suddenly in the midst of these doleful chantingsmy eye would
fall upon the wild-looking group engaged in their strange
occupationwith their naked tattooed limbsand shaven heads
disposed in a circleI was almost tempted to believe that I
gazed upon a set of evil beings in the act of working at a
frightful incantation.

What was the meaning or purpose of this customwhether it was
practiced merely as a diversionor whether it was a religious
exercisea sort of family prayersI never could discover.

The sounds produced by the natives on these occasions were of a
most singular description; and had I not actually been presentI
never would have believed that such curious noises could have
been produced by human beings.

To savages generally is imputed a guttural articulation. This
howeveris not always the caseespecially among the inhabitants
of the Polynesian Archipelago. The labial melody with which the
Typee girls carry on an ordinary conversationgiving a musical
prolongation to the final syllable of every sentenceand
chirping out some of the words with a liquidbird-like accent
was singularly pleasing.

The men howeverare not quite so harmonious in their utterance
and when excited upon any subjectwould work themselves up into
a sort of wordy paroxysmduring which all descriptions of
rough-sided sounds were projected from their mouthswith a force
and rapidity which was absolutely astonishing.

. . . . . . . .

Although these savages are remarkably fond of chantingstill
they appear to have no idea whatever of singingat least as the
art is practised in other nations.

I shall never forget the first time I happened to roar out a
stave in the presence of noble Mehevi. It was a stanza from the
'Bavarian broom-seller'. His Typeean majestywith all his
courtgazed upon me in amazementas if I had displayed some
preternatural faculty which Heaven had denied to them. The King
was delighted with the verse; but the chorus fairly transported
him. At his solicitation I sang it again and againand nothing
could be more ludicrous than his vain attempts to catch the air
and the words. The royal savage seemed to think that by screwing
all the features of his face into the end of his nose he might
possibly succeed in the undertakingbut it failed to answer the
purpose; and in the end he gave it upand consoled himself by
listening to my repetition of the sounds fifty times over.

Previous to Mehevi's making the discoveryI had never been aware
that there was anything of the nightingale about me; but I was
now promoted to the place of court-minstrelin which capacity I
was afterwards perpetually called upon to officiate.

. . . . . . . .

Besides the sticks and the drumsthere are no other musical
instruments among the Typeesexcept one which might
appropriately be denominated a nasal flute. It is somewhat
longer than an ordinary fife; is made of a beautiful
scarlet-coloured reed; and has four or five stopswith a large
hole near one endwhich latter is held just beneath the left
nostril. The other nostril being closed by a peculiar movement
of the muscles about the nosethe breath is forced into the
tubeand produces a soft dulcet sound which is varied by the
fingers running at random over the stops. This is a favourite
recreation with the females and one in which Fayaway greatly
excelled. Awkward as such an instrument may appearit wasin
Fayaway's delicate little handsone of the most graceful I have
ever seen. A young ladyin the act of tormenting a guitar
strung about her neck by a couple of yards of blue ribbonis not
half so engaging.

. . . . . . . .

Singing was not the only means I possessed of diverting the royal
Mehevi and his easy-going subject. Nothing afforded them more
pleasure than to see me go through the attitude of pugilistic
encounter. As not one of the natives had soul enough in him to
stand up like a manand allow me to hammer away at himfor my
own personal gratification and that of the kingI was
necessitated to fight with an imaginary enemywhom I invariably
made to knock under to my superior prowess. Sometimes when this
sorely battered shadow retreated precipitately towards a group of
the savagesandfollowing him upI rushed among them dealing
my blows right and leftthey would disperse in all directions
much to the enjoyment of Mehevithe chiefsand themselves.

The noble art of self-defence appeared to be regarded by them as
the peculiar gift of the white man; and I make little doubt that
they supposed armies of Europeans were drawn up provided with
nothing else but bony fists and stout heartswith which they set
to in columnand pummelled one another at the word of command.

. . . . . . . .

One dayin company with Kory-KoryI had repaired to the stream
for the purpose of bathingwhen I observed a woman sitting upon
a rock in the midst of the currentand watching with the
liveliest interest the gambols of somethingwhich at first I
took to be an uncommonly large species of frog that was sporting
in the water near her. Attracted by the novelty of the sightI
waded towards the spot where she satand could hardly credit the
evidence of my senses when I beheld a little infantthe period
of whose birth could not have extended back many dayspaddling
about as if it had just risen to the surfaceafter being hatched
into existence at the bottom. Occasionallythe delighted parent
reached out her hand towards itwhen the little thinguttering
a faint cryand striking out its tiny limbswould sidle for the
rockand the next moment be clasped to its mother's bosom. This
was repeated again and againthe baby remaining in the stream
about a minute at a time. Once or twice it made wry faces at
swallowing a mouthful of waterand choked a spluttered as if on
the point of strangling. At such times howeverthe mother
snatched it up and by a process scarcely to be mentioned obliged
it to eject the fluid. For several weeks afterwards I observed
this woman bringing her child down to the stream regularly every
dayin the cool of the morning and evening and treating it to a

bath. No wonder that the South Sea Islanders are so amphibious a
racewhen they are thus launched into the water as soon as they
see the light. I am convinced that it is as natural for a human
being to swim as it is for a duck. And yet in civilized
communities how many able-bodied individuals dielike so many
drowning kittensfrom the occurrence of the most trivial
accidents! . . . . . . . .

The long luxuriant and glossy tresses of the Typee damsels often
attracted my admiration. A fine head of hair is the pride and
joy of every woman's heart. Whether against the express will of
Providenceit is twisted upon the crown of the head and there
coiled away like a rope on a ship's deck; whether it be stuck
behind the ears and hangs down like the swag of a small
window-curtain; or whether it be permitted to flow over the
shoulders in natural ringletsit is always the pride of the
ownerand the glory of the toilette.

The Typee girls devote much of their time to the dressing of
their fair and redundant locks. After bathingas they sometimes
do five or six times every daythe hair is carefully driedand
if they have been in the seainvariably washed in fresh water
and anointed with a highly scented oil extracted from the meat of
the cocoanut. This oil is obtained in great abundance by the
following very simple process:

A large vessel of woodwith holes perforated in the bottomis
filled with the pounded meatand exposed to the rays of the sun.
As the oleaginous matter exudesit falls in drops through the
apertures into a wide-mouthed calabash placed underneath. After
a sufficient quantity has thus been collectedthe oil undergoes
a purifying processand is then poured into the small spherical
shells of the nuts of the moo-treewhich are hollowed out to
receive it. These nuts are then hermetically sealed with a
resinous gumand the vegetable fragrance of their green rind
soon imparts to the oil a delightful odour. After the lapse of a
few weeks the exterior shell of the nuts becomes quite dry and
hardand assumes a beautiful carnation tint; and when opened
they are found to be about two-thirds full of an ointment of a
light yellow colour and diffusing the sweetest perfume. This
elegant little odorous globe would not be out of place even upon
the toilette of a queen. Its merits as a prepartion for the hair
are undeniable--it imparts to it a superb gloss and a silky



FROM the time of my casual encounter with Karky the artistmy
life was one of absolute wretchedness. Not a day passed but I
was persecuted by the solicitations of some of the natives to
subject myself to the odious operation of tattooing. Their
importunities drove me half wildfor I felt how easily they
might work their will upon me regarding this or anything else
which they took into their heads. Stillhoweverthe behaviour
of the islanders towards me was as kind as ever. Fayaway was
quite as engaging; Kory-Kory as devoted; and Mehevi the king just
as gracious and condescending as before. But I had now been
three months in their valleyas nearly as I could estimate; I

had grown familiar with the narrow limits to which my wandering
had been confined; and I began bitterly to feel the state of
captivity in which I was held. There was no one with whom I
could freely converse; no one to whom I could communicate my
thoughts; no one who could sympathize with my sufferings. A
thousand times I thought how much more endurable would have been
my lot had Toby still been with me. But I was left aloneand
the thought was terrible to me. Stilldespite my griefsI did
all in my power to appear composed and cheerfulwell knowing
that by manifesting any uneasinessor any desire to escapeI
should only frustrate my object.

It was during the period I was in this unhappy frame of mind that
the painful malady under which I had been labouring--after having
almost completely subsided--began again to show itselfand with
symptoms as violent as ever. This added calamity nearly unmanned
me; the recurrence of the complaint proved that without powerful
remedial applications all hope of cure was futile; and when I
reflected that just beyond the elevationswhich bound me inwas
the medical relief I neededand that although so nearit was
impossible for me to avail myself of itthe thought was misery.

In this wretched situationevery circumstance which evinced the
savage nature of the beings at whose mercy I wasaugmented the
fearful apprehensions that consumed me. An occurrence which
happened about this time affected me most powerfully.

I have already mentioned that from the ridge-pole of Marheyo's
house were suspended a number of packages enveloped in tappa.
Many of these I had often seen in the hands of the nativesand
their contents had been examined in my presence. But there were
three packages hanging very nearly over the place where I lay
which from their remarkable appearance had often excited my
curiousity. Several times I had asked Kory-Kory to show me their
contentsbut my servitorwhoin almost every other particular
had acceded to my wishesrefused to gratify me in this.

One dayreturning unexpectedly from the 'Ti'my arrival seemed
to throw the inmates of the house into the greatest confusion.
They were seated together on the matsand by the lines which
extended from the roof to the floor I immediately perceived that
the mysterious packages were for some purpose or another under
inspection. The evident alarm the savages betrayed filled me
with forebodings of eviland with an uncontrollable desire to
penetrate the secret so jealously guarded Despite the efforts of
Marheyo and Kory-Kory to restrain meI forced my way into the
midst of the circleand just caught a glimpse of three human
headswhich others of the party were hurriedly enveloping in the
coverings from which they had been taken.

One of the three I distinctly saw. It was in a state of perfect
preservationand from the slight glimpse I had of itseemed to
have been subjected to some smoking operation which had reduced
it to the dryhardand mummy-like appearance it presented. The
two long scalp locks were twisted up into balls upon the crown of
the head in the same way that the individual had worn them during
fife. The sunken cheeks were rendered yet more ghastly by the
rows of glistening teeth which protruded from between the lips
while the sockets of the eyes--filled with oval bits of
mother-of-pearl shellwith a black spot in the
centre--heightened the hideousness of its aspect.

Two of the three were heads of the islanders; but the thirdto
my horrorwas that of a white man. Although it had been quickly

removed from my sightstill the glimpse I had of it was enough
to convince me that I could not be mistaken.

Gracious God! what dreadful thoughts entered my head; in solving
this mystery perhaps I had solved anotherand the fate of my
lost companion might be revealed in the shocking spectacle I had
just witnessed. I longed to have torn off the folds of cloth and
satisfied the awful doubts under which I laboured. But before I
had recovered from the consternation into which I had been
thrownthe fatal packages were hoisted aloftand once more
swung over my head. The natives now gathered round me
tumultuouslyand laboured to convince me that what I had just
seen were the heads of three Happar warriorswho had been slain
in battle. This glaring falsehood added to my alarmand it was
not until I reflected that I had observed the packages swinging
from their elevation before Toby's disappearancethat I could at
all recover my composure.

But although this horrible apprehension had been dispelledI had
discovered enough to fill mein my present state of mindwith
the most bitter reflections. It was plain that I had seen the
last relic of some unfortunate wretchwho must have been
massacred on the beach by the savagesin one of those perilous
trading adventures which I have before described.

It was nothoweveralone the murder of the stranger that
overcame me with gloom. I shuddered at the idea of the
subsequent fate his inanimate body might have met with Was the
same doom reserved for me? Was I destined to perish like him-like
him perhapsto be devoured and my head to be preserved as a
fearful memento of the events? My imagination ran riot in these
horrid speculationsand I felt certain that the worst possible
evils would befall me. But whatever were my misgivingsI
studiously concealed them from the islandersas well as the full
extent of the discovery I had made.

Although the assurances which the Typees had often given methat
they never eat human fleshhad not convinced me that such was
the caseyethaving been so long a time in the valley without
witnessing anything which indicated the existence of the
practiceI began to hope that it was an event of very rare
occurrenceand that I should be spared the horror of witnessing
it during my stay among them: butalasthese hopes were soon

It is a singular factthat in all our accounts of cannibal
tribes we have seldom received the testimony of an eye-witness
account to this revolting practice. The horrible conclusion has
almost always been derived from the second-hand evidence of
Europeansor else from the admissions of the savages themselves
after they have in some degree become civilized. The Polynesians
are aware of the detestation in which Europeans hold this custom
and therefore invariably deny its existenceand with the craft
peculiar to savagesendeavour to conceal every trace of it.

The excessive unwillingness betrayed by the Sandwich Islanders
even at the present dayto allude to the unhappy fate of Cook
has often been remarked. And so well have they succeeded in
covering the event with mysterythat to this very hourdespite
all that has been said and written on the subjectit still
remains doubtful whether they wreaked upon his murdered body the
vengance they sometimes inflicted upon their enemies.

At Kealakekauthe scene of that tragedya strip of ship's

copper nailed against an upright post in the ground used to
inform the traveller that beneath reposed the 'remains' of the
great circumnavigator. But I am strongly inclined to believe not
only the corpse was refused Christian burialbut that the heart
which was brought to Vancouver some time after the eventand
which the Hawiians stoutly maintained was that of Captain Cook
was no such thing; and that the whole affair was a piece of
imposture which was sought to be palmed off upon the credulous

A few years since there was living on the island of Maui (one of
the Sandwich group) an old chiefwhoactuated by a morbid
desire for notorietygave himself out among the foreign
residents of the place as the living tomb of Captain Cook's big
toe!--affirming that at the cannibal entertainment which ensued
after the lamented Briton's deaththat particular portion of his
body had fallen to his share. His indignant countrymen actually
caused him to be prosecuted in the native courtson a charge
nearly equivalent to what we term defamation of character; but
the old fellow persisting in his assertionand no invalidating
proof being adducedthe plaintiffs were cast in the suitand
the cannibal reputation of the defendant firmly established.
This result was the making of his fortune; ever afterwards he was
in the habit of giving very profitable audiences to all curious
travellers who were desirous of beholding the man who had eaten
the great navigator's great toe.

About a week after my discovery of the contents of the mysterious
packagesI happened to be at the Tiwhen another war-alarm was
soundedand the natives rushing to their armssallied out to
resist a second incursion of the Happar invaders. The same scene
was again repeatedonly that on this occasion I heard at least
fifteen reports of muskets from the mountains during the time
that the skirmish lasted. An hour or two after its termination
loud paeans chanted through the valley announced the approach of
the victors. I stood with Kory-Kory leaning against the railing
of the pi-pi awaiting their advancewhen a tumultuous crowd of
islanders emerged with wild clamours from the neighbouring
groves. In the midst of them marched four menone preceding the
other at regular intervals of eight or ten feetwith poles of a
corresponding lengthextending from shoulder to shoulderto
which were lashed with thongs of bark three long narrow bundles
carefully wrapped in ample coverings of freshly plucked
palm-leavestacked together with slivers of bamboo. Here and
there upon these green winding-sheets might be seen the stains of
bloodwhile the warriors who carried the frightful burdens
displayed upon their naked limbs similar sanguinary marks. The
shaven head of the foremost had a deep gash upon itand the
clotted gore which had flowed from the wound remained in dry
patches around it. The savage seemed to be sinking under the
weight he bore. The bright tattooing upon his body was covered
with blood and dust; his inflamed eyes rolled in their sockets
and his whole appearance denoted extraordinary suffering and
exertion; yet sustained by some powerful impulsehe continued to
advancewhile the throng around him with wild cheers sought to
encourage him. The other three men were marked about the arms
and breasts with several slight woundswhich they somewhat
ostentatiously displayed.

These four individualshaving been the most active in the late
encounterclaimed the honour of bearing the bodies of their
slain enemies to the Ti. Such was the conclusion I drew from my
own observationsandas far as I could understandfrom the
explanation which Kory-Kory gave me.

The royal Mehevi walked by the side of these heroes. He carried
in one hand a musketfrom the barrel of which was suspended a
small canvas pouch of powderand in the other he grasped a short
javelinwhich he held before him and regarded with fierce
exultation. This javelin he had wrested from a celebrated
champion of the Happarswho had ignominiously fledand was
pursued by his foes beyond the summit of the mountain.

When within a short distance of the Tithe warrior with the
wounded headwho proved to be Narmoneetottered forward two or
three stepsand fell helplessly to the ground; but not before
another had caught the end of the pole from his shoulderand
placed it upon his own.

The excited throng of islanderswho surrounded the person of the
king and the dead bodies of the enemyapproached the spot where
I stoodbrandishing their rude implements of warfaremany of
which were bruised and brokenand uttering continual shouts of
triumph. When the crowd drew up opposite the TiI set myself to
watch their proceedings most attentively; but scarcely had they
halted when my servitorwho had left my side for an instant
touched my arm and proposed our returning to Marheyo's house. To
this I objected; butto my surpriseKory-Kory reiterated his
requestand with an unusual vehemence of manner. Still
howeverI refused to complyand was retreating before himas
in his importunity he pressed upon mewhen I felt a heavy hand
laid upon my shoulderand turning roundencountered the bulky
form of Mow-Mowa one-eyed chiefwho had just detached himself
from the crowd belowand had mounted the rear of the pi-pi upon
which we stood. His cheek had been pierced by the point of a
spearand the wound imparted a still more frightful expression
to his hideously tattooed facealready deformed by the loss of
an eye. The warriorwithout uttering a syllablepointed
fiercely in the direction of Marheyo's housewhile Kory-Koryat
the same time presenting his backdesired me to mount.

I declined this offerbut intimated my willingness to withdraw
and moved slowly along the piazzawondering what could be the
cause of this unusual treatment. A few minutes' consideration
convinced me that the savages were about to celebrate some
hideous rite in connection with their peculiar customsand at
which they were determined I should not be present. I descended
from the pi-piand attended by Kory-Korywho on this occasion
did not show his usual commiseration for my lamenessbut seemed
only anxious to hurry me onwalked away from the place. As I
passed through the noisy throngwhich by this time completely
environed the TiI looked with fearful curiosity at the three
packageswhich now were deposited upon the ground; but although
I had no doubt as to their contentsstill their thick coverings
prevented my actually detecting the form of a human body.

The next morningshortly after sunrisethe same thundering
sounds which had awakened me from sleep on the second day of the
Feast of Calabashesassured me that the savages were on the eve
of celebrating anotherandas I fully believeda horrible

All the inmates of the housewith the exception of Marheyohis
sonand Tinorafter assuming their gala dressesdeparted in
the direction of the Taboo Groves.

Although I did not anticipate a compliance with my request
stillwith a view of testing the truth of my suspicionsI

proposed to Kory-Kory thataccording to our usual custom in the
morningwe should take a stroll to the Ti: he positively
refused; and when I renewed the requesthe evinced his
determination to prevent my going there; andto divert my mind
from the subjecthe offered to accompany me to the stream. We
accordingly wentand bathed. On our coming back to the houseI
was surprised to find that all its inmates had returnedand were
lounging upon the mats as usualalthough the drums still sounded
from the groves.

The rest of the day I spent with Kory-Kory and Fayawaywandering
about a part of the valley situated in an opposite direction from
the Tiand whenever I so much as looked towards that building
although it was hidden from view by intervening treesand at the
distance of more than a milemy attendant would exclaim'Taboo

At the various houses where we stoppedI found many of the
inhabitants reclining at their easeor pursuing some light
occupationas if nothing unusual were going forward; but amongst
them all I did not perceive a single chief or warrior. When I
asked several of the people why they were not at the 'Hoolah
Hoolah' (the feast)their uniformly answered the question in a
manner which implied that it was not intended for thembut for
MeheviNarmoneeMow-MowKolorWomonooKalowrunning over
in their desire to make me comprehend their meaningthe names of
all the principal chiefs.

Everythingin shortstrengthened my suspicions with regard to
the nature of the festival they were now celebrating; and which
amounted almost to a certainty. While in Nukuheva I had
frequently been informed that the whole tribe were never present
at these cannibal banquetsbut the chiefs and priests only; and
everything I now observed agreed with the account.

The sound of the drums continued without intermission the whole
dayand falling continually upon my earcaused me a sensation
of horror which I am unable to describe. On the following day
hearing none of those noisy indications of revelryI concluded
that the inhuman feast was terminated; and feeling a kind of
morbid curiosity to discover whether the Ti might furnish any
evidence of what had taken place thereI proposed to Kory-Kory
to walk there. To this proposition he replied by pointing with
his finger to the newly risen sunand then up to the zenith
intimating that our visit must be deferred until noon. Shortly
after that hour we accordingly proceeded to the Taboo Grovesand
as soon as we entered their precinctsI looked fearfully round
inquest of some memorial of the scene which had so lately been
acted there; but everything appeared as usual. On reaching the
Tiwe found Mehevi and a few chiefs reclining on the matswho
gave me as friendly a reception as ever. No allusions of any
kind were made by them to the recent events; and I refrainedfor
obvious reasonsfrom referring to them myself.

After staying a short time I took my leave. In passing along the
piazzapreviously to descending from the pi-piI observed a
curiously carved vessel of woodof considerable sizewith a
cover placed over itof the same materialand which resembled
in shape a small canoe. It was surrounded by a low railing of
bamboosthe top of which was scarcely a foot from the ground.
As the vessel had been placed in its present position since my
last visitI at once concluded that it must have some connection
with the recent festivalandprompted by a curiosity I could
not repressin passing it I raised one end of the cover; at the

same moment the chiefsperceiving my designloudly ejaculated
'Taboo! taboo!'

But the slight glimpse sufficed; my eyes fell upon the disordered
members of a human skeletonthe bones still fresh with moisture
and with particles of flesh clinging to them here and there!

Kory-Korywho had been a little in advance of meattracted by
the exclamations of the chiefsturned round in time to witness
the expression of horror on my countenance. He now hurried
towards mepointing at the same time to the canoeand
exclaiming rapidly'Puarkee! puarkee!' (Pigpig). I pretended
to yield to the deceptionand repeated the words after him
several timesas though acquiescing in what he said. The other
savageseither deceived by my conduct or unwilling to manifest
their displeasure at what could not now be remediedtook no
further notice of the occurrenceand I immediately left the Ti.

All that night I lay awakerevolving in my mind the fearful
situation in which I was placed. The last horrid revelation had
now been madeand the full sense of my condition rushed upon my
mind with a force I had never before experienced.

Wherethought Idespondingis there the slightest prospect of
escape? The only person who seemed to possess the ability to
assist me was the stranger Marnoo; but would he ever return to
the valley? and if he didshould I be permitted to hold any
communication with him? It seemed as if I were cut off from
every source of hopeand that nothing remained but passively to
await whatever fate was in store for me. A thousand times I
endeavoured to account for the mysterious conduct of the natives.

For what conceivable purpose did they thus retain me a captive?
What could be their object in treating me with such apparent
kindnessand did it not cover some treacherous scheme? Orif
they had no other design than to hold me a prisonerhow should I
be able to pass away my days in this narrow valleydeprived of
all intercourse with civilized beingsand for ever separated
from friends and home?

One only hope remained to me. The French could not long defer a
visit to the bayand if they should permanently locate any of
their troops in the valleythe savages could not for any length
of time conceal my existence from them. But what reason had I to
suppose that I should be spared until such an event occurredan
event which might be postponed by a hundred different



'MARNOOMarnoo pemi!' Such were the welcome sounds which fell
upon my ear some ten days after the events related in the
preceding chapter. Once more the approach of the stranger was
heraldedand the intelligence operated upon me like magic.
Again I should be able to converse with him in my own language;
and I resolve at all hazards to concert with him some scheme
however desperateto rescue me from a condition that had now
become insupportable.

As he drew nearI remembered with many misgivings the
inauspicious termination of our former interviewand when he
entered the houseI watched with intense anxiety the reception
he met with from its inmates. To my joyhis appearance was
hailed with the liveliest pleasure; and accosting me kindlyhe
seated himself by mysideand entered into conversation with
the natives around him. It soon appeared howeverthat on this
occasion he had not any intelligence of importance to
communicate. I inquired of him from whence he had just come? He
replied from Pueearkahis native valleyand that he intended to
return to it the same day.

At once it struck me thatcould I but reach that valley under
his protectionI might easily from thence reach Nukuheva by
water; and animated by the prospect which this plan heldout I
disclosed it in a few brief words to the strangerand asked him
how it could be best accomplished. My heart sunk within mewhen
in his broken English he answered me that it could never be
effected. 'Kanaka no let you go nowhere' he said; 'you taboo.
Why you no like to stay? Plenty moee-moee (sleep)--plenty ki-ki
(eat)--plenty wahenee (young girls)--Ohvery good place Typee!
Suppose you no like this baywhy you come? You no hear about
Typee? All white men afraid Typeeso no white men come.'

These words distressed me beyond belief; and when I had again
related to him the circumstances under which I had descended into
the valleyand sought to enlist his sympathies in my behalf by
appealing to the bodily misery I had endurehe listened with
impatienceand cut me short by exclaiming passionately'Me no
hear you talk any more; by by Kanaka get madkill you and me
too. No you see he no want you to speak at all?--you see--ah!
by by you no mind--you get wellhe kill youeat youhang you
head up therelike Happar Kanaka.--Now you listen--but no talk
any more. By by I go;--you see way I go--Ah! then some night
Kanaka all moee-moee (sleep)--you run awayyou come Pueearka. I
speak Pueearka Kanaka--he no harm you--ah! then I take you my
canoe Nukuheva--and you run away ship no more.' With these
wordsenforced by a vehemence of gesture I cannot describe
Marnoo started from my sideand immediately engaged in
conversation with some of the chiefs who had entered the house.

It would have been idle for me to have attempted resuming the
interview so peremptorily terminated by Marnoowho was evidently
little disposed to compromise his own safety by any rash
endeavour to ensure mine. But the plan he had suggested struck
me as one which might possibly be accomplishedand I resolved to
act upon it as speedily as possible.

Accordinglywhen he arose to departI accompanied him with the
natives outside of the housewith a view of carefully noting the
path he would take in leaving the valley. Just before leaping
from the pi-pi he clasped my handand looking significantly at
meexclaimed'Now you see--you do what I tell you--ah! then
you do good;--you no do so--ah! then you die.' The next moment
he waved his spear to the islandersand following the route that
conducted to a defile in the mountains lying opposite the Happar
sidewas soon out of sight.

A mode of escape was now presented to mebut how was I to avail
myself of it? I was continually surrounded by the savages; I
could not stir from one house to another without being attended
by some of them; and even during the hours devoted to slumber
the slightest movement which I made seemed to attract the notice

of those who shared the mats with me. In spite of these
obstacleshoweverI determined forthwith to make the attempt.
To do so with any prospect of successit was necessary that I
should have at least two hours start before the islanders should
discover my absence; for with such facility was any alarm spread
through the valleyand so familiarof coursewere the
inhabitants with the intricacies of the grovesthat I could not
hopelame and feeble as I wasand ignorant of the routeto
secure my escape unless I had this advantage. It was also by
night alone that I could hope to accomplish my objectand then
only by adopting the utmost precaution.

The entrance to Marheyo's habitation was through a low narrow
opening in its wicker-work front. This passagefor no
conceivable reason that I could devisewas always closed after
the household had retired to restby drawing a heavy slide
across itcomposed of a dozen or more bits of woodingeniously
fastened together by seizings of sinnate. When any of the
inmates chose to go outsidethe noise occasioned by the removing
of this rude door awakened every body else; and on more than one
occasion I had remarked that the islanders were nearly as
irritable as more civilized beings under similar circumstances.

The difficulty thus placed in my way Idetermined to obviate in
the following manner. I would get up boldly in the course of the
nightand drawing the slideissue from the houseand pretend
that my object was merely to procure a drink from the calabash
which always stood without the dwelling on the corner of the
pi-pi. On re-entering I would purposely omit closing the passage
after meand trusting that the indolence of the savages would
prevent them from repairing my neglectwould return to my mat
and waiting patiently until all were again asleepI would then
steal forthand at once take the route to Pueearka.

The very night which followed Marnoo's departureI proceeded to
put this project into execution. About midnightas I imagined
I arose and drew the slide. The nativesjust as I had expected
started upwhile some of them asked'Arware poo awaTommo?'
(where are you goingTommo?) 'Wai' (water) I laconically
answeredgrasping the calabash. On hearing my reply they sank
back againand in a minute or two I returned to my mat
anxiously awaiting the result of the experiment.

One after another the savagesturning restlesslyappeared to
resume their slumbersand rejoicing at the stillness which
prevailedI was about to rise again from my couchwhen I heard
a slight rustling--a dark form was intercepted between me and the
doorway--the slide was drawn across itand the individual
whoever he wasreturned to his mat. This was a sad blow to me;
but as it might have aroused the suspicions of the islanders to
have made another attempt that nightI was reluctantly obliged
to defer it until the next. Several times after I repeated the
same manoeuvrebut with as little success as before. As my
pretence for withdrawing from the house was to allay my thirst
Kory-Kory either suspecting some design on my partor else
prompted by a desire to please meregularly every evening placed
a calabash of water by my side.

Evenunder these inauspicious circumstances I again and again
renewed the attemptbut when I did somy valet always rose with
meas if determined I should not remove myself from his
observation. For the presentthereforeI was obliged to
abandon the attempt; but I endeavoured to console myself with the
idea that by this mode I might yet effect my escape.

Shortly after Marnoo's visit I was reduced to such a state that
it was with extreme difficulty I could walkeven with the
assistance of a spearand Kory-Koryas formerlywas obliged to
carry me daily to the stream.

For hours and hours during the warmest part of the day I lay upon
my matand while those around me were nearly all dozing away in
careless easeI remained awakegloomily pondering over the fate
which it appeared now idle for me to resistwhen I thought of
the loved friends who were thousands and thousands of miles from
the savage island in which I was held a captivewhen I reflected
that my dreadful fate would for ever be concealed from themand
that with hope deferred they might continue to await my return
long after my inanimate form had blended with the dust of the
valley--I could not repress a shudder of anguish.

How vividly is impressed upon my mind every minute feature of the
scene which met my view during those long days of suffering and
sorrow. At my request my mats were always spread directly facing
the dooropposite whichand at a little distancewas the hut
of boughs that Marheyo was building.

Whenever my gentle Fayaway and Kory-Korylaying themselves down
beside mewould leave me awhile to uninterrupted reposeI took
a strange interest in the slightest movements of the eccentric
old warrior. All alone during the stillness of the tropical
mid-dayhe would pursue his quiet worksitting in the shade and
weaving together the leaflets of his cocoanut branchesor
rolling upon his knee the twisted fibres of bark to form the
cords with which he tied together the thatching of his tiny
house. Frequently suspending his employmentand noticing my
melancholy eye fixed upon himhe would raise his hand with a
gesture expressive of deep commiserationand then moving towards
me slowlywould enter on tip-toesfearful of disturbing the
slumbering nativesandtaking the fan from my handwould sit
before meswaying it gently to and froand gazing earnestly
into my face.

Just beyond the pi-piand disposed in a triangle before the
entrance of the housewere three magnificent bread-fruit trees.
At this moment I can recap to my mind their slender shaftsand
the graceful inequalities of their barkon which my eye was
accustomed to dwell day after day in the midst of my solitary
musings. It is strange how inanimate objects will twine
themselves into our affectionsespecially in the hour of
affliction. Even nowamidst all the bustle and stir of the
proud and busy city in which I am dwellingthe image of those
three trees seems to come as vividly before my eyes as if they
were actually presentand I still feel the soothing quiet
pleasure which I then had in watching hour after hour their
topmost boughs waving gracefully in the breeze.



NEARLY three weeks had elapsed since the second visit of Marnoo
and it must have been more than four months since I entered the
valleywhen one day about noonand whilst everything was in
profound silenceMow-Mowthe one-eyed chiefsuddenly appeared
at the doorand leaning towards me as I lay directly facing him

said in a low tone'Toby pemi ena' (Toby has arrived here).
Gracious heaven! What a tumult of emotions rushed upon me at
this startling intelligence! Insensible to the pain that had
before distracted meI leaped to my feetand called wildly to
Kory-Kory who was reposing by my side. The startled islanders
sprang from their mats; the news was quickly communicated to
them; and the next moment I was making my way to the Ti on the
back of Kory-Kory; and surrounded by the excited savages.

All that I could comprehend of the particulars which Mow-Mow
rehearsed to his audience as we proceededwas that my long-lost
companion had arrived in a boat which had just entered the bay.
These tidings made me most anxious to be carried at once to the
sealest some untoward circumstance should prevent our meeting;
but to this they would not consentand continued their course
towards the royal abode. As we approached itMehevi and several
chiefs showed themselves from the piazzaand called upon us
loudly to come to them.

As soon as we had approachedI endeavoured to make them
understand that I was going down to the sea to meet Toby. To
this the king objectedand motioned Kory-Kory to bring me into
the house. It was in vain to resist; and in a few moments I
found myself within the Tisurrounded by a noisy group engaged
in discussing the recent intelligence. Toby's name was
frequently repeatedcoupled with violent exclamations of
astonishment. It seemed as if they yet remained in doubt with
regard to the fact of his arrivalat at every fresh report that
was brought from the shore they betrayed the liveliest emotions.

Almost frenzied at being held in this state of suspenseI
passionately besought Mehevi to permit me to proceed. Whether my
companion had arrived or notI felt a presentiment that my own
fate was about to be decided. Again and again I renewed my
petition to Mehevi. He regarded me with a fixed and serious eye
but at length yielding to my importunityreluctantly granted my

Accompanied by some fifty of the nativesI now rapidly continued
my journey; every few moments being transferred from the back of
one to anotherand urging my bearer forward all the while with
earnest entreaties. As I thus hurried forwardno doubt as to
the truth of the information I had received ever crossed my mind.

I was alive only to the one overwhelming ideathat a chance of
deliverance was now afforded meif the jealous opposition of the
savages could be overcome.

Having been prohibited from approaching the sea during the whole
of my stay in the valleyI had always associated with it the
idea of escape. Toby too--if indeed he had ever voluntarily
deserted me--must have effected this flight by the sea; and now
that I was drawing near to it myselfI indulged in hopes which I
had never felt before. It was evident that a boat had entered
the bayand I saw little reason to doubt the truth of the report
that it had brought my companion. Every time therefore that we
gained an elevationI looked eagerly aroundhoping to behold
him. In the midst of an excited throngwho by their violent
gestures and wild cries appeared to be under the influence of
some excitement as strong as my ownI was now borne along at a
rapid trotfrequently stooping my head to avoid the branches
which crossed the pathand never ceasing to implore those who
carried me to accelerate their already swift pace.

In this manner we had proceeded about four or five mileswhen we
were met by a party of some twenty islandersbetween whom and
those who accompanied me ensued an animated conference.
Impatient of the delay occasioned by this interruptionI was
beseeching the man who carried me to proceed without his
loitering companionswhen Kory-Koryrunning to my side
informed mein three fatal wordsthat the news had all proved
false--that Toby had not arrived--'Toby owlee pemi'. Heaven only
knows howin the state of mind and body I then wasI ever
sustained the agony which this intelligence caused me; not that
the news was altogether unexpected; but I had trusted that the
fact might not have been made known until we should have arrived
upon the beach. As it wasI at once foresaw the course the
savages would pursue. They had only yielded thus far to my
entreatiesthat I might give a joyful welcome to my long-lost
comrade; but now that it was known he had not arrived they would
at once oblige me to turn back.

My anticipations were but too correct. In spite of the
resistance I madethey carried me into a house which was near
the spotand left me upon the mats. Shortly afterwards several
of those who had accompanied me from the Tidetaching themselves
from the othersproceeded in the direction of the sea. Those
who remained--among whom were MarheyoMow-MowKory-Koryand
Tinor--gathered about the dwellingand appeared to be awaiting
their return.

This convinced me that strangers--perhaps some of my own
countrymen--had for some cause or other entered the bay.
Distracted at the idea of their vicinityand reckless of the
pain which I sufferedI heeded not the assurances of the
islandersthat there were no boats at the beachbut starting to
my feet endeavoured to gain the door. Instantly the passage was
blocked up by several menwho commanded me to resume my seat.
The fierce looks of the irritated savages admonished me that I
could gain nothing by forceand that it was by entreaty alone
that I could hope to compass my object.

Guided by this considerationI turned to Mow-Mowthe only chief
present whom I had been much in the habit of seeingand
carefully concealingmy real designtried to make him
comprehend that I still believed Toby to have arrived on the
shoreand besought him to allow me to go forward to welcome him.

To all his repeated assertionsthat my companion had not been
seenI pretended to turn a deaf earwhile I urged my
solicitations with an eloquence of gesture which the one-eyed
chief appeared unable to resist. He seemed indeed to regard me
as a forward childto whose wishes he had not the heart to
oppose forceand whom he must consequently humour. He spoke a
few words to the nativeswho at once retreated from the door
and I immediately passed out of the house.

Here I looked earnestly round for Kory-Kory; but that hitherto
faithful servitor was nowhere to be seen. Unwilling to linger
even for a single instant when every moment might be so
importantI motioned to a muscular fellow near me to take me
upon his back; to my surprise he angrily refused. I turned to
anotherbut with a like result. A third attempt was as
unsuccessfuland I immediately perceived what had induced
Mow-Mow to grant my requestand why the other natives conducted
themselves in so strange a manner. It was evident that the chief
had only given me liberty to continue my progress towards the
seabecause he supposed that I was deprived of the means of

reaching it.

Convinced by this of their determination to retain me a captive
I became desperate; and almost insensible to the pain which I
sufferedI seized a spear which was leaning against the
projecting eaves of the houseand supporting myself with it
resumed the path that swept by the dwelling. To my surpriseI
was suffered to proceed alone; all the natives remaining in front
of the houseand engaging in earnest conversationwhich every
moment became more loud and vehement; and to my unspeakable
delightI perceived that some difference of opinion had arisen
between them; that two partiesin shortwere formedand
consequently that in their divided counsels there was some chance
of my deliverance.

Before I had proceeded a hundred yards I was again surrounded by
the savageswho were still in all the heat of argumentand
appeared every moment as if they would come to blows. In the
midst of this tumult old Marheyo came to my sideand I shall
never forget the benevolent expression of his countenance. He
placed his arm upon my shoulderand emphatically pronounced the
only two English words I had taught him 'Home' and 'Mother'. I
at once understood what he meantand eagerly expressed my thanks
to him. Fayaway and Kory-Kory were by his sideboth weeping
violently; and it was not until the old man had twice repeated
the command that his son could bring himself to obey himand
take me again upon his back. The one-eyed chief opposed his
doing sobut he was overruledandas it seemed to meby some
of his own party.

We proceeded onwardsand never shall I forget the ecstasy I felt
when I first heard the roar of the surf breaking upon the beach.
Before long I saw the flashing billows themselves through the
opening between the trees. Oh glorious sight and sound of ocean!
with what rapture did I hail you as familiar friends! By this
time the shouts of the crowd upon the beach were distinctly
audibleand in the blended confusion of sounds I almost fancied
I could distinguish the voices of my own countrymen.

When we reached the open space which lay between the groves and
the seathe first object that met my view was an English
whale-boatlying with her bow pointed from the shoreand only a
few fathoms distant from it. It was manned by five islanders
dressed in shirt tunics of calico. My first impression was that
they were in the very act of pulling out from the bay; and that
after all my exertionsI had come too late. My soul sunk within
me: but a second glance convinced me that the boat was only
hanging off to keep out of the surf; and the next moment I heard
my own name shouted out by a voice from the midst of the crowd.

Looking in the direction of the soundI perceivedto my
indescribable joythe tall figure of Karakoeean Oahu Kanaka
who had often been aboard the 'Dolly'while she lay in Nukuheva.

He wore the green shooting-jacket with gilt buttonswhich had
been given to him by an officer of the Reine Blanche--the French
flag-ship--and in which I had always seen him dressed. I now
remembered the Kanaka had frequently told me that his person was
tabooed in all the valleys of the islandand the sight of him at
such a moment as this filled my heart with a tumult of delight.

Karakoee stood near the edge of the water with a large roll of
cotton-cloth thrown over one armand holding two or three canvas
bags of powderwhile with the other hand he grasped a musket

which he appeared to be proffering to several of the chiefs
around him. But they turned with disgust from his offers and
seemed to be impatient at his presencewith vehement gestures
waving him off to his boatand commanding him to depart.

The Kanakahoweverstill maintained his groundand I at once
perceived that he was seeking to purchase my freedom. Animated
by the ideaI called upon him loudly to come to me; but he
repliedin broken Englishthat the islanders had threatened to
pierce him with their spearsif he stirred a foot towards me.
At this time I was still advancingsurrounded by a dense throng
of the nativesseveral of whom had their hands upon meand more
than one javelin was threateningly pointed at me. Still I
perceived clearly that many of those least friendly towards me
looked irresolute land anxious. I was still some thirty yards
from Karakoee when my farther progress was prevented by the
nativeswho compelled me to sit down upon the groundwhile they
still retained their hold upon my arms. The din and tumult now
became tenfoldand I perceived that several of the priests were
on the spotall of whom were evidently urging Mow-Mow and the
other chiefs to prevent my departure; and the detestable word
'Roo-ne! Roo-ne!' which I had heard repeated a thousand times
during the daywas now shouted out on every side of me. Still I
saw that the Kanaka continued his exertions in my favour--that he
was boldly debating the matter with the savagesand was striving
to entice them by displaying his cloth and powderand snapping
the lock of his musket. But all he said or did appeared only to
augment the clamours of those around himwho seemed bent upon
driving him into the sea.

When I remembered the extravagant value placed by these people
upon the articles which were offered to them in exchange for me
and which were so indignantly rejectedI saw a new proof of the
same fixed determination of purpose they had all along manifested
with regard to meand in despairand reckless of consequences
I exerted all my strengthand shaking myself free from the grasp
of those who held meI sprang upon my feet and rushed towards

The rash attempt nearly decided my fate; forfearful that I
might slip from themseveral of the islanders now raised a
simultaneous shoutand pressing upon Karakoeethey menaced him
with furious gesturesand actually forced him into the sea.
Appalled at their violencethe poor fellowstanding nearly to
the waist in the surfendeavoured to pacify them; but at length
fearful that they would do him some fatal violencehe beckoned
to his comrades to pull in at onceand take him into the boat.

It was at this agonizing momentwhen I thought all hope was
endedthat a new contest arose between the two parties who had
accompanied me to the shore; blows were struckwounds were
givenand blood flowed. In the interest excited by the fray
every one had left me except MarheyoKory-Kory and poor dear
Fayawaywho clung to mesobbing indignantly. I saw that now or
never was the moment. Clasping my hands togetherI looked
imploringly at Marheyoand move towards the now almost deserted
beach. The tears were in the old man's eyesbut neither he nor
Kory-Kory attempted to hold meand I soon reached the Kanaka
who had anxiously watched my movements; the rowers pulled in as
near as they dared to the edge of the surf; I gave one parting
embrace to Fayawaywho seemed speechless with sorrowand the
next instant I found myself safe in the boatand Karakoee by my
sidewho told the rowers at once to give way. Marheyo and
Kory-Koryand a great many of the womenfollowed me into the

waterand I was determinedas the only mark of gratitude I
could showto give them the articles which had been brought as
my ransom. I handed the musket to Kory-Korywith a rapid
gesture which was equivalent to a 'Deed of Gift'; threw the roll
of cotton to old Marheyopointing as I did so to poor Fayaway
who had retired from the edge of the water and was sitting down
disconsolate on the shingles; and tumbled the powder-bags out to
the nearest young ladiesall of whom were vastly willing to take
them. This distribution did not occupy ten secondsand before
it was over the boat was under full way; the Kanaka all the while
exclaiming loudly against what he considered a useless throwing
away of valuable property.

Although it was dear that my movements had been noticed by
several of the nativesstill they had not suspended the conflict
in which they were engagedand it was not until the boat was
above fifty yards from the shore that Mow-Mow and some six or
seven other warriors rushed into the sea and hurled their
javelins at us. Some of the weapons passed quite as close to us
as was desirablebut no one was woundedand the men pulled away
gallantly. But although soon out of the reach of the spearsour
progress was extremely slow; it blew strong upon the shoreand
the tide was against us; and I saw Karakoeewho was steering the
boatgive many a look towards a jutting point of the bay round
which we had to pass.

For a minute or two after our departurethe savageswho had
formed into different groupsremained perfectly motionless and
silent. All at-once the enraged chief showed by his gestures
that he had resolved what course he would take. Shouting loudly
to his companionsand pointing with his tomahawk towards the
headlandhe set off at full speed in that directionand was
followed by about thirty of the nativesamong whom were several
of the priestsall yelling out 'Roo-ne! Roo-ne!' at the very
top of their voices. Their intention was evidently to swim off
from the headland and intercept us in our course. The wind was
freshening every minuteand was right in our teethand it was
one of those chopping angry seas in which it is so difficult to
row. Still the chances seemed in our favourbut when we came
within a hundred yards of the pointthe active savages were
already dashing into the waterand we all feared that within
five minutes' time we should have a score of the infuriated
wretches around us. If so our doom was sealedfor these
savagesunlike the feeble swimmer of civilized countriesare
if anythingmore formidable antagonists in the water than when
on the land. It was all a trial of strength; our natives pulled
till their oars bent againand the crowd of swimmers shot
through the water despite its roughnesswith fearful rapidity.

By the time we had reached the headlandthe savages were spread
right across our course. Our rowers got out their knives and
held them ready between their teethand I seized the boat-hook.
We were all aware that if they succeeded in intercepting us they
would practise upon us the manoeuvre which has proved so fatal to
many a boat's crew in these seas. They would grapple the oars
and seizing hold of the gunwhalecapsize the boatand then we
should be entirely at their mercy.

After a few breathless moments discerned Mow-Mow. The athletic
islanderwith his tomahawk between his teethwas dashing the
water before him till it foamed again. He was the nearest to us
and in another instant he would have seized one of the oars.
Even at the moment I felt horror at the act I was about to
commit; but it was no time for pity or compunctionand with a

true aimand exerting all my strengthI dashed the boat-hook at
him. It struck him just below the throatand forced him
downwards. I had no time to repeat the blowbut I saw him rise
to the surface in the wake of the boatand never shall I forget
the ferocious expression of his countenance.

Only one other of the savages reached the boat. He seized the
gunwhalebut the knives of our rowers so mauled his wriststhat
he was forced to quit his holdand the next minute we were past
them alland in safety. The strong excitement which had thus
far kept me upnow left meand I fell back fainting into the
arms of Karakoee.

. . . . . . . .

The circumstances connected with my most unexpected escape may be
very briefly stated. The captain of an Australian vesselbeing
in distress for men in these remote seashad put into Nukuheva
in order to recruit his ship's company; but not a single man was
to be obtained; and the barque was about to get under weighwhen
she was boarded by Karakoeewho informed the disappointed
Englishman that an American sailor was detained by the savages in
the neighbouring bay of Typee; and he offeredif supplied with
suitable articles of trafficto undertake his release. The
Kanaka had gained his intelligence from Marnooto whomafter
allI was indebted for my escape. The proposition was acceded
to; and Karakoeetaking with him five tabooed natives of
Nukuhevaagain repaired aboard the barquewhich in a few hours
sailed to that part of the islandand threw her main-top-sail
aback right off the entrance to the Typee bay. The whale-boat
manned by the tabooed crewpulled towards the head of the inlet
while the ship lay 'off and on' awaiting its return.

The events which ensued have already been detailedand little
more remains to be related. On reaching the 'Julia' I was lifted
over the sideand my strange appearance and remarkable adventure
occasioned the liveliest interest. Every attention was bestowed
upon me that humanity could suggest. But to such a state was I
reducedthat three months elapsed before I recovered my health.

The mystery which hung over the fate of my friend and companion
Toby has never been cleared up. I still remain ignorant whether
he succeeded in leaving the valleyor perished at the hands of
the islanders.


THE morning my comrade left meas related in the narrativehe
was accompanied by a large party of the nativessome of them
carrying fruit and hogs for the purposes of trafficas the
report had spread that boats had touched at the bay.

As they proceeded through the settled parts of the valley
numbers joined them from every siderunning with animated cries
from every pathway. So excited were the whole partythat eager
as Toby was to gain the beachit was almost as much as he could
do to keep up with them. Making the valley ring with their
shoutsthey hurried along on a swift trotthose in advance
pausing now and thenand flourishing their weapons to urge the
rest forward.

Presently they came to a place where the paths crossed a bend of

the main stream of the valley. Here a strange sound came through
the grove beyondand the Islanders halted. It was Mow-Mowthe
one-eyed chiefwho had gone on before; he was striking his heavy
lance against the hollow bough of a tree.

This was a signal of alarm;--for nothing was now heard but shouts
of 'Happar! Happar!'--the warriors tilting with their spears and
brandishing them in the airand the women and boys shouting to
each otherand picking up the stones in the bed of the stream.
In a moment or two Mow-Mow and two or three other chiefs ran out
from the groveand the din increased ten fold.

Nowthought Tobyfor a fray; and being unarmedhe besought one
of the young men domiciled with Marheyo for the loan of his
spear. But he was refused; the youth roguishly telling him that
the weapon was very good for him (the Typee)but that a white
man could fight much better with his fists.

The merry humour of this young wag seemed to be shared by the
restfor in spite of their warlike cries and gestureseverybody
was capering and laughingas if it was one of the funniest
things in the world to be awaiting the flight of a score or two
of Happar javelins from an ambush in the thickets.

While my comrade was in vain trying to make out the meaning of
all thisa good number of the natives separated themselves from
the rest and ran off into the grove on one sidethe others now
keeping perfectly stillas if awaiting the result. After a
little whilehoweverMow-Mowwho stood in advancemotioned
them to come on stealthilywhich they didscarcely rustling a
leaf. Thus they crept along for ten or fifteen minutesevery
now and then pausing to listen.

Toby by no means relished this sort of skulking; if there was
going to be a fighthe wanted it to begin at once. But all in
good time--for just thenas they went prowling into the
thickest of the woodterrific howls burst upon them on all
sidesand volleys of darts and stones flew across the path. Not
an enemy was to be seenand what was still more surprisingnot
a single man droppedthough the pebbles fell among the leaves
like hail.

There was a moment's pausewhen the Typeeswith wild shrieks
flung themselves into the covertspear in hand; nor was Toby
behindhand. Coming so near getting his skull broken by the
stonesand animated by an old grudge he bore the Happarshe was
among the first to dash at them. As he broke his way through the
underbushtryingas he did soto wrest a spear from a young
chiefthe shouts of battle all of a sudden ceasedand the wood
was as still as death. The next momentthe party who had left
them so mysteriously rushed out from behind every bush and tree
and united with the rest in long and merry peals of laughter.

It was all a shamand Tobywho was quite out of breath with
excitementwas much incensed at being made a fool of.

It afterwards turned out that the whole affair had been concerted
for his particular benefitthough with what precise view it
would be hard to tell. My comrade was the more enraged at this
boys' playsince it had consumed so much timeevery moment of
which might be precious. Perhapshoweverit was partly
intended for this very purpose; and he was led to think so
because when the natives started againhe observed that they did
not seem to be in so great a hurry as before. At lastafter

they had gone some distanceTobythinking all the while that
they never would get to the seatwo men came running towards
themand a regular halt ensuedfollowed by a noisy discussion
during which Toby's name was often repeated. All this made him
more and more anxious to learn what was going on at the beach;
but it was in vain that he now tried to push forward; the natives
held him back.

In a few moments the conference endedand many of them ran down
the path in the direction of the waterthe rest surrounding
Tobyand entreating him to 'Moee'or sit down and rest himself.

As an additional inducementseveral calabashes of foodwhich
had been brought alongwere now placed on the groundand
openedand pipes also were lighted. Toby bridled his impatience
a whilebut at last sprang to his feet and dashed forward again.

He was soon overtaken neverthelessand again surroundedbut
without further detention was then permitted to go down to the

They came out upon a bright green space between the groves and
the waterand close under the shadow of the Happar mountain
where a path was seen winding out of sight through a gorge.

No sign of a boathoweverwas beheldnothing but a tumultuous
crowd of men and womenand some one in their midstearnestly
talking to them. As my comrade advancedthis person came
forward and proved to be no stranger. He was an old grizzled
sailorwhom Toby and myself had frequently seen in Nukuheva
where he lived an easy devil-may-care life in the household of
Mowanna the kinggoing by the name of 'Jimmy'. In fact he was
the royal favouriteand had a good deal to say in his master's
councils. He wore a Manilla hat and a sort of tappa morning
gownsufficiently loose and negligent to show the verse of a
song tattooed upon his chestand a variety of spirited cuts by
native artists in other parts of his body. He sported a fishing
rod in his handand carried a sooty old pipe slung about his

This old rover having retired from active lifehad resided in
Nukuheva some time--could speak the languageand for that reason
was frequently employed by the French as an interpreter. He was
an arrant old gossip too; for ever coming off in his canoe to the
ships in the bayand regaling their crews with choice little
morsels of court scandal--suchfor instanceas a shameful
intrigue of his majesty with a Happar damsela public dancer at
the feasts--and otherwise relating some incredible tales about
the Marquesas generally. I remember in particular his telling
the Dolly's crew what proved to be literally a cock-and-bull
storyabout two natural prodigies which he said were then on the
island. One was an old monster of a hermithaving a marvellous
reputation for sanctityand reputed a famous sorcererwho lived
away off in a den among the mountainswhere he hid from the
world a great pair of horns that grew out of his temples.
Notwithstanding his reputation for pietythis horrid old fellow
was the terror of all the island roundbeing reported to come
out from his retreatand go a man-hunting every dark night.
Some anonymous Paul Prytoocoming down the mountainonce got
a peep at his denand found it full of bones. In shorthe was
a most unheard-of monster.

The other prodigy Jimmy told us about was the younger son of a
chiefwhoalthough but just turned of tenhad entered upon

holy ordersbecause his superstitious countrymen thought him
especially intended for the priesthood from the fact of his
having a comb on his head like a rooster. But this was not all;
for still more wonderful to relatethe boy prided himself upon
his strange crestbeing actually endowed with a cock's voice
and frequently crowing over his peculiarity.

But to return to Toby. The moment he saw the old rover on the
beachhe ran up to himthe natives following afterand forming
a circle round them.

After welcoming him to the shoreJimmy went on to tell him how
that he knew all about our having run away from the shipand
being among the Typees. Indeedhe had been urged by Mowanna to
come over to the valleyand after visiting his friends thereto
bring us back with himhis royal master being exceedingly
anxious to share with him the reward which had been held out for
our capture. Hehoweverassured Toby that he had indignantly
spurned the offer.

All this astonished my comrade not a littleas neither of us had
entertained the least idea that any white man ever visited the
Typees sociably. But Jimmy told him that such was the case
neverthelessalthough he seldom came into the bayand scarcely
ever went back from the beach. One of the priests of the valley
in some way or other connected with an old tattooed divine in
Nukuhevawas a friend of hisand through him he was 'taboo'.

He saidmoreoverthat he was sometimes employed to come round
to the bayand engage fruit for ships lying in Nukuheva. In
facthe was now on that very errandaccording to his own
accounthaving just come across the mountains by the way of
Happar. By noon of the next day the fruit would be heaped up in
stacks on the beachin readiness for the boats which he then
intended to bring into the bay.

Jimmy now asked Toby whether he wished to leave the island--if he
didthere was a ship in want of men lying in the other harbour
and he would be glad to take him overand see him on board that
very day.

'No' said Toby'I cannot leave the island unless my comrade
goes with me. I left him up the valley because they would not
let him come down. Let us go now and fetch him.'

'But how is he to cross the mountain with us' replied Jimmy
'even if we get him down to the beach? Better let him stay till
tomorrowand I will bring him round to Nukuheva in the boats.'

'That will never do' said Toby'but come along with me nowand
let us get him down here at any rate' and yielding to the
impulse of the momenthe started to hurry back into the valley.
But hardly was his back turnedwhen a dozen hands were laid on
himand he learned that he could not go a step further.

It was in vain that he fought with them; they would not hear of
his stirring from the beach. Cut to the heart at this unexpected
repulseToby now conjured the sailor to go after me alone. But
Jimmy repliedthat in the mood the Typees then were they would
not permit him so to dothough at the same time he was not
afraid of their offering him any harm.

Little did Toby then thinkas he afterwards had good reason to
suspectthat this very Jimmy was a heartless villainwhoby

his artshad just incited the natives to restrain him as he was
in the act of going after me. Well must the old sailor have
knowntoothat the natives would never consent to our leaving
togetherand he therefore wanted to get Toby off alonefor a
purpose which he afterwards made plain. Of all thishowevermy
comrade now knew nothing.

He was still struggling with the islanders when Jimmy again came
up to himand warned him against irritating themsaying that he
was only making matters worse for both of usand if they became
enragedthere was no telling what might happen. At last he made
Toby sit down on a broken canoe by a pile of stonesupon which
was a ruinous little shrine supported by four upright polesand
in front partly screened by a net. The fishing parties met
therewhen they came in from the seafor their offerings were
laid before an imageupon a smooth black stone within. This
spot Jimmy said was strictly 'taboo'and no one would molest or
come near him while he stayed by its shadow. The old sailor then
went offand began speaking very earnestly to Mow-Mow and some
other chiefswhile all the rest formed a circle round the taboo
placelooking intently at Tobyand talking to each other
without ceasing.

Nownotwithstanding what Jimmy had just told himthere
presently came up to my comrade an old womanwho seated herself
beside him on the canoe.

'Typee motarkee?' said she. 'Motarkee nuee' said Toby.

She then asked him whether he was going to Nukuheva; he nodded
yes; and with a plaintive wall and her eyes filling with tears
she rose and left him.

This old womanthe sailor afterwards saidwas the wife of an
aged king of a small island valleycommunicating by a deep pass
with the country of the Typees. The inmates of the two valleys
were related to each other by bloodand were known by the same
name. The old woman had gone down into the Typee valley the day
beforeand was now with three chiefsher sonson a visit to
her kinsmen.

As the old king's wife left himJimmy again came up to Tobyand
told him that he had just talked the whole matter over with the
nativesand there was only one course for him to follow. They
would not allow him to go back into the valleyand harm would
certainly come to both him and meif he remained much longer on
the beach. 'So' said he'you and I had better go to Nukuheva
now overlandand tomorrow I will bring Tommoas they call him
by water; they have promised to carry him down to the sea for me
early in the morningso that there will be no delay.'

'Nono' said Toby desperately'I will not leave him that way;
we must escape together.'

'Then there is no hope for you' exclaimed the sailor'for if I
leave you here on the beachas soon as I am gone you will be
carried back into the valleyand then neither of you will ever
look upon the sea again.' And with many oaths he swore that if
he would only go to Nukuheva with him that dayhe would be sure
to have me there the very next morning.

'But how do you know they will bring him down to the beach
tomorrowwhen they will not do so today?' said Toby. But the
sailor had many reasonsall of which were so mixed up with the

mysterious customs of the islandersthat he was none the wiser.
Indeedtheir conductespecially in preventing him from
returning into the valleywas absolutely unaccountable to him;
and added to everything elsewas the bitter reflectionthat the
old sailorafter allmight possibly be deceiving him. And then
again he had to think of meleft alone with the nativesand by
no means well. If he went with Jimmyhe might at least hope to
procure some relief for me. But might not the savages who had
acted so strangelyhurry me off somewhere before his return?
Theneven if he remainedperhaps they would not let him go back
into the valley where I was.

Thus perplexed was my poor comrade; he knew not what to doand
his courageous spirit was of no use to him now. There he was
all by himselfseated upon the broken canoe--the natives grouped
around him at a distanceand eyeing him more and more fixedly.
'It is getting late: said Jimmywho was standing behind the
rest. 'Nukuheva is far offand I cannot cross the Happar
country by night. You see how it is;--if you come along with
me. all will be well; if you do notdepend upon itneither of
you will ever escape.'

'There is no help for it' said Tobyat lastwith a heavy
heart'I will have to trust you' and he came out from the
shadow of the little shrineand cast a long look up the valley.

'Now keep close to my side' said the sailor'and let us be
moving quickly.' Tinor and Fayaway here appeared; the
kindhearted old woman embracing Toby's kneesand giving way to a
flood of tears; while Fayawayhardly less movedspoke some few
words of English she had learnedand held up three fingers
before him--in so many days he would return.

At last Jimmy pulled Toby out of the crowdand after calling to
a young Typee who was standing by with a young pig in his arms
all three started for the mountains.

'I have told them that you are coming back again' said the old
fellowlaughingas they began the ascent'but they'll have to
wait a long time.' Toby turnedand saw the natives all in
motion--the girls waving their tappas in adieuand the men their
spears. As the last figure entered the grove with one arm
raisedand the three fingers spreadhis heart smote him.

As the natives had at last consented to his goingit might have
beenthat some of themat leastreally counted upon his speedy
return; probably supposingas indeed he had told them when they
were coming down the valleythat his only object in leaving them
was to procure the medicines I needed. ThisJimmy also must
have told them. And as they had done beforewhen my comradeto
oblige mestarted on his perilous journey to Nukuhevathey
looked upon mein his absenceas one of two inseparable friends
who was a sure guaranty for the other's return. This is only my
own suppositionhoweverfor as to all their strange conductit
is still a mystery.

'You see what sort of a taboo man I am' said the sailorafter
for some time silently following the path which led up the
mountain. 'Mow-Mow made me a present of this pig hereand the
man who carries it will go right through Happarand down into
Nukuheva with us. So long as he stays by me he is safeand just
so it will be with youand tomorrow with Tommo. Cheer upthen
and rely upon meyou will see him in the morning.'

The ascent of the mountain was not very difficultowing to its
being near to the seawhere the island ridges are comparatively
low; the pathtoowas a fine oneso that in a short time all
three were standing on the summit with the two valleys at their
feet. The white cascade marking the green head of the Typee
valley first caught Toby's eye; Marheyo's house could easily be
traced by them.

As Jimmy led the way along the ridgeToby observed that the
valley of the Happars did not extend near so far inland as that
of the Typees. This accounted for our mistake in entering the
latter valley as we had.

A path leading down from the mountain was soon seenand
following itthe party were in a short time fairly in the Happar

'Now' said Jimmyas they hurried on'we taboo men have wives
in all the baysand I am going to show you the two I have here.'

Sowhen they came to the house where he said they lived--which
was close by the base of the mountain in a shady nook among the
groves--he went inand was quite furious at finding it
empty--the ladieshad gone out. Howeverthey soon made their
appearanceand to tell the truthwelcomed Jimmy quite
cordiallyas well as Tobyabout whom they were very
inquisitive. Neverthelessas the report of their arrival
spreadand the Happars began to assembleit became evident that
the appearance of a white stranger among them was not by any
means deemed so wonderful an event as in the neighbouring valley.

The old sailor now bade his wives prepare something to eatas he
must be in Nukuheva before dark. A meal of fishbread-fruit
and bananaswas accordingly served upthe party regaling
themselves on the matsin the midst of a numerous company.

The Happars put many questions to Jimmy about Toby; and Toby
himself looked sharply at themanxious to recognize the fellow
who gave him the wound from which he was still suffering. But
this fiery gentlemanso handy with his spearhad the delicacy
it seemedto keep out of view. Certainly the sight of him would
not have been any added inducement to making a stay in the
valley--some of the afternoon loungers in Happar having politely
urged Toby to spend a few days with them--there was a feast
coming on. Hehoweverdeclined.

All this while the young Typee stuck to Jimmy like his shadow
and though as lively a dog as any of his tribehe was now as
meek as a lambnever opening his mouth except to eat. Although
some of the Happars looked queerly at himothers were more
civiland seemed desirous of taking him abroad and showing him
the valley. But the Typee was not to be cajoled in that way.
How many yards he would have to remove from Jimmy before the
taboo would be powerlessit would be hard to tellbut probably
he himself knew to a fraction.

On the promise of a red cotton handkerchiefand something else
which he kept secretthis poor fellow had undertaken a rather
ticklish journeythoughas far as Toby could ascertainit was
something that had never happened before.

The island-punch--arva--was brought in at the conclusion of the
repastand passed round in a shallow calabash.

Now my comradewhile seated in the Happar housebegan to feel
more troubled than ever at leaving me; indeedso sad did he feel
that he talked about going back to the valleyand wanted Jimmy
to escort him as far as the mountains. But the sailor would not
listen to himandby way of diverting his thoughtspressed him
to drink of the arva. Knowing its narcotic naturehe refused;
but Jimmy said he would have something mixed with itwhich would
convert it into an innocent beverage that would inspirit them for
the rest of their journey. So at last he was induced to drink of
itand its effects were just as the sailor had predicted; his
spirits rose at onceand all his gloomy thoughts left him.

The old rover now began to reveal his true characterthough he
was hardly suspected at the time. 'If I get you off to a ship'
said he'you will surely give a poor fellow something for saving
you.' In shortbefore they left the househe made Toby promise
that he would give him five Spanish dollars if he succeeded in
getting any part of his wages advanced from the vesselaboard of
which they were going; Tobymoreoverengaging to reward him
still furtheras soon as my deliverance was accomplished.

A little while after this they started againaccompanied by many
of the nativesand going up the valleytook a steep path near
its headwhich led to Nukuheva. Here the Happars paused and
watched them as they ascended the mountainone group of
bandit-looking fellowsshaking their spears and casting
threatening glances at the poor Typeewhose heart as well as
heels seemed much the lighter when he came to look down upon

On gaining the heights once moretheir way led for a time along
several ridges covered with enormous ferns. At last they entered
upon a wooded tractand here they overtook a party of Nukuheva
nativeswell armedand carrying bundles of long poles. Jimmy
seemed to know them all very welland stopped for a whileand
had a talk about the 'Wee-Wees'as the people of Nukuheva call
the Monsieurs.

The party with the poles were King Mowanna's menand by his
orders they had been gathering them in the ravines for his allies
the French.

Leaving these fellows to trudge on with their loadsToby and his
companions now pushed forward againas the sun was already low
in the west. They came upon the valleys of Nukuheva on one side
of the baywhere the highlands slope off into the sea. The
men-of-war were still lying in the harbourand as Toby looked
down upon themthe strange events which had happened so
recentlyseemed all a dream.

They soon descended towards the beachand found themselves in
Jimmy's house before it was well dark. Here he received another
welcome from his Nukuheva wivesand after some refreshments in
the shape of cocoanut milk and poee-poeethey entered a canoe
(the Typee of course going along) and paddled off to a whaleship
which was anchored near the shore. This was the vessel in want
of men. Our own had sailed some time before. The captain
professed great pleasure at seeing Tobybut thought from his
exhausted appearance that he must be unfit for duty. Howeverhe
agreed to ship himas well as his comradeas soon as he should
arrive. Toby begged hard for an armed boatin which to go round
to Typee and rescue menotwithstanding the promises of Jimmy.
But this the captain would not hear ofand told him to have
patiencefor the sailor would be faithful to his word. When

toohe demanded the five silver dollars for Jimmythe captain
was unwilling to give them. But Toby insisted upon itas he now
began to think that Jimmy might be a mere mercenarywho would be
sure to prove faithless if not well paid. Accordingly he not
only gave him the moneybut took care to assure himover and
over againthat as soon as he brought me aboard he would receive
a still larger sum.

Before sun-rise the next dayJimmy and the Typee started in two
of the ship's boatswhich were manned by tabooed natives. Toby
of coursewas all eagerness to go alongbut the sailor told him
that if he didit would spoil all; sohard as it washe was
obliged to remain.

Towards evening he was on the watchand descried the boats
turning the headland and entering the bay. He strained his eyes
and thought he saw me; but I was not there. Descending from the
mast almost distractedhe grappled Jimmy as he struck the deck
shouting in a voice that startled him'Where is Tommo?' The old
fellow falteredbut soon recoveringdid all he could to soothe
himassuring him that it had proved to be impossible to get me
down to the shore that morning; assigning many plausible reasons
and adding that early on the morrow he was going to visit the bay
again in a French boatwhenif he did not find me on the
beach--as this time he certainly expected to--he would march
right back into the valleyand carry me away at all hazards.
Hehoweveragain refused to allow Toby to accompany him. Now
situated as Toby washis sole dependence for the present was
upon this Jimmyand therefore he was fain to comfort himself as
well as he could with what the old sailor told him. The next
morninghoweverhe had the satisfaction of seeing the French
boat start with Jimmy in it. TonightthenI will see him
thought Toby; but many a long day passed before he ever saw Tommo
again. Hardly was the boat out of sightwhen the captain came
forward and ordered the anchor weighed; he was going to sea.

Vain were all Toby's ravings--they were disregarded; and when he
came to himselfthe sails were setand the ship fast leaving
the land.

. . . 'Oh!' said he to me at our meeting'what sleepless
nights were mine. Often I started from my hammockdreaming you
were before meand upbraiding me for leaving you on the island.'

. . . . . . .

There is little more to be related. Toby left this vessel at New
Zealandand after some further adventuresarrived home in less
than two years after leaving the Marquesas. He always thought of
me as dead--and I had every reason to suppose that he too was no
more; but a strange meeting was in store for usone which made
Toby's heart all the lighter.


The author was more than two years in the South Seasafter
escaping from the valleyas recounted in the last chapter. Some
time after returning home the foregoing narrative was published
though it was little thought at the time that this would be the
means of revealing the existance of Tobywho had long been given
up for lost. But so it proved.

The story of his escape supplies a natural sequel to the
adventureand as such it is now added to the volume. It was

related to the author by Toby himselfnot ten days since.
New YorkJuly1846.